LGBT rights in Massachusetts

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Map of USA MA.svg
StatusLegal since 1974 (Commonwealth v. Balthazar)
Gender identityTransgender people may change gender
Discrimination protectionsYes, both sexual orientation and gender identity
Family rights
Recognition of relationshipsSame-sex marriage since 2004

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Massachusetts have the same rights and responsibilities as heterosexuals.[1] The U.S. state of Massachusetts is one of the most LGBT-friendly states in the country. In 2004, it became the first U.S. state to grant marriage licenses to same-sex couples after the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health, and the sixth jurisdiction worldwide, after the Netherlands, Belgium, Ontario, British Columbia, and Quebec.

Massachusetts is regarded as one of the most advanced U.S. states in regards to LGBT rights legislation. Same-sex sexual activity has been legal since 1974. State law bans discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity in employment, housing, public accommodations, credit and union practices. In November 2018, it became the first state in the country to support transgender protections through popular vote. In addition, same-sex couples are allowed to adopt, and transgender people may change their legal gender without undergoing sex reassignment surgery. In April 2019, Massachusetts became the 16th US state to explicitly legally ban conversion therapy on LGBT minors, after the Massachusetts Governor signed the bill into law.[2][3]

Massachusetts is home to a vibrant and visible LGBT culture. Boston, the state capital, has been ranked one of the most LGBT-friendly cities in the United States,[4] noted for its LGBT dating scene, events, nightlife, clubs and bars. Several towns located at the tip of Cape Cod are also famous internationally for their high LGBT acceptance and visibility, particularly Provincetown. Northampton, on the other hand, is the town with the most lesbian couples per capita in the entire United States.[5]


Early steps[edit]

In September 1992, Governor William Weld issued an executive order allowing state employees to register as domestic partners "for purposes of bereavement leave and visitation rights in state prisons and hospitals."[6] That same year, he appointed a Governor's Commission on Gay and Lesbian Youth, which in turn produced a report "Making Schools Safe for Gay and Lesbian Youth" (1993). Its recommendations required schools to create policies to protect gay and lesbian students, create school-based support groups for them, train teachers and staff on gay issues, and incorporate information on gay issues into curriculum and libraries.[7] Governor Mitt Romney disbanded the commission as well as another board, the Governor's Task Force on Hate Crimes, in 2003, citing budgetary concerns.[8]

Charlie Baker administration (2015–present)[edit]

Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker supports same-sex marriage, stating after the U.S. Supreme Court decided the Obergefell v. Hodges case in June 2015, "I'm pleased the Commonwealth has already recognized same-sex marriages in our state, and with today's Supreme Court decision every American citizen across the nation will have equal protection under the law and the right to marry the person they choose."[9] Despite previously opposing legislation that would expand state anti-discrimination laws to include protections for transgender individuals in public restrooms,[10][11] Baker signed into law a compromise bill enacting such protections on July 8, 2016,[12] and has expressed opposition to a North Carolina law that eliminated such protections.[13]

In February 2017, Baker criticized the Trump Administration's decision to rescind federal directives to public school districts allowing transgender public school students to use the bathroom of their preference,[14] and the following month, Baker stated that he would not attend the South Boston Saint Patrick's Day parade that month if a gay veteran's group was not allowed to march in the parade.[15] In October 2018, Baker gave the keynote speech at a fundraiser for the Log Cabin Republicans in Washington, D.C.,[16] and in the same month, Baker made a personal donation to the campaign for the 2018 ballot initiative to uphold the transgender protections law he signed in July 2016.[17] In April 2019, Baker signed into law a bill banning conversion therapy for LGBT minors.[18]

Legality of same-sex sexual activity[edit]

