# Italian units of measurement

A variety of units of measurement were used in the independent Italian states between the Napoleonic wars (ca. 1815) and the unification of Italy (ca. 1870) – as, of course, before that. The units to measure length, volume, mass, etc., could differ widely between countries or between towns in a country (e.g. Rome and Ancona), but usually not between a country and its capital.

The Kingdom of Sardinia included the island of Sardinia and the continental areas of Piedmont (with the capital Turin) and Liguria (with Genoa). The Kingdom of Naples included the island of Sicily (with Palermo). The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia was part of the Austrian Empire, which also shared ruling family with Modena, Parma and Tuscany (capital Florence). The Papal States included the areas of Latium (with the capital Rome), Romagna (with Bologna) and the Marches (with Ancona).

From 1861, the metric system was compulsory (with the exception of Milan, which had already adopted the metric system in 1803, albeit reusing names of older units).[1][2]

For historical Roman measurements see Ancient Roman units of measurement. The following is a list of units before the adoption of the metric system as well as local names for metric-based units.

## Length

Units varied from one province or city to another.[2]
1 piede liprando = 0.51377 m [1][2]
1 punto (point) = ​1144 piede liprando [1][2]
1 oncia (inch) = 12 punti [1][2]
1 piede liprando (foot) = 12 oncie [1][2]
1 canna = 4 piedi liprando [1][2]
1 trabucco = ​1 12 canna [1][2]
1 miglio (mile) = ​4333 13 piedi liprando [1][2]

### Lombardy–Venetia

1 punto = 12 atomi [3]
1 oncia = 12 punti [3]
1 braccio = 12 once [3]
1 braccio = 2 piedi [3]
1 miglio = 1 km [3]

#### Milan

1 braccio = 12 once = 0.595 m [4]
1 trabucco = 6 piedi [4]
1 piè = 15.61 in [3]

1 metro* = 1 m [1]
1 palmo* = 1 dm [1]
1 dito* = 1 cm [1]
1 atomo* = 1 mm [1]

* renamed metric unit

#### Venice

1 braccio = 0.683 m [4]
1 piede = 0.348 m [4]
1 piè = 13.69 in [3]

### Modena

1 cavezzo = 6 piedi [5]

1 piè = 20.593 in [5]
1 braccio = 22.741 in [5]

### Naples

1 canna = 10 palmi (or 8 palmi [6]) = 2.646 m [4]

1 oncia = 5 minuti [6]
1 palmo = 12 once = 10.381 in [6]
1 pertica (a.k.a. passo) = ​7 12 palmi [6]
1 miglio = 7000 palmi = 1.147 miles [6]

#### Sicily

1 canna = 8 palmi [7]

1 palmo = 9.5297 in [7]

#### Palermo

1 canna = 10 palmi = 2.065 m [4]

### Parma

1 punto = 12 atomi [8]

1 oncia = 12 punti [8]
1 braccio di legno = 12 once [8]
1 braccio = 21.344 in [8]
1 pertica = 6 braccia [8]
1 piè = 22.428 in [8]

### Papal States

1 pié = 11.592 in [9]

1 canna = 78.4 in [9]
1 palmo* = 12 once = 8.79 in [9]
1 once* = 10 decimi [9]
1 canna* = 10 palmi [9]
1 catena* = 10 stajoli = ​25 12 palmi [9]
1 pie* (foot) = 16 once = 11.72 in [9]
1 palmo = 8.796 in [9]
1 palmo = 8.347 in [9]

* architect's   † commercial   ‡ mercer's

#### Rome

1 canna = 10 palmi = 2.234 m [4]
1 braccio = 30.732 in [9]

#### Ancona

1 pié = 15.384 in [9]
1 braccio = ​35 13 in [9]

#### Bologna

1 braccio = 0.64 m [4]
1 piede = 0.38 m [4]

### Sardinia

1 punto = 12 atomi [10]

1 oncia = 12 punti [10]
1 piè liprando = 12 once = 20.228 in [10]
1 miglio = ​4333 13 piedi liprando = 1.3835 mile[10]

#### Piedmont

1 trabucco = 6 piedi liprandi [10] = 3.096 m [4]
1 raso = 14 oncie [10]
1 pertica = 2 trabucci [10]

#### Turin

1 piede = 0.293 m [4]
1 trabucco = 6 piedi liprandi [10] = 3.096 m [4]
1 raso = 14 oncie [10]
1 raso = 0.6 m [4]
1 pertica = 2 trabucci [10]

