Wikipedia:Reference desk/Miscellaneous

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search


The Wikipedia Reference Desk covering the topic of miscellaneous.

Welcome to the miscellaneous reference desk.
Want a faster answer?

Main page: Help searching Wikipedia

How can I get my question answered?

  • Provide a short header that gives the general topic of the question.
  • Type '~~~~' (that is, four tilde characters) at the end – this signs and dates your contribution so we know who wrote what and when.
  • Post your question to only one desk.
  • Don't post personal contact information – it will be removed. All answers will be provided here.
  • Specific questions, that are likely to produce reliable sources, will tend to get clearer answers.
  • Note:
    • We don't answer (and may remove) questions that require medical diagnosis or legal advice.
    • We don't answer requests for opinions, predictions or debate.
    • We don't do your homework for you, though we'll help you past the stuck point.
    • We don't conduct original research or provide a free source of ideas, but we'll help you find information you need.



How do I answer a question?

Main page: Wikipedia:Reference desk/Guidelines

  • The best answers address the question directly, and back up facts with wikilinks and links to sources. Do not edit others' comments and do not give any medical or legal advice.
 
Choose a topic:
 
See also:
Help desk
Village pump
Help manual


November 15[edit]

Pronunciation of Juche[edit]

There is the IPA pronunciation which is [tɕutɕʰe] but let's be honest, it doesn't help anyone unless you are a Korean speaker. Could someone add the standard pronunciation in English? I have no idea if it's "jukie" or "joochee" or anything in between. Thank you! Ericdec85 (talk) 04:12, 15 November 2019 (UTC)

The only character there which is unlikely to be familiar to an English speaker is ɕ. If you click on the IPA pronunciation, it will take you to a handy guide where you can find an approximate English pronunciation. HenryFlower 10:44, 15 November 2019 (UTC)
It stands for Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative, which is kind-of-like the English "sh" sound, except the articulation is further back in the mouth, so instead of coming from the front of the mouth behind the teeth, it's closer to the throat. Since there is no English sound like that, using "sh" in it's place is likely the closest you can get. The little "h" superscript means the second occurrence of the sound is aspirated, which means it is said with a notable puff of air. Since it has a "t" before it, you would pronounce it like the english "tch" as in "match" or "watch". My best approximation would be something like "Tchew-tcheh" where the "tcheh" part is a bit breathier. --Jayron32 15:34, 15 November 2019 (UTC)
Help:IPA/Korean suggests that the first vowel is like the "u" in "bull", so maybe not quite "ew" (in my brand of English at any rate). Alansplodge (talk) 12:41, 16 November 2019 (UTC)

Ju is pronounced like "Jew," and che like the Marxist revolutionary, Che Guevara. DOR (HK) (talk) 19:03, 16 November 2019 (UTC)

If that were right (and I'm not saying it isn't. And saying that I'm also not saying it is) then BOTH Help:IPA/Korean and the IPA description above are incorrect. The "J" sound in "Jew" would be a voiced consonant and notated as something like [dʒ]. The IPA/Korean does not indicate that sound in the language anywhere, and the IPA pronunciation above doesn't use it. --Jayron32 13:08, 19 November 2019 (UTC)

Loved ones touching each other's noses together[edit]

What does loved ones (especially children and their parents) pressing and rubbing thier noses together mean? 86.128.244.208 (talk) 21:58, 15 November 2019 (UTC)

This article Eskimo kissing will have some info for you. MarnetteD|Talk 22:04, 15 November 2019 (UTC)
"Men with whiskers 'neath their noses / Ought to kiss like Eskimoses - Burma Shave" ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 09:34, 16 November 2019 (UTC)
Burma Shave style calls for two more slashes, I'd say. Or three. —Tamfang (talk) 20:24, 16 November 2019 (UTC)
Hongi, the traditional Maori greeting, may also be of interest. It symbolises closeness and mutual trust. Richard Avery (talk) 22:18, 15 November 2019 (UTC)

November 17[edit]

The Yuezhi, Saka, and Wusun[edit]

Are there any genomic studies on them? déhanchements (talk) 06:29, 17 November 2019 (UTC)

Don't know, but let's add some links so people know what you're talking about: Yuezhi, Saka, and Wusun. SinisterLefty (talk) 06:33, 17 November 2019 (UTC)
A Google search brought up:
The separate origins of the Tocharians and the Yuezhi: Results from recent advances in archaeology and genetics
Diverse origin of mitochondrial lineages in Iron Age Black Sea Scythians
137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes
Alansplodge (talk) 12:56, 17 November 2019 (UTC)