Massachusetts does not restrict private sexual behavior between consenting adults. It has two statutes that implicate homosexual activity: §34 prohibits the "abominable and detestable crime against nature" and §35 prohibits "any unnatural and lascivious act with another person." In 1974, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court found the second of these statutes "inapplicable to private, consensual conduct of adults" in Commonwealth v. Balthazar.[19] In 2001, Gay & Lesbian Advocates & Defenders (GLAD) sued the Massachusetts Attorney General and two District Attorneys challenging both statutes. The Supreme Judicial Court dismissed the case on February 21, 2002, because the plaintiffs did not present an instance of prosecution and therefore failed to meet the Court's "actual controversy requirement." The Court noted that the defendants' stipulation "that their offices will not prosecute anyone under the challenged laws absent probable cause to believe that the prohibited conduct occurred either in public or without consent" satisfied the Court's holding in Commonwealth v. Balthazar with respect to §35. It also extended its holding that "consensual conduct in private between adults is not prohibited" to apply to §34.[20]

Massachusetts has still not repealed its sodomy law.[21][22] The Democratic Party controlled Massachusetts General Court has voted down bills in committee for years, to repeal and abolish the archaic anti-gay sodomy laws within sections of both §34 and §35.[23][24]

During the 2018 session of the Massachusetts General Court, outdated laws on abortion, adultery and fornication were repealed,[25][26] but not the archaic laws on sodomy, anal sex, and oral sex still listed explicitly within sections 34 and 35.[27]

Recognition of same-sex relationships[edit]

Massachusetts authorized same-sex marriages within the state following the Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) ruling on November 18, 2003 in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health that it was unconstitutional under the state Constitution for state agencies to restrict marriage to heterosexual couples. The Court gave the state Legislature 180 days to enact laws pursuant to the judgment. In the absence of legislative action, Governor Mitt Romney ordered town clerks to begin issuing marriage certificates to same-sex couples beginning May 17, 2004. Attempts to enact an amendment to the state Constitution to prohibit same-sex marriage, the last in 2007, have been unsuccessful.[28]

A 1913 state law that forbade non-residents from marrying in Massachusetts if their marriage would be void in their home state was repealed on July 31, 2008.[29]

On July 26, 2012, the SJC ruled in Elia-Warnken v. Elia that the state recognizes a civil union established in a different jurisdiction as the equivalent of marriage. It termed a Massachusetts marriage entered into by a man who was already a party to a Vermont civil union with a third party "polygamy" and therefore void.[30] On September 28, 2012, the SJC ruled in that "Because the parties to California [registered domestic partnerships] have rights and responsibilities identical to those of marriage", it is proper to treat such relationships "as equivalent to marriage" in Massachusetts.[31]

Adoption and parenting[edit]

In May 1985, in response to a public controversy about a same-sex couple that was acting as foster parents, Massachusetts issued regulations designed to prevent such couples from serving as foster parents.[32][33] The state rescinded those regulations in April 1990 as part of an out-of-court settlement of a suit brought by Gay & Lesbian Advocates & Defenders (GLAD) and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), following a five-year campaign by an ad hoc group formed around the issue, Foster Equality.[34][35] The state has allowed second-parent adoption by a parent of the same sex as the existing parent since a court decision, In re Adoption of Tammy, in 1993.[36][37] In July 1999, the same court awarded visitation rights to each of two mothers after their separation.[38]

In 2004, following the legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts, Governor Mitt Romney prevented the state's Registry of Vital Records from revising its birth certificate forms to allow for options other than one mother and one father, instead requiring hand-written changes to the documents only after receiving approval from the Governor's legal counsel. The forms were changed when Governor Deval Patrick took office in 2007.[39]

In March 2006, Catholic Charities of Boston announced it would no longer provide adoption services because it could not comply with Massachusetts law prohibiting discrimination against homosexuals.[40]

In February 2011, Massachusetts Health Commissioner John Auerbach announced plans by the end of March to standardize birth certificates, formerly designed by each city or town, by providing hospitals with electronic forms with fields labeled "mother/parent" and "father/parent". He called the system "more sensitive to the circumstances of the family and to the children."[41]

Discrimination protections[edit]

Since 1989, Massachusetts has prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation in credit, public and private employment, union practices, housing, and public accommodation.[42] It was the second state to add sexual orientation to its anti-discrimination statute, following Wisconsin in 1982.[43]

