Xinjiang re-education camps

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Xinjiang re-education Camps
Internment camps, indoctrination camps, re-education camps
Opening Ceremony of a re-education camp in Lopnur County.jpg
Opening ceremony of a political
re-education camp in Lopnur County, Xinjiang
Other namesقايتا تەربىيەلەش لاگېرلىرى
Operated byXinjiang local Party committee and government
OperationalSince 2014[1] (part of the "Strike Hard Campaign against Violent Terrorism")
Expanded in 2016[2] (under party secretary Chen Quanguo)
Number of inmatesUp to 1.5 million (Zenz 2019 estimate)[3]
Up to 3 million (U.S. DoD estimate)

Re-education camps (Uyghur: قايتا تەربىيەلەش لاگېرلىرى‎, ULY: Qayta terbiyelesh lagérliri, USY: Қайта тәрбийәләш лагерлири, [qɑjtɑ tærbijælæʃ lɑɡɛrliri]; Chinese: 再教育营; pinyin: zàijiàoyùyíng) is a title given to the internment camps (or concentration camps[4][5][6][7]) which have been operated by the People's Republic of China Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regional government for the purpose of interning Muslims since 2014.[1] They have significantly intensified since a hardline party secretary, Chen Quanguo, took charge of the region in August 2016. These camps are reportedly operated outside of the legal system; many Uyghurs have been interned without trial and no charges have been levied against them.[2][8][9] Local authorities are reportedly holding hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs and Muslims from other ethnic minorities in these camps, for the stated purpose of countering extremism and terrorism.[10][11][12][13][14]

As of 2018, it is estimated that the Chinese authorities may have detained hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, of Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Hui (Muslims) and other ethnic Turkic Muslims, Christians as well as some foreign citizens such as Kazakhstanis, who are kept in these secretive internment camps throughout the region.[15][16][17][18][19][20][21] The United Nations and many international media reports have stated that more than 1 million people have been held in such "re-education camps" in recent years.[22][23][24][25][26][27][28] In 2018, U.S. Department of Defense claimed up to 3 million could be imprisoned in detention centers and accused China of putting minority Muslims in concentration camps, in one of the strongest U.S. condemnations to date.[29][30][31]

On 24 October 2018, the BBC released the details of an extensive investigation into China's hidden concentration camps and the extent to which the People's Republic goes to maintain what it calls "correct thought".[32] US-based journals like the Foreign Policy Journal and Center for World Indigenous Studies have labeled these policies as "cultural genocide".[33][34] Some parties refer to these camps as "concentration camps".[16][35][36][37][38] The Times of Israel wrote a piece comparing these vocational camps to the U.S. Japanese-American concentration camps during World War II as well as the British Palestine internment camps for Jews.[39][40] The European Union and Turkey were invited to visit part of Xinjiang by China in order to examine the situation themselves.[41][42] The EU initially declined, due to worries that the tour might be “choreographed” by the Chinese government, but it was open to visit Xinjiang at a later date.[43][44]

In July 2019, the United Nations ambassadors from 22 nations, including Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan and the United Kingdom,[45] signed a letter condemning China's mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the camps.[46][47] On the other hand, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Egypt, Russia, North Korea, the Philippines, Pakistan, Iran, Syria and Palestine[48] are among 50 other states supported China's policy in Xinjiang.[45][49] The crown prince of Saudi Arabia, Mohammed bin Salman, has applauded China for its public safety and counter-terrorism measures, saying that it has a "right to fight against terrorism."[50]


Before Chen Quanguo[edit]

Both prior to and until shortly after the July 2009 Ürümqi riots, Wang Lequan was the Party secretary for the Xinjiang region, effectively the highest subnational role; roughly equivalent to a governor in a Western province or state. Wang worked on modernization programs in Xinjiang, including industrialization, development of commerce, roads, railways, hydrocarbon development and pipelines with neighboring Kazakhstan to eastern China. On the other hand, Wang constrained local culture and religion, replaced the Uyghur language with Standard Mandarin as the medium of education in primary schools, and penalized or banned among government workers (in a region in which the government was a very large employer), the wearing of beards and headscarves, fasting and praying while on the job.[51][52][53]