#### Genoa

1 piè manuale = ​23 piè liprando [10]
1 palmo = ​5 13 once [10]
1 palmo = 0.248 m [4]
1 braccio = ​2 13 palmi [10]
1 canna = about 9 palmi [10]

### Tuscany

1 soldo = 12 denari [11]

1 palmo = 10 soldi = 11.49 in [11]
1 braccio = 2 palmi [11]
1 canna = 4 braccia [11]
1 canna* = 5 braccia [11]
1 miglio = ​2833 13 braccia = 1.0277 mile [11]

* architect's

#### Florence

1 braccio = 2 palmi = 0.583 m [4]

## Mass

One libbra (pound) differed between 307[2] and 398 g.[1] Several countries used both a light and a heavy pound.

1 grano (grain) = ​16912 libbra [1][2]
1 denaro (scruple) = 24 grani [1][2]
1 ottavo (drachm) = 3 denari [1][2]
1 oncia (ounce) = 8 ottavi [1][2]
1 libbra (pound) = 12 oncie [1][2]
1 rubbo = 25 libbre [1][2]
1 cantaro = 6 rubbi [1][2]

### Lombardy–Venetia

1 denaro = 10 grani [12]

1 grosso = 10 denari [12]
1 oncia = 10 grossi [12]
1 libbra metrica = 10 once = 1 kg [12]
1 rubbio = 10 libbre [12]
1 denaro* = 24 grani [12]
1 oncia* = 24 denari [12]
1 marco* = 8 once = 7.5562 troy ounce [12]

* gold and silver   † renamed metric unit

#### Milan

1 libbra grossa = 28 once = 0.763 kg [4]
1 libbra nuova* = 1 kg [1]
1 oncia* = 1 hg [1]
1 grosso* = 1 dag [1]
1 denar* = 1 g [1]
1 grano* = 1 dg [1]

* renamed metric unit

#### Venice

1 libbra grossa = 12 once = 0.477 kg [4]
1 libbra sottile = 0.301 kg [4]

### Modena

1 oncia = 16 ferlini [5]
1 libbra (a.k.a. lira) = 12 once = 0.7044 lb [5]

### Naples

1 rotolo = 0.861 kg [4]
1 rotolo = ​2 79 libbre [6]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.321 kg [4]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.70722 lb [6]
1 trapeso* = 20 accini [6]
1 dramma* = 3 trapesi (a.k.a. scrupoli)[6]
1 oncia* = 10 dramme [6]
1 libbra* = 12 once [6]
1 scrupolo = 20 accini [6]
1 drachma = 3 scrupoli [6]
1 oncia = 10 drachme [6]
1 libbra = 12 once [6]

* gold, silver, silk, spices, drugs and pigments
† apothecaries'

#### Sicily

1 rottolo grosso = 38 oncie = 1.925 lb [7]
1 rottolo sottile = 30 oncie = 1.76 lb [7]
1 libbra = 12 oncie = 0.70723 lb [7]

#### Palermo

1 cantaro = 100 rotoli = 79.34 kg [4]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.317 kg [4]

### Papal States

1 denaro = 24 grani [13]

1 oncia = 24 denari [13]
1 libbra = 12 once [13]

#### Rome

1 libbra = 12 once = 0.339 kg [4]
1 libbra = 0.7477 lb [13]

#### Ancona

1 libbra = 0.7277 [13]

#### Bologna

1 libbra mercantile = 12 once = 0.362 kg [4]
1 libbra = 0.7984 [13]
1 carato = 4 grani [13]
1 ferlino = 10 carati [13]
1 ottavo = 2 ferlini [13]
1 oncia = 8 ottavi [13]
1 libbra = 12 once [13]

### Parma

1 denaro = 24 grani [8]
1 oncia = 24 denari [8]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.7197 lb [8]
1 rubbio = 25 libbre [8]

### Sardinia

#### Piedmont

1 grano = 24 granotini [10]
1 denaro = 24 grani [10]
1 ottavo = 3 denai [10]
1 oncia = 8 ottavi [10]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.81332 lb [10]
1 libbra* = ​1 14 marco [10]
1 marco = ​23 libbra [10]

* apothecaries'   † gold and silver

#### Turin

1 grano = 24 granotini [10]
1 denaro = 24 grani [10]
1 ottavo = 3 denai [10]
1 oncia = 8 ottavi [10]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.81332 lb [10]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.369 kg [4]
1 libbra* = ​1 14 marco [10]
1 marco = ​23 libbra [10]