On February 17, 2011, Governor Deval Patrick issued an executive order banning discrimination on the part of the state or its contractors against transgender employees of the state Government. He reiterated his support for legislation to extend similar protection to all transgender persons in the state.[44] Massachusetts enacted such legislation prohibiting discrimination based on gender identity in credit, public and private employment, union practices and housing—but not public accommodations—on November 23, 2011, effective on July 1, 2012.[45][46] By the end of 2015, a bill was pending to prohibit discrimination based on gender identity in public accommodations, but its future was still uncertain.[47] Finally, on May 12, 2016, the state Senate voted 33–4 to approve the bill.[48] The Massachusetts House of Representatives on July 7, 2016 passed a bill by a vote of 117-36 to include gender identity to the public accommodations law. The bill was signed into law the next day, by Massachusetts Republican Governor Charlie Baker, and scheduled to take effect on October 1, 2016.[49][50] In October 2016, however, anti-transgender activists submitted the minimum number of signatures necessary, to the Secretary of the Commonwealth, to put the law up for repeal on a statewide ballot measure. Voters decided on November 6, 2018 to retain the law, with 67.8% in favor of upholding law, and 32.2% opposed. The Massachusetts Gender Identity Anti-Discrimination Initiative was the first-ever statewide ballot question of its kind in the United States.

In June 2012, on instructions from Worcester's Roman Catholic Bishop Robert McManus, diocesan officials declined to sell a property owned by the diocese to a same-sex couple and in July lied about what happened when questioned about the sale.[51][52] In September, the couple filed suit against the bishop and other parties to the negotiations.[53]

On January 29, 2014, Matthew Barrett represented by GLAD filed a complaint with the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination against Fontbonne Academy, a Catholic secondary school, because in July 2013 the school had withdrawn an offer of employment as food service manager when officials learned he was in a same-sex marriage.[54] The case moved to Massachusetts Superior Court, and on December 16, 2015, Judge Douglas H. Wilkins ruled in Barrett v. Fontbonne Academy that the Academy had violated the state's laws against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender.[55]

Anti-bullying legislation was enacted in May 2010. It "requires schools to adopt clear procedures for reporting and investigating cases of bullying, as well as methods for preventing retaliation against those who report problems."[56]

Hate crime law[edit]

Massachusetts added sexual orientation to the categories protected by its 1983 hate crime legislation in June 1996.[57] The state defines a hate crime as "any criminal act coupled with overt actions motivated by bigotry and bias, including, but not limited to, a threatened, attempted or completed overt act motivated at least in part by racial, religious, ethnic, handicap, gender or sexual orientation prejudice, or which otherwise deprives another person of his constitutional rights by threats, intimidation or coercion, or which seek to interfere with or disrupt a person's exercise of constitutional rights through harassment or intimidation."[58]

Massachusetts adopted the Hate Crimes Reporting Act in 1990. The legislation created a Crime Reporting Unit to collect hate crime incident reports from law enforcement and required the unit to summarize and report on the information. Regulations establish criteria for determining whether a crime is a hate crime, provide a means for advocacy organizations to report hate incidents, specify the content of crime and incident reports, and specify the content of the annual report. The crime report unit of the State Police must also collect, summarize and report hate crime data to the state Attorney General and to several legislative committees. The reports are available on public record.[59]

In 1991, the Governor created the Task Force on Hate Crimes. The task force's principal tasks are (1) developing regulations to implement the Hate Crimes Reporting Act, (2) coordinating training efforts, (3) increasing submission of hate crime data, and (4) working with community organizations and victims' groups. Initiatives for 2000 include pilot programs in high schools, youth diversion programs, a new correctional diversity awareness program, outreach coordination, a victimization survey in schools, public awareness, creating civil rights investigative teams, encouragement of reporting by law enforcement, and continued training.[60]

The term "gender identity" was added to the state's hate crime statute, effective July 1, 2012.[46]

Gender identity and expression[edit]

Massachusetts allows transgender individuals to amend their birth certificate to reflect their gender identity. Sex reassignment surgery is not a requirement.[61]

