From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Oghuz Turkic substratum of North Azerbaijan, South Azerbaijan, Gagauz, Turkish and Turkmen pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See the respective coverage of phonology of North Azerbaijan, South Azerbaijan, Gagauz, Turkish and Turkmen for more thorough discussion of the sounds of these languages.

IPA Orthography English
Flag of South Azerbaijan.svg Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Flag of Gagauzia.svg Flag of Turkey.svg Flag of Turkmenistan.svg
azb azj gag tr tk
b b b b b b about
c[1][2] c c k k cute
ç[3] ç ç k German ich
d d d d d d ado
d͡z adze
d͡ʒ c c j jump
ð z then
f f f f f food
ɸ f like food, but done by curling lips over teeth and expelling air while keeping the jaw tense
ɡ[1] g g g g g ago
ɟ[1] ğ ğ g g g /ɡj/ sequence in argue
h h‎ h h h h[4] home
j y y y y,
ý yet
k[1] k k k k k coal
l l l l l l late
ɫ[1] l l [6] peel ("dark L")
m m m m m m much
n n n n n n not
ŋ [7] ň wing
p p p p p p pan
q[1] q q k k in the throat
ɾ r r r r r AmE pretty or Scottish r
ɣ Spanish amigo
ʁ[1] g French r
s s‎‎ s s s send
ʃ ş ş ş ş ş shoe
t t‎ t t t t table
t͡s ţ ts[8] bits
t͡ʃ ç ç ç change
θ s think
v[9] v v v v vase
β w like vase, but with both lips
ɰ[5] ğ close to French r, yet it is articulated from the soft palate, not from uvulae
x x x h[4] Scottish loch
z z z z z zone
ʒ j j j j ž leisure
IPA Orthography English
Flag of South Azerbaijan.svg Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Flag of Gagauzia.svg Flag of Turkey.svg Flag of Turkmenistan.svg
azb azj gag tr tk
ɑ a a a a a father
æ ä ə ä e ä cat
e e e e e e bed
ə ı ê language
i i i i i i creek
o o o o o o Leo
ø ö ö ö ö ö somewhat like RP bird; French eu or German ö
u u u u u u super
ɯ ı ı ı y somewhat like roses, Chinese shi, or Japanese unchi
y ü ü ü ü ü somewhat like cue; French u or German ü
IPA Examples
ˈ torbalı /torbɑˈɫɯ/ 'with bag'
Torbalı /ˈtorbɑɫɯ/ (a place name)[10]
ː â, î, û[11], ğ[5] âlem /ɑːlem/ 'world'


  1. ^ a b c d e f g [c]~[k] (Turkish/Azeri) / [k]~[q] (Turkmen), [ɟ]~[ɡ] (Turkish) / [ɡ]~[ʁ] (Turkmen)[citation needed][contradictory], [l]~[ɫ] only contrast in loan words before <â, û> vs. <a, u>; in native words, [c/k, ɟ/ɡ, l] occur before the front vowels (/e/, /i/, /ø/, /y/), while [k/q, g/ʁ, ɫ] occur before the back vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, /ɯ/).
  2. ^ In many eastern Turkish/Azeri dialects, [c] at the end of a word or before a voiceless consonant may become [ç], as in huge.
  3. ^ In Azeri, k at the end of a word or before a voiceless consonant may become [ç], as in huge.
  4. ^ a b In Turkmen, [h] occurs before front vowels (/e/, /i/, /ø/ and /y/) while [x] occurs before back vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, /ɯ/).
  5. ^ a b c In Turkish, the letter ğ (yumuşak g, "soft g") gives the [j] sound between front vowels and the [ɰ] sound between back vowels.
    Syllable-finally, it lengthens the preceding vowel.
  6. ^ In Schöning, Claus. "Turkmen". The Turkic Languages. Lars Johanson and Éva Á. Csató, eds. London: Routledge, 1998. pg. 262
  7. ^ In Turkish and Azeri, /ŋ/ appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants /g/, /k/, /ɟ/ and /c/.
  8. ^ Only found in Russian loanwords. In Schöning, Claus. "Turkmen". The Turkic Languages. Lars Johanson and Éva Á. Csató, eds. London: Routledge, 1998. pg. 261
  9. ^ [w] is the allophone of the /v/ sound after or between vowels in Turkish and Azeri.
  10. ^ In Turkish proper, proper nouns are typically stressed on the 2nd or 3rd last syllable (see Sezer stress), and other words (excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses) are stressed on the last syllable.
  11. ^ Şapka (Turkish for "hat") [^] is a sign which indicates both the vowel length and indicates if the letter k should read as /c/ and the letter l should read as [l] before the dark vowels /ɑ/ and /u/.
    Yet the şapka is primarily used for indicating palatalization instead of length. For example, the word katil means "murder" when pronounced as /kɑtil/, yet it means "killer" when pronounced as /kɑːtil/. The letter a is left unmarked even if it is long, because the sound /k/ doesn't become /c/ in this case.
    î is an exception, for it only indicates the vowel length.