* apothecaries'   † gold and silver

#### Genoa

1 denaro = 24 grani [10]
1 oncia = 24 denari [10]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.317 kg [4]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.70021 lb [10]
1 libbra (peso grosso) = 12 once = 0.77023 lb [10]
1 rottolo = ​1 12 libbre [10]

### Tuscany

1 denaro = 24 grani [11]
1 dramma = 3 denari [11]
1 oncia = 8 dramme [11]
1 libbra = 12 once = 0.7486 lb [11]

#### Florence

1 libbra = 12 once = 0.3395 kg [4]

## Area

1 giornata (a.k.a. quadrao) = 38 are [1]
1 tavola = ​1100 giornata [1]

### Lombardy–Venetia

1 tornatura = 100 palmi2 = 1 are [3]
1 campo = 0.6881 acre [3]

### Modena

1 cavezzo2 = 36 piedi2 [5]
1 tavola = 4 cavezzi2 [5]
1 biolca = 72 tavole = 0.7009 acres [5]

### Naples

1 moggio = 50,626 palmi2 = 0.8684 acre [6]

### Papal States

1 rubbio = 370300 palmi2* = 4.5658 acres [9]

* architect's

### Parma

1 staro = 12 tavola [8]
1 biolca = 6 stari = 0.7528 acre [8]
1 biolca = 288 pertica2 [8]

### Sardinia

#### Piedmont

1 giornata = 100 pertica2 = 0.9393 acre [10]

### Tuscany

1 saccato = 16500 braccia2 = 1.389 acre [11]

## Volume (dry)

Dry and wet capacity (volume) were usually two separate systems, but a few units were universally handled, mostly in countries that had had experience with the metric system.

One mina varied from 12 to 120 litres.[1]

### Lombardy–Venetia

1 pinta* = 10 coppi = 1 litre [3]
1 mina* = 10 pinte [3]
1 soma* = 10 mine [3]

* renamed metric unit

#### Venice

1 moggio = 8 mezzeni = 333.3 litres [4]

#### Milan

1 moggio = 8 stala = 146.2 litres [4]
1 soma* = 1 hl [1]
1 mina* = 1 dal [1]
1 pinta* = 1 l [1]
1 coppo* = 1 dl [1]

* renamed metric unit

### Modena

1 sacco = 2 staja [5]
1 stajo = 1.9978 bushels [5]

### Naples

1 tomolo = 55.54 litres [4]
1 tomolo = 24 misure = 1.5646 bushels [14]) = 2.646 m [4]
1 carro = 36 tomoli [14]

#### Sicily

1 salma generale = 7.8 bushels [7]
1 salma grosso = 10 bushels [7]

#### Palermo

1 salma = 4 bisace = 275 litres [4]
1 salma = 16 tomoli [4]

### Parma

1 mina = 8 quarteroli [8]
1 stajo (a.k.a. staro) = 2 mine = 1.334 bushels [8]

### Papal States

1 scorzo = 4 quartucci [9]
1 starello = ​1 38 scorzi [9]
1 quarta = 4 starelli [9]
1 rubbio = 4 quarte [9]

#### Rome

1 rubbio = 8.355 bushels [13]
1 rubbio = 22 scorzi = 294.5 litres [4]

#### Ancona

1 rubbio = 7.974 bushels [13]

#### Bologna

1 quarterone = 4 quarticini [13]
1 stajo = 4 quarteroni [13]
1 corba (dry and liquid) = 2 staja [13]
1 corba (dry and liquid) = 2.232 bushels
(20.7617 gallons, liquid) [13]
1 corba = 2 staia = 60 boccali = 78.6 litres [4]

### Sardinia

#### Turin

1 copello = 20 cucchiari [10]
1 quartière = 4 copelli [10]
1 mina = 2 quartière [10]
1 stajo = 2 mine [10]
1 sacco = 3 staje = 3.2635 bushels [10]
1 sacco = 5 mine = 115.3 litres [4]

#### Genoa

1 quarto = 12 gombette [10]
1 mina = 8 quarti = 2.4804 gallons [10]
1 mina = 116.5 litres [4]

### Tuscany

1 quartuccio = 2 bussoli [11]
1 mezzetta = 2 quartucci [11]
1 metadella = 2 mezzette [11]
1 quarto = 4 metadelle [11]
1 mina = 2 quarti [11]
1 stajo = 2 mine [11]
1 sacco = 3 staja [11]
1 moggio = 8 sacci = 16.5904 bushels [11]