In June 2018, the Massachusetts Senate passed a bill by a near-unanimous vote of 36-1 to add "gender X" on drivers licenses. The bill, however, failed to pass the Massachusetts House of Representatives before the Legislature adjourned.[62][63]

Conversion therapy[edit]


In June 2018, the Massachusetts House of Representatives passed a bill by a vote of 137-14 to legally ban conversion therapy practices on minors. The bill, however, failed to pass the Massachusetts Senate before the Legislature adjourned.[64][65][66][67]


On March 13, 2019, the Massachusetts House of Representatives passed H140, which would ban conversion therapy on minors, by a vote of 147-8.[68][69] The bill was approved by the state Senate with amendments by a vote of 34-0 on March 28, 2019. An engrossed bill was enacted on April 4, 2019, and awaits consideration by Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker, who indicated he is "inclined to support" such legislation.[70] The Massachusetts Governor signed the bill into law on April 8, 2019 and goes into effect immediately.[71][72]

Public opinion and attitudes[edit]

Provincetown LGBT Carnival in 2012

Societal attitudes toward the LGBT community have evolved significantly in Massachusetts in the past decades, going from public hostility and antipathy to increasing acceptance and tolerance. Massachusetts is noted for its early levels of support for same-sex marriage. As early as 2003, a KRC Communications Research opinion poll found majority support for the legalization of same-sex marriage in the state, though support decreased in 2004, the year Massachusetts legalized same-sex marriage. From 2004 onwards, opinion polls have recorded an exponential increase in support. Support stabilized around 60% in the late 2000s, until reaching 73% in 2015, the year same-sex marriage was legalized nationwide through Obergefell v. Hodges.

According to a 2017 Public Religion Research Institute (PRRI), 80% of Massachusetts residents supported same-sex marriage, whereas 13% were opposed and 7% were undecided.[73] This was the highest support recorded in the United States, tied with Vermont. The PRRI poll also showed that support for anti-discrimination laws covering sexual orientation and gender identity enjoyed wide popular support. Likewise, 80% were in favor of such laws, while 13% were opposed. 70% also expressed opposition to religious-based refusals to serve LGBT people. 23% expressed support.[73]

Summary table[edit]