In April 2010, after the Ürümqi riots, Zhang Chunxian replaced Wang Lequan as the Communist Party chief. Zhang Chunxian continued and strengthened Wang's repressive policies. In 2011, Zhang proposed "modern culture [to the exclusion of Uyghur tradition] leads the development in Xinjiang" as his policy statement and started to implement his modern culture propaganda.[54] In 2012, he first mentioned the phrase "de-extremification" (Chinese: 去极端化) campaigns and started to educate "wild Imams" (野阿訇) and extremists (极端主义者).[55][56][57] In 2014, Chinese authorities announced a "People's war on terror" and local government introduced new restrictions and banned "abnormal" long beards,[58][59] the wearing of veils in public places[60][61][62] and naming of children to exaggerate religious fervor (including names such as Muhammad or Fatimah)[63][64][65] as a campaign against terrorism and extremism.[66][67]

Under Zhang, the Communist Party launched its "Strike Hard Campaign against Violent Terrorism" in Xinjiang, leading to many remands, detentions, arrests, and incarcerations.

Number of re-education related government procurement bids in Xinjiang[68][69]

In August 2016, Chen Quanguo, a well-known hardliner Communist Party leader in Tibet,[70] took charge of the Xinjiang autonomous region. Chen is branded by critics as responsible for a major component of Tibet's "subjugation",[71] and is seen as applying his expertise in the Sinicization of Tibet to Xinjiang.

Chen Quanguo and the Xinjiang police state[edit]

Followed Chen's arrival, local authorities recruited over 90,000 police officers in 2016 and 2017 – twice as many as they recruited in the past seven years,[72] and laid out as many as 7300 heavily guarded check points in the region.[73] The province has come to be known as one of the most heavily policed regions of the world. Gradually the concept of "transformation through education" started to expose and came to be systematically used with the "de-extremification" campaigns.[74] International media have labelled the current regime in Xinjiang as "the most extensive police state in the world".[75][76][77][78]

Local media have reported on these facilities and generally referred them as "counter-extremism training centers" (去极端化培训班) and "education and transformation training centers" (教育转化培训中心). Most of those facilities are converted from existing schools or other official buildings, although some are specifically built for "reeducation" purposes.[79]

The heavily policed region and thousands of check points assisted and accelerated the detainment of locals to the camps. In 2017 the region constituted 21% of all arrests in China last year despite comprising 1.5% of the national population[75][80][81] and the imprisoned people compared to the previous year is seven times more.[82][83][84] The judicial and other government bureaus of many cities and counties started to release a series of procurement and construction bids for those planned camps and facilities.[85] Increasingly, massive detention centers were built up throughout the region and are being used to hold hundreds of thousands of people targeted for their religious practices and ethnicity.[86][87][88][89][90]

According to political economist Victor Shih of the University of California, San Diego, the mass internments were totally unnecessary—no proportional active insurgency existed. He points out that a great deal of money was spent setting up the various camps, and that the money likely went to associates of the politicians who created the camps.[91]

Camp facilities[edit]

In urban areas, most of the camps are converted from existing vocational schools, communist party schools, ordinary schools or other official buildings, while in suburban or rural areas the majority of camps were specially built for the purposes of re-education.[92] These camps are guarded by armed forces or special police and equipped with prison-like gates, surrounding walls, security fences, surveillance systems, watchtowers, guard rooms and facilities for armed police etc.[93][94][95][96] and most of them are clearly visible on satellite imagery.[97]

In November and December 2018, the magazine Bitter Winter released three videos it claimed had been shot inside two camps in the Yining area. The videos show jail-like features and the magazine claimed they proved that the camps are detention facilities rather than "schools".[98][99][100] According to Business Insider, the second "Bitter Winter’s video... matches the descriptions of former detainees and witnesses of other detention facilities in Xinjiang."[101]