Whole grain[edit]

I wasn’t sure where to put this question but how can you tell if a food is whole grain is it hard to determine? — Preceding unsigned comment added by 110.151.160.117 (talk) 09:17, 17 November 2019 (UTC)

(US) Read the ingredients. They will be happy to tell you if it is. One thing to be aware of is that they will say "Contains 100% whole wheat" on the front, which doesn't mean it is all whole wheat, only that a portion of it is. If the ingredients list other types of wheat, then it isn't. That said, a product made of nothing but whole grains is hard to take. That's a lot of roughage and it also won't stick together well. So, you might just look for a product which lists whole wheat (or some other whole flour) as the first ingredient, and has other types of flour, too. One product I would recommend is multigrain breads with seeds visible on the outside. There are 12 grain breads, 22 grain breads, etc. Those are both tasty and healthy, with a variety of grains and seeds that provides both nutrients and fiber. Note that all breads are likely to contain mostly wheat, since that's the cheapest grain, no matter what they say in front. SinisterLefty (talk) 15:02, 17 November 2019 (UTC)
Many claims of "whole grain" are basically bullshit, there so little regulation on the use of the term that there's absolutely no meaningful health information that can be gleaned from labels based on how much whole grain they claim to have. If you like the flavor of foods marketed as "whole grain", by all means eat them. There's nothing wrong with them compared to those that don't use that terminology, but the term has no actual meaning from a health-point-of-view. That doesn't mean that eating actual whole grains is not more healthy, it's just that eating processed foods labeled as "contains whole grain" isn't. See this article or this article, etc. Part of the problem is that foods like bread and pasta get to be labeled as "whole grain" when they contained milled whole grains, and there's some considerable evidence that any of the health benefits of eating whole grains is lost when the grains are ground to make processed foods like breads and pastas. When studies tout the health benefits of whole grains, they literally mean "eating the entire grain with minimal processing" and not "processing the whole grain and making stuff out of it". The second article I cited makes this point, saying, and I quote, "When whole grain is milled and becomes whole-wheat flour, the digestion and absorption process is still fast. And that can induce higher insulin responses. Theoretically, that kind of product is less beneficial compared to whole grains that are minimally processed, or not processed at all." --Jayron32 17:28, 18 November 2019 (UTC)
Yes, ignore the marketing on the front of the package and flip it over to read the actual nutritional analysis, particularly fiber, sugar, and sodium content. Those sources talk primarily about the glycemic index, which is important, but getting micronutrients is also important, and a wide variety of whole grains and seeds helps with that. SinisterLefty (talk) 17:46, 18 November 2019 (UTC)
One problem, however, that does bear mentioning is that getting micronutrient is only really beneficial in context; there are lots of studies that show that vitamin pills don't do an effective job of providing measurable health benefits; getting the same micronutrients from actual food in its natural state seems best:[1] That article notes that there is some benefit to certain vitamin supplements in certain situations, but generally speaking it is best to get our nutrients from the foods themselves in their natural state. This also applies to supplements added to food. Enriched or fortified foods are not significantly healthier than their un-enriched counterparts, and one is best getting those nutrients in their natural state. --Jayron32 15:48, 20 November 2019 (UTC)
See also: cereal germ. 41.165.67.114 (talk) 06:44, 19 November 2019 (UTC)

November 19[edit]

Does looking at pictures and videos before bed make you have more dreams?[edit]

--DimensionShifter (talk) 17:39, 19 November 2019 (UTC)

What have you found on Google so far? ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 18:03, 19 November 2019 (UTC)
Here are some good leads to start your research to answer your question. While not every link is useful in that list, there are several that directly address your question, to varying levels of reliability. --Jayron32 18:10, 19 November 2019 (UTC)
It's important to note that most dreams are not remembered. It's normal to go into REM sleep several times every night. So you can't judge the frequency of your own dreams. --76.69.116.4 (talk) 22:30, 19 November 2019 (UTC)
You dream multiple times every night. IMO a better thing to research would be how to make yourself remember more of your dreams after waking up. The practices associated with lucid dreaming tend to be useful at that even if you're not trying to influence your dreams. 93.142.92.186 (talk) 06:23, 20 November 2019 (UTC)
Do you want more dreams (or to remember more of them)? Vitamin B6 is supposed to make them more vivid. 173.228.123.207 (talk) 09:17, 20 November 2019 (UTC)

November 20[edit]

FEMA IS 200C QUESTION[edit]