Same-sex sexual activity legal Yes (Since 1974)
Anti-discrimination laws in all areas Yes (Sexual orientation since 1989 and gender identity since 2016)
Same-sex marriages Yes (Since 2004; first in the United States)
Recognition of same-sex couples Yes
Stepchild adoption by same-sex couples Yes
Joint adoption by same-sex couples Yes
Lesbians, gays and bisexuals allowed to serve openly in the military Yes (Since 2011)
Transgender people allowed to serve openly in the military No
Right to change legal gender without surgery Yes
Access to IVF for lesbians Yes
Third gender option No
Conversion therapy banned on minors Yes[74][75][76]
Surrogacy access for gay male couples Yes
MSMs allowed to donate blood Yes/No (1 year deferral; federal policy)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Your Rights: Massachusetts
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ Boston scores as 11th most gay-friendly city in America
  5. ^ The Most Gay-Friendly Towns in Massachusetts Could Do Better
  6. ^ Yuval Merin, Equality for Same-Sex Couples: The Legal Recognition of Gay Partnerships in Europe and the United States (University of Chicago Press, 2002), 204
  7. ^ Jean M. Baker, How Homophobia Hurts Children: Nurturing Diversity at Home, at School, and in the Community (Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press, 2002), 13
  8. ^ Boston Globe: Michael Levenson, "Debate on Romney's memory of incident," May 12, 2012, accessed May 30, 2012
  9. ^ Schoenberg, Shira (June 26, 2015). "Gov. Charlie Baker: Supreme Court gay marriage decision gives all citizens equal protection". Advance Publications. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  10. ^ Schoenberg, Shira (December 16, 2014). "Charlie Baker opposes expansion of transgender anti-discrimination rules, supports current law". Advance Publications. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  11. ^ Dumcius, Gintautus (April 14, 2016). "Amid boos, Gov. Charlie Baker exits LGBT event as protesters demand support for transgender bill". Advance Publications. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  12. ^ Green, Emma (July 7, 2016). "The Gay-Rights State That Took Years to Protect Transgender Citizens". The Atlantic. Atlantic Media. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  13. ^ Murphy, Matt (April 22, 2016). "Gov. Charlie Baker: People should use the restroom they feel comfortable using". Advance Publications. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  14. ^ Dumcius, Gintautus (February 23, 2017). "Massachusetts Gov. Charlie Baker says Trump administration sends wrong message with rollback of transgender protections". Advance Publications. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
  15. ^ Schoenberg, Shira (March 8, 2017). "Gov. Charlie Baker: Denying gay veterans chance to march in St. Patrick's Day parade 'doesn't make any sense'". Advance Publications. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
  16. ^ Tempera, Jacqueline (October 4, 2018). "'We have miles to go' toward equality for LGBT community Gov. Charlie Baker says at Log Cabin Republicans event". Advance Publications. Retrieved October 18, 2018.
  17. ^ Dumcius, Gintautus (October 18, 2018). "Massachusetts Gov. Charlie Baker personally donates to 'Yes on 3' ballot campaign on transgender protections". Advance Publications. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  18. ^ "Gov. Baker Signs LGBTQ Conversion Therapy Ban For Minors". WBZ-TV. April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  19. ^ Massachusetts Cases: Commonwealth v. Richard L. Balthazar, 366 Mass. 298, accessed March 11, 2011
  20. ^ Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts: GLAD v. Attorney General, February 21, 2002, accessed March 9, 2011; Merin, 332
  21. ^ You technically can't do it in Massachusetts: Blasphemy, sex laws still on the books
  22. ^ 17 States Where Gay Sex Is Outlawed
  23. ^ An Act relative to archaic crimes
  24. ^ An Act relative to the reform of archaic laws implicating certain private consensual intimate conduct between adults
  25. ^ Salsberg, Bob (July 27, 2018). "Massachusetts 1st to repeal long-dormant ban on abortion".
  26. ^ "Gov. Baker Sogns Bill Repealing Antiquated Mass. Abortion Ban". WBUR News. July 27, 2018.
  27. ^ "Massachusetts law about sex". Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
  28. ^ Boston Globe: Frank Phillips, "Legislators vote to defeat same-sex marriage ban," June 14, 2007, accessed March 9, 2011
  29. ^ Boston Globe: Michael Levenson," Governor signs law allowing out-of-state gays to wed," July 31, 2008, accessed March 9, 2011
  30. ^ Finucane, Martin (July 26, 2012). "Massachusetts high court says it recognizes Vermont civil unions as marriages". Boston Globe. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
  31. ^ "SJC: Massachusetts Recognizes California Registered Domestic Partnerships". GLAD. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
  32. ^ Cooper, Kenneth (May 25, 1985). "New Policy on Foster Care". Boston Globe.
  33. ^ Nancy D. Polikoff, "Lesbian and Gay Couples Raising Children: The Law in the United States," in Robert Wintemute, Mads Tønnesson Andenæs, eds., Legal recognition of Same-Sex Partnerships: A Study of National, European and International Law (Portland, OR: Hart Publishing, 2001), 159-60