There is no public, verifiable data for the number of camps. On 15 May 2017, Jamestown Foundation, a Washington, D.C. based institute for research and analysis, released a list of government bids related to re-education facilities for 73 different camps.[102] On 14 May 2018, Radio Free Asia (RFA) reported that there are at least 8 camps in Kargilik County, Kashgar Prefecture alone.[103]

Scholars such as University of British Columbia student Shawn Zhang have used satellite images to track suspected re-education centers in the region. The most important sources for him are government reports, official government documents, travel reports from top officials and budgetary reports that outline expenditures for facilities.[104][105][106] Zhang documented 31 suspected re-education camps throughout Xinjiang using Google Earth Pro and Chinese government documents.[97][107] Zhang maintains a list of re-education camps with WGS84 coordinates on his Medium blog. As of May 2019, Zhang has documented 66 suspected camps.[108]

The Australian Strategic Policy Institute's (ASPI)[109] International Cyber Policy Centre (ICPC) reported on camps in 28 locations. The ICPC created an excel database[110] detailing the numbers, location, facility features, photos, documents of these camps. Reuters's also collaborated with Earthrise Media to document satellite images of 39 concentration camps from start to finish in its article "Tracking China's Muslim Gulag."[111]

Camp detainees[edit]


Detainees listening to speeches in a re-education camp in Lop County, Xinjiang, April 2017.[112][113][114]

Many Uyghurs in diaspora claim that at least one of their family members are in the camp. Many media reports said that hundreds of thousands of Uighurs-as well as Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and other ethnic minorities[115][116][117][118] are being detained without trial in "re-education camps" in the province. In January 2018, China Digital Times reported that an estimated 120,000 members of the Uyghurs are currently being held in political re-education camps in Kashgar prefecture alone.[119][120][121] Radio Free Asia claimed the camps are estimated to hold as much as 10 percent of the Uyghur population.[122][123][77][124]

The United States-based Uyghur politician Rebiya Kadeer, who has been in exile since 2005, has had as many as 30 relatives detained or disappeared, including her sisters, brothers, children, grandchildren, and siblings;[125][126] and it is unclear when they were taken away.[127][128] In the past few years, dozens of family members of six Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service reporters have been locked up in re-education camps due to their job in the United States. These reporters spent years in exile for documenting human rights abuses under the Chinese government's rule in their homeland. They also shared the fate of many others who are being held without due process for ill-defined reasons.[129][130]

On 13 July 2018, Sayragul Sauytbay, an ethnic Kazakh Chinese national and former employee of the Chinese state, appeared in a court in the city of Zharkent, Kazakhstan for being accused of illegally crossing the border between the two countries. During the trial she talked about her forced work at a re-education camp for 2,500 ethnic Kazakhs.[131][132] Her lawyer believed that if she is extradited to China, she would face the death penalty for exposing re-education camps in Kazakh court.[133][134] Her testimony for the re-education camps have become the focus of a court case in Kazakhstan,[135][136] which is also testing the country's ties with Beijing.[137][138] On 1 August 2018, Sayragul Sauytbay, who fled one of the Chinese re-education camps, was released with a six-month suspended sentence and direction to regularly check in with police. She has applied for asylum in Kazakhstan and will not be deported to China.[139][140][141]

Gene Bunin created the Xinjiang Victims Database[142] to collect public testimonies on people detained in the camps. Each page lists basic demographic information including dates and suspected cause of detention, location, in addition to supplementary videos, photos and documents.

Writing in the Journal of Political Risk in July 2019, independent researcher Adrian Zenz estimated the upper speculative limit to the number of people detained in Xinjiang re-education camps at 1.5 million.[3]

Radio Free Asia interviews[edit]

Meanwhile, Radio Free Asia, a US government-funded non-profit, also conducted a series of telephone interview with local judicial and police officials.