#### Florence

1 moggio = 8 sacca = 584.7 litres [4]

## Volume (liquids)

1 barile da vino* = 45.6 l [1]
1 barile da olio = 33.4 l [1]

* wine   † oil

### Lombardy–Venetia

1 pinta* = 10 coppi = 1 litre [3]
1 mina* = 10 pinte [3]
1 soma* = 10 mine [3]

* renamed metric unit

#### Milan

1 brenta = 96 boccali = 75.6 litres [4]
1 soma* = 1 hl [1]
1 mina* = 1 dal [1]
1 pinta* = 1 l [1]
1 coppo* = 1 dl [1]

* renamed metric unit

### Modena

1 fiasco = 2 boccali = 0.55028 gallon [5]
1 barile = 20 fiasci [5]

### Naples

1 barile* = 60 caraffi [6]
1 botta* = 12 barile [6]
1 botte* = 12 barili = 523.5 litres [4]
1 carro* = 2 botti [6]
1 caraffa* = 0.1929 gallons [6]
1 quarto = 6 misurelle [14]
1 stajo = 16 quarti = 2.61633 gallons [14]
1 stajo = 20 pignate [14]
1 salma = 16 staja [14]

* wine and spirits   † oil

#### Sicily

1 salma = 22 gallons [7]

### Papal States

1 foglietta = 4 quartucci [9]
1 boccale = 4 fogliette [9]
1 barile = 32 boccale [9]
1 barile* = 15.412 gallon [9]
1 barile = 15.185 gallon [9]
1 botte = 16 barile [9]

* wine   † oil

#### Rome

1 soma = 43.386 gallons [9]
1 barile = 32 boccali = 75.5 litres [4]

#### Ancona

1 soma = 18.49 gallons [9]

#### Bologna

1 boccale = 4 fogliette [9]
1 quarterone = 15 boccale [9]
1 corba = 4 quarterone [9]
1 corba = 2 staia = 60 boccali = 78.6 litres [4]
1 boccale = 0.346 gallon [9]

### Parma

See Milan and Lombardy–Venetia.[8]

### Sardinia

#### Piedmont

1 boccale = 2 quartini [10]
1 pinta = 2 boccali [10]
1 rubbio = 6 pinte = 2.4804 gallons [10]
1 brenta = 6 rubbi [10]
1 carro = 10 brente [10]

#### Turin

1 boccale = 2 quartini [10]
1 pinta = 2 boccali [10]
1 rubbio = 6 pinte = 2.4804 gallons [10]
1 brenta = 6 rubbi [10]
1 carro = 10 brente [10]
1 carro = 10 brente = 493.11 litres [4]

#### Genoa

1 barile = 90 amole [10]
1 barile = 50 pinte = 17.084 gallons [10]
1 barile = 70 litres [4]
1 mezzaruòla = 2 barilli [10]

### Tuscany

1 mezzetta* = 2 quartucci [11]
1 boccale* = 1 mezzette [11]
1 fiasco* = 2 boccale [11]
1 barile* = 20 fiasci = 12.0444 gallons = ​133 13 libbre (weight)[11]
1 barile = 20 fiasci = 12.0444 gallons = 120 libbre (weight)[11]
1 barile = 16 fiasci = 120 libbre (weight)[11]
1 soma = 2 barile [11]

* wine   † spirits   ‡ oil

#### Florence

1 barile* = 20 fiaschi = 45.6 litres [4]
1 barile = 16 fiaschi = 33.43 litres [4]

* wine   † oil

## References

1. Washburn, E.W. (1926). International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. pp. 8 https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=zkErAAAAYAAJ&lpg=PA417&dq=international%20critical%20tables%201926&pg=PA8#v=onepage&q=international%20critical%20tables%201926&f=false.
2. Cardarelli, F. (2003). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London: Springer. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-4471-1122-1.
3. Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 80.
4. Cardarelli, F. (2003). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures. Their SI Equivalences and Origins. London: Springer. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-4471-1122-1.
5. Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 52.
6. Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 53.
7. Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 69.
8. Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 58.
9. Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 63.
10. Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 67.
11. Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 76.
12. Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 81.
13. Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 64.
14. Clarke, F.W. (1891). Weights Measures and Money of All Nations. New York: D. Appleton & Company. p. 54.