  34. ^ Longcope, Kay (April 5, 1990). "Foster-Care Ban on Gays is Reversed". Boston Globe.
  35. ^ Patricia A. Gozemba, Karen Kahn, Marilyn Humphries, eds., Courting Equality: A Documentary History of America's First Legal Same-Sex Marriages (Boston: Beacon Press, 2007), 48
  36. ^ Yuval Merin, Equality for Same-Sex Couples, 182
  37. ^ Wong, Doris Sue (September 11, 1993). "Lesbian couple allowed to adopt". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on July 25, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
  38. ^ "Equal rights: When Heather's Mommies Share Custody". Boston Globe. September 12, 1999. Archived from the original on February 13, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
  39. ^ Waas, Murray (October 25, 2012). "Romney rejected new birth certificates for gay parents". Boston Globe. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
  40. ^ Boston Globe: "Catholic Charities Transfers Caseload, Staff," April 29, 2006, accessed March 9, 2011. See also: Robin Fretwell Wilson, "Matters of Conscience: Lessons for Same-Sex Marriage from the Healthcare Context," in Douglas Laycock, Robin Fretwell Wilson, eds., Same-sex Marriage and Religious Liberty: Emerging Conflicts (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008), 102, et passim
  41. ^ Boston Globe: Stephen Smith, "Mass. moves to standardize birth certificates," February 17, 2011, accessed March 9, 2011
  42. ^ New York Times: "A Gay Rights Law Is Voted in Massachusetts," November 1, 1989, accessed July 29, 2011
  43. ^ Pinello, Daniel R. (226). America's Struggle for Same-Sex Marriage. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0521848565.
  44. ^ Levenson, Michael (February 18, 2011). "Transgender state workers get aid from governor". Boston Globe. Retrieved January 18, 2013.; O'Connell, Sue (February 17, 2011). "Patrick signs executive order protecting transgender state employees". Bay Windows. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
  45. ^ Bill H.3810: An Act relative to gender identity, General Court of Massachusetts
  46. ^ a b Barusch, M.; Reuben, Catherine E. (May 8, 2012). "Transgender Equal Rights In Massachusetts: Likely Broader Than You Think". Boston Bar Journal. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
  47. ^ "Transgender rights bill continues to languish in legislature". December 1, 2015.
  48. ^ "Transgender rights bill advances in Massachusetts". Reuters. May 12, 2016.
  49. ^ Massachusetts legislature approves transgender rights bill
  50. ^ Massachusetts governor signs sweeping transgender rights bill
  51. ^ Williamson, Dianne (July 26, 2012). "'Plans' don't include sale to gay couple". Worcester Telegram. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
  52. ^ Anderson, Karen. "Gay Couple Says Church Is Blocking Sale Of Historic Home". CBS Boston. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
  53. ^ Wangsness, Lisa (September 10, 2012). "Gay couple says church denied Northbridge mansion sale to stop same-sex weddings". Boston Globe. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  54. ^ Valencia, Milton J. (January 30, 2014). "Gay married man says Catholic school rescinded job offer". Boston Globe. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  55. ^ Labbe, Mark (December 28, 2015). "Judge says Catholic school discriminated against man in same-sex marriage". National Catholic Reporter. Catholic News Service. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
  56. ^ Boston Globe: Sarah Schweitzer, "Activists urge lawmakers to expand bullying law," February 10, 2011, accessed March 9, 2011
  57. ^ Boston Globe: Doris Sue Wong, "Senate Expands Hate-crime Law," June 21, 1996 accessed March 9, 2011
  58. ^ "Massachusetts General Laws". Definition: Hate Crime.
  59. ^ General Laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: Mass. Ann. Laws ch. 22C, §§ 34, accessed April 3, 2011
  60. ^ Reinhart, Christopher. "OLR Research Report". Research Report. Retrieved April 2, 2011.
  61. ^ Human Rights Campaign: Massachusetts Birth Certificate Law, MASS. GEN. LAWS ANN. ch. 46, § 13(e) Archived July 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, accessed March 10, 2011
  62. ^ Massachusetts Senate passes bill allowing 'X' as a gender on state IDs
  63. ^ An Act relative to gender identity on Massachusetts identification
  64. ^ Massachusetts House Votes To Ban So-Called Conversion Therapy
  65. ^ Shutting The Back Door: How One Mother Sees Proposed Ban in Massachusetts on ‘Conversion Therapy’ for Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity
  66. ^ An Act relative to abusive practices to change sexual orientation and gender identity in minors
  67. ^ An Act relative to abusive practices to change sexual orientation and gender identity in minors
  68. ^ Bill H.140
  69. ^ Anya Crittenton (March 13, 2019). "Massachusetts House passes bill banning conversion therapy on minors". GayStarNews.
  70. ^ Massachusetts Senate approves LGBTQ conversion therapy ban
  71. ^ [3]
  72. ^ [4]
  73. ^ a b PRRI: American Values Atlas 2017
  74. ^ [5]
  75. ^ [6]
  76. ^ [7]