  • On 20 November 2017, Radio Free Asia conducted a telephone interview with an official from the Bulaksu Township judicial station in Konasheher County, who claimed: "In Bulaksu township, 2514 people were imprisoned and 806 people were sent to re-education centers."[143]
  • On 21 June 2018, in a telephone interview, an official from the Tuwet Township judicial station in Karakax County, said: "In Tuwet township 1731 people were imprisoned and 1721 people were sent to re-education centers."[144]
  • On 2 August 2018, in a telephone interview with an official from the Hankitam Township police station in Kuqa County, the police said: "We've sent approximately 5000 people to the re-education centers and no one has been released until now."[145]
  • On 17 August 2018, in a telephone interview with some police officials of Toksu County, the police said: "In this county approximately 22,000 people are in re-education centers."[146]
  • On 21 August 2018, in a telephone interview with police officials of Onsu County, the police told RFA that: "There are 4 re-education centers in this county and currently 30,000 people are in them."[147]
  • On 21 August 2018, Radio Free Asia interviewed some police officials of Keriya County. The police said: "There are 4 re-education centers in this county. The first one is the original detention center. The second one is a newly built camp near the detention center. The third and fourth re-education centers are located in an industrial park. Currently almost 30,000 people are in education centers."[148] The next day, RFA conducted telephone interviews with judicial officials in the Yingibagh Township of the same Keriya County. The official claimed that "Among 242 of the people who were sent to the re-education camps, they have bank loans. Seven of them, aged 31 to 42, died in the education centers. Three of them bank loans were exempted, and the other four's bank loans were in the process of issuing exemptions."[149]
  • On 18 December 2018, Radio Free Asia reported that Chinese authorities arrested an ethnic Uyghur senior court official Ghalip Qurban (in China's judicial system) after he expressed concern over the mass incarceration of members of his ethnic group in recent years.[150] Qurban, the deputy head of the Intermediate People’s Court in the XUAR capital Ürümqi, was "distressed by the vast number of Uyghurs and other Muslim ethnic minorities who had been detained in political re-education camps throughout the XUAR since April 2017 after being accused of harboring 'strong religious views' and 'politically incorrect' ideas." Qurban was reportedly called in for multiple "chats" with officials from the State Security Department after speaking out about the policy. Uyghur senior court officials are required to sign off on sentences issued in cases concerning crimes of "terrorism" and "religious extremism" in Xinjiang, and Qurban may have believed he might later be judged to have been a party to crimes against humanity. The report stated that Qurban's family and friends only learned of his arrest a month after he was taken into custody. A staff member at the Urumqi Intermediate People’s Court told RFA that Qurban had been removed from his post "quite a long time ago—six months or a year," when asked to confirm his arrest, but was unsure whether he had been imprisoned or sent to a re-education camp.[150]


In January 2018, Abdurahman Hasan, a Uyghur businessman from Kashgar, was interviewed by BBC News in Turkey and asked the Chinese government to shoot his 68-year-old mother and 22-year-old wife after learning of the inhuman torture conducted in one of the camps in Kashgar.[76] Kayrat Samarkand, a Kazakh citizen who migrated from Xinjiang, was detained in one of the "re-education camps" in the region for three months for visiting neighboring Kazakhstan. On 15 February 2018, Kazakh Foreign Minister Kairat Abdrakhmanov sent a diplomatic note to the Chinese Foreign Ministry, the same day as Kayrat Samarkand was freed from custody.[151] After his release, Samarkand shared his distressing experience and claimed that he faced endless brainwashing and humiliation, and that he was forced to study communist propaganda for hours every day and chant slogans giving thanks and wishing for a long life to Xi Jinping, current General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.[152]

Mihrigul Tursun, an Uyghur woman detained in China, after escaping one of these camps, described details of torture and beatings. Educated in Egypt, Tursun had traveled to China in 2015 to spend time with her family and was immediately detained and separated from her infant children. When Tursun was released three months later, one of the triplets had died and the other two had developed health problems. Tursun said the children had been operated on. She was arrested for a second time about two years later. Several months later, she was detained a third time and spent three months in a cramped, suffocating prison cell with 60 other women, having to sleep in turns, use the toilet in front of security cameras and sing songs praising China’s Communist Party.