THE PROCESS OF GRANTING AUTHORITY TO CARRY OUT SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS IS CALLED?— Preceding unsigned comment added by 2601:18d:4a7f:1cf0:3c09:acc0:ad66:4855 (talkcontribs)

I'm sorry, but we are not here to do your homework. Please figure it out yourself. --MoonyTheDwarf (Braden N.) (talk) 16:45, 20 November 2019 (UTC)
See the IS-200.C: Basic Incident Command System for Initial Response course site. DroneB (talk) 19:21, 20 November 2019 (UTC)


November 21[edit]

Body wash hygiene[edit]

For hygienic purposes is there a possible determination of how often you should body wash in shower to meet hygienic results?

What do you mean by "hygienic results"? ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 04:01, 21 November 2019 (UTC)

Personal hygiene.

You're asking whether soap can help you clean up? ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 04:04, 21 November 2019 (UTC)

No, shower gel do you have to do it every time you shower in order to stay hygienic or not?

We have an article on Shower, which addresses this to some extent, but it's worth noting that daily showering itself is a very modern practice, and humans seemed to get along pretty well with other approaches to hygiene over the millennia. HiLo48 (talk) 06:30, 21 November 2019 (UTC)
Indeed, in the 1950s nobody I knew owned a shower and we only had a bath once a week. It didn't do us any harm (my father has just turned 100). Of course a lot depends on how dirty you get from day to day, but there seems to be evidence that showering too often can be counter-productive. See hygiene hypothesis.--Shantavira|feed me 10:11, 21 November 2019 (UTC)
The above answers are correct, but we're also missing a definition for "hygienic". This is a largely cultural/situational definition; having B.O. is unlikely to ever have adverse health effects, so long as the hands and face get washed. In some places and time periods it's been perfectly acceptable and healthy for people to essentially never bathe/shower (or, do so so infrequently it amounts to about the same thing). Matt Deres (talk) 19:06, 21 November 2019 (UTC)
I'm going to read between the lines here: the questioner has moved to a different place, or moved into a different social group, where hygiene standards are different--then someone told them that they should shower more often. If that's the case, then they should shower more often, to help get along better with people. Where I live, the typical practice is to bathe/shower once in the morning, as well as after physical activity, such as labor or jogging or fucking. If the questioner does this, and avoids scented products, and attends to oral hygiene, they are unlikely to receive any complaints. Temerarius (talk) 20:08, 21 November 2019 (UTC)

Lead in Canadian municipal drinking water[edit]

Recently a team of researchers from a Canadian university, with several media teams, conducted a study of lead levels in drinking water across Canada. However, Global News has no links to the data, The Star's investigation coverage is hidden behind a paywall, and the Concordia University page I just linked to has no raw data either. Where can I find a journal-style article of the actual study? Something that requires university credentials works too, because I am a university graduate. Sincerely, YW 2607:FEA8:1DDF:FEE1:3CB9:26E2:FDE3:ED87 (talk) 05:58, 21 November 2019 (UTC)

I found This which may give you a lead? Perhaps? --Jayron32 12:55, 21 November 2019 (UTC)
From what I can tell, this was a journalist lead study [2] [3]. The data seems to be available to all who were part of the investigation, but it's not clear to me it's been made publicly available yet. There may very well be plans to publish the data in a peer reviewed journal, but again I'm not sure this has happened. It's possible if you ask politely someone will share it with you, but I wouldn't expect a definite yes especially since it sounds like there are plans for more media stories in the near future. Nil Einne (talk) 14:46, 21 November 2019 (UTC)

Equivalents to Kyle Kulinski, The Young Turks, and other left-wing commentators France, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Denmark others[edit]

Are there counterparts to Kyle Kulinski, The Young Turks, Emma Vigeland of Rebel HQ, Michael Brooks of The Michael Brooks Show and others in France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, U.K., Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Germany? I am trying to know if there are such that criticize the mainstream politics and tend to show support the anti-establishment politicians and their policies like Benoit Hamon and Jean-Luc Melenchon in France, Podemos in Spain, Possibile Party in Italy, Left Bloc in Portugal, Left Party in Sweden, Red-Green Alliance in Denmark, Meretz in Israel, The Left in Germany, Socialist Party and DENK in Netherlands, Socialist Left Party in Norway and Jeremy Corbyn in United Kingdom. Donmust90 (talk) 23:53, 21 November 2019 (UTC)Donmust90Donmust90 (talk) 23:53, 21 November 2019 (UTC)

November 22[edit]