Temporary location for 4 different future articles, 2 of them existing already in English but need expansion. These articles are Radiodiffusion nationale, Radiodiffusion française (which currently exists as a redirect to RTF), and the existing RTF and ORTF articles.

Radiodiffusion nationale[edit]


Radiodiffusion nationale
TypePublic establishment
FoundedJuly 29, 1939
OwnerGovernment of France (1939-1940)

Vichy France (1940-1944)

Provisional Government of the French Republic (1944-1945)
Key people
Léon Brillouin

Cmd. Duvivier
André Demaison
Hubert Devillez

Jean Guignebert
DissolvedMarch 23, 1945
AffiliatesRadio Stations

Radio Tour Eiffel
Radio PTT
Radio Paris
France Inter Paris

TV Channels Radiodiffusion nationale Télévision (1937-1940)
Télévision française (1944-1945)


Régie française de publicité

Radiodiffusion française nationale (English: French National Broadcasting), also called Radiodiffusion nationale (English: National Broadcasting; RN) was a French public firm responsible for public audiovisual broadcasting, created by decree on July 29th 1939 and replaced by Radiodiffusion française (RDF) on March 23rd 1945.


With the war fast approaching and conscious of the superiority of German radio broadcasting which was technically ahead and could prove dangerous because of its power to emit propaganda, the Prime Minister, Édouard Daladier, radically transformed the organization of the French radio stations in both the public and private sectors so as to exercise greater control. On July 29th 1939, he created Radiodiffusion française nationale (RN) by administrative decree, which included all the broadcasting services under his sole authority and not under the Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones as it was heretofore. Censorship was introduced on August 25th, then followed by law creating a state monopoly on radio broadcasting in 1940.

The broadcasting transmitter at the Eiffel Tower was sabotaged on June 6th 1940 so that the Germans couldn’t use it and, on June 10th, public radio personnel was evacuated to Bordeaux where broadcasting resumed. On June 17th, Marshal Pétain announced the armistice with Germany on radio. By virtue of clause 14 of the ceasefire convention, RN had to provisionally stop broadcasting on French territory from June 15th 1940 onwards. It moved to Vichy during the summer of 1940 and resumed working in the Free Zone from July 5th. On October 1st 1941, RN was placed under the authority of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Pierre Laval; private broadcasting stations were allowed to transmit but were under surveillance.

On November 7th 1942, the broadcasting law was reformed: services were centralized, transmitters had to be modernized and financing was made easier so that this propaganda tool could be made more efficient and pervasive. A Supreme Council for Broadcasting was installed, with André Demaison as director, seconded by Hubert Devillez. The Radio Broadcasting Financial Company (Sofira) was created to take shares into private broadcasters on behalf of RN. In 1943, RN’s services were grouped in Paris. Propaganda intensified in February 1942 when Philippe Henriot inaugurated his twice-a-day broadcast on RN. He became a member of the cabinet as Minister of Information on January 7th 1944 and amplified the radicalization of radio speeches with copious amounts of anti-Semitism, anti-Communism and anti-Gaullism in his broadcast, while denouncing "Anglo-Saxon" (British and American) bombing raids which caused the deaths of French civilians. He enjoyed a huge following but was assassinated on June 28th 1944.

An ordonnance by the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF) in Algiers installed by decree a new direction for RN on April 4th 1944 and Parisian listeners heard La Marseillaise on August 20th, followed by Pierre Crénesse making the announcement "This is the Broadcasting Service of the French Nation." Radio Paris was silent the day before and has just been taken by the Parisians in revolt. The first newscast from the newly-liberated radio station was read on air on August 22nd. A purging committee for radio broadcasting was set up on September 25th and new teams installed under Jean Guignebert’s leadership, whose nomination happened on October 25th.

Following the repairs of the 441-line VHF transmitter in the Eiffel Tower, TV shows resumed on October 1st from the studios abandoned in August by the Franco-German channel Fernsehsender Paris which had since been taken over by the renamed Télévision Française.

A short-wave transmitter was installed in Allouis towards the end of 1944 to relay RDF radio bulletins towards Europe and North Africa from January 1st 1945.

On March 23rd 1945, an ordonnance was published to put an end to the authorizations of private broadcasters to transmit, following which they were nationalized on March 29th. It also created a state agency, Radiodiffusion française (RDF), to use that total monopoly on radio and TV.


Broadcasting services[edit]

Notes and References[edit]

See also[edit]