Tursun said she and other inmates were forced to take unknown medication, including pills that made them faint and a white liquid that caused bleeding in some women and loss of menstruation in others. Tursun said nine women from her cell died during her three months there. One day, Tursun recalled, she was led into a room and placed in a high chair, and her legs and arms were locked in place. "The authorities put a helmet-like thing on my head, and each time I was electrocuted, my whole body would shake violently and I would feel the pain in my veins," Tursun said in a statement read by a translator. "I don’t remember the rest. White foam came out of my mouth, and I began to lose consciousness," Tursun said. "The last word I heard them saying is that you being an Uighur is a crime." She was eventually released so that she could take her children to Egypt, but she was ordered to return to China. Once in Cairo, Tursun contacted U.S. authorities and, in September, came to the United States and settled in Virginia.[153]

The authorities attempt to indoctrinate people in settings that resemble military prisons. Detainees endure physical and mental torture to suppress dissident religious beliefs and separatist movements. Former inmates claim that they are "forced to study communist propaganda for hours and give thanks to the general secretary (paramount leader) by chanting 'Long live Xi Jinping'",[154] as well as learn to sing the national anthem of China and communist songs. Punishments, like being placed in handcuffs for hours, waterboarding, or being strapped to "tiger chair" (a metal contraption) for long periods of time, are used on those who fail to follow.[155][156]

According to detainees, they were also forced to drink alcohol and eat pork, which are forbidden in Islam.[157][24][158] Some detainees receive unknown medicines and others attempted suicide.[159] The side effects of those treatments can be very serious, sometimes even causing scholars like Muhammad Salih Haji's,[160][161] Dolkun Isa's mother Ayhan Memet's[162][163] and other people's deaths in these facilities.[164][165][166] [167]

Public reactions[edit]

International reactions[edit]

NPR reported that "Kazakhstan and its neighbors in the mostly Muslim region of Central Asia that have benefited from Chinese investment aren't speaking up for the Muslims inside internment camps in China".[168]

On 10 September 2017, Human Rights Watch released a report that said "The Chinese government should immediately free people held in unlawful 'political education' centers in Xinjiang and shut them down."[79]

In November 2017, Kazakhstan's Ambassador to China Shahrat Nuryshev met with Chinese Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs Li Huilai regarding Kazakh diaspora issues.[169]

On 15 February 2018, Kazakh Foreign Minister Kairat Abdrakhmanov sent a diplomatic note to the Chinese Foreign Ministry, the same day Samarkand, a Kazakhstan citizen, was released from re-education camp. From 17 to 19 April, Kazakh First Deputy Foreign Minister Mukhtar Tleuberdi visited Xinjiang to meet with local officials.[151]

On 3 April 2018, U.S. Senator Marco Rubio and Representative Chris Smith sent a letter urging Ambassador to China Terry Branstad to launch an investigation into the reported mass detention of Uyghurs in political re-education camps in Xinjiang.[170][171][172][173]

On 21 May 2018, during the resumed session of the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations in UN, Kelley Currie, the U.S. representative to the U.N. for economic and social affairs, raised the mass detention of Uyghurs in re-education camps, and she said that "reports of mass incarcerations in the Xinjiang were documented by looking at Chinese procurement requests on Chinese websites requesting Chinese companies to tender offers to build political re-education camps".[174][175]

On 3 July 2018, at UK Parliamentary roundtable, the Rights Practice helped to organise a Parliamentary Round-table on increased repression and forced assimilation in Xinjiang. Rahima Mahmut, an Uyghur singer and human rights activist, gave a personal testimony about the violations suffered by the Uyghur community. Dr. Adrian Zenz, European School of Culture and Theology, (Germany), outlined the evidence of a large scale and sophisticated political re-education network designed to detain people for long periods of time and which the Chinese government officially denies.[176]

On 26 July 2018, Vice President of the United States Mike Pence raised the re-education camps issue at Ministerial to Advance Religious Freedom. He said that "Sadly, as we speak as well, Beijing is holding hundreds of thousands, and possibly millions, of Uyghur Muslims in so-called 're-education camps', where they're forced to endure around-the-clock political indoctrination and to denounce their religious beliefs and their cultural identity as the goal."[177][178][179]

On 26 July 2018, the Congressional-Executive Commission on China (CECC), an independent agency of the U.S. government which monitors human rights and rule of law developments in the People's Republic of China, released a report that said as many as a million people are or have been detained in what are being called "political re-education" centers, the largest mass incarceration of an ethnic minority population in the world today.[180][181]

On 27 July 2018, The U.S. Embassy & Consulate in China released Ministerial to Advance Religious Freedom Statement on China, which mentioned the detention of hundreds of thousands, and possibly millions, of Uyghurs and members of other Muslim minority groups in "political re-education camps", and called the Chinese government to release immediately all those arbitrarily detained.[182]

In a July 2018 article, the Foreign Policy reported:

No Muslim nation’s head of state has made a public statement in support of the Uighurs this decade. Politicians and many religious leaders who claim to speak for the faith are silent in the face of China’s political and economic power...Many Muslim governments have strengthened their relationship with China or even gone out of their way to support China’s persecution.[25]

On 10 August 2018, United Nations human rights experts expressed alarm over many credible reports that China had detained a million or more ethnic Uighurs in Xinjiang.[183] Gay McDougall, a member of the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, said that "In the name of combating religious extremism, China had turned Xinjiang into something resembling a massive internment camp, shrouded in secrecy, a sort of no-rights zone".[184][185][186]

On 28 August 2018, U.S. senator Marco Rubio and 16 other members of Congress urged the United States to impose sanctions under the Global Magnitsky Act against Chinese officials who are responsible for human rights abuses in Xinjiang.[187] In a letter to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin, they called for the sanctions on Chen Quanguo who is the current Communist Party Secretary of the Xinjiang (the highest post in an administrative unit of China) and six other Chinese officials and two businesses that make surveillance equipment in Xinjiang.[188][189][190][191]

On 9 September 2018, Human Rights Watch released a 117-page report, "'Eradicating Ideological Viruses': China's Campaign of Repression Against Xinjiang's Muslims",[192] which accused China of the systematic mass detention of tens of thousands of ethnic Uyghurs and other Muslims in political re-education camps without being charged or tried and presented new evidence of the Chinese government's mass arbitrary detention, torture, and mistreatment, and the increasingly pervasive controls on daily life.[193][194] The report also urged foreign governments to pursue a range of multilateral and unilateral actions against China for its actions, including "targeted sanctions" against those responsible.[195]

On 10 September 2018, U.N. human rights chief Michelle Bachelet called on China to ease restrictions on her and her office's team, urging China to allow observers into Xinjiang and expressing concern about the situation there. She said, "The UN rights group had shown that Uighurs and other Muslims are being detained in camps across Xinjiang and I expect discussions with Chinese officials to begin soon".[196][197]

On 11 September 2018, Federica Mogherini, the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, raised the re-education camps issue in European Parliament. She said:

The most outstanding disagreement we have with China concerns the human rights situation in China, as underlined in your Report. We also focused on the situation in Xinjiang, especially the expansion of political re-education camps. And we discussed the detention of human rights defenders, including particular cases.[198]

Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman defended China’s re-education camps.[199]

U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo criticized Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei for his refusal to condemn the Chinese government’s repressions against the Uyghurs.[200]

In 2019, The Art Newspaper reported that "hundreds" of writers, artists, and academics had been imprisoned, in what the magazine qualified as an attempt to "punish any form of religious or cultural expression" among Uighurs.[201] Additionally, The Washington Post published an article about the camps used by China to persecute Uyghurs and make them a minority in their ancestral homeland, the same way China did against Tibetans in Tibet.[202]

In February 2019, the Turkish government denounced China for "violating the fundamental human rights of Uyghur Turks and other Muslim communities in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region."[203]

In February 2019, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman defended camps, saying "China has the right to carry out anti-terrorism and de-extremisation work for its national security."[38][204][205]

In July 2019, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said, “It is a fact that the peoples of China’s Xinjiang region live happily in China’s development and prosperity.”,[206] Erdogan also said camps shouldn't spoil Turkey-China relationship.[207]

Reactions to China's Xinjiang policies
  Against   In Favor   China

In July 2019, 22 countries including U.K., Germany, France, Spain, Canada, Japan and Australia signed a joint letter to the UN Human Rights Council urging China to close the camps in Xinjiang.[45][208] In reaction to this, 50 countries including Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Qatar, UAE, Sudan, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, DRC, North Korea, Russia, Venezuela, Philippines, Myanmar, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Palestine have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC praising China's "remarkable achievements in Xinjiang."[48][45][49]

Chinese government response[edit]

The Chinese government has repeatedly denied the existence of re-education camps in Xinjiang.[209][dubious ]

When international media asked about the re-education camps, China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs said that it "had not heard" of this situation.[210]

On 12 August 2018, a Chinese state-run tabloid, Global Times, defended the crackdown in Xinjiang[211] after a U.N. anti-discrimination committee raised concerns over China's treatment of Uyghurs. According to the Global Times, China prevented Xinjiang from becoming 'China's Syria' or 'China's Libya', and local authorities' policies saved countless lives and avoided a 'great tragedy'.[212][213] Despite this, the editorial did not mention the existence of the re-education camps.[214] The paper published another editorial the day after, titled "Xinjiang policies justified".[215]

On 13 August 2018, at a UN meeting in Geneva, the delegation from China told the UN human rights committee that "There is no such thing as re-education centers in Xinjiang and it is completely untrue that China put 1 million Uyghurs into re-education camps".[216][217][218] A Chinese delegation said that "Xinjiang citizens, including the Uyghurs, enjoy equal freedom and rights." They claimed that "Some minor offenders of religious extremism or separatism have been taken to 'vocational education' and employment training centers with a view to assisting in their rehabilitation".[219]

On 14 August 2018, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Lu Kang said "anti-China forces had made false accusations against China for political purposes and a few foreign media outlets misrepresented the committee's discussions and were smearing China's anti-terror and crime-fighting measures in Xinjiang" after a U.N. human rights committee raised concern over reported mass detentions of ethnic Uyghurs.[220][221]

On 21 August 2018, Liu Xiaoming, the Ambassador of China to the United Kingdom, wrote an article in response to a Financial Times report entitled "Crackdown in Xinjiang: Where have all the people gone?".[222] Liu's response said: "The education and training measures taken by the local government of Xinjiang have not only effectively prevented the infiltration of religious extremism and helped those lost in extremist ideas to find their way back, but also provided them with employment training in order to build a better life."[223]

Some Chinese disagree with the policies towards Xinjiang of the Chinese government. For example, on 10 August 2018, about 47 Chinese intellectuals and others, in exile, issued an appeal against what they describe as "shocking human rights atrocities perpetrated in Xinjiang".[224]

On 10 September 2018, China's Foreign Ministry spokesperson Geng Shuang condemned a report about the re-education camps issued by Human Rights Watch. He said: "This organisation has always been full of prejudice and distorting facts about China." Geng also added that: "Xinjiang is enjoying overall social stability, sound economic development and harmonious co-existence of different ethnic groups. The series of measures implemented in Xinjiang are meant to improve stability, development, solidarity and people’s livelihood, crack down on ethnic separatist activities and violent and terrorist crimes, safeguard national security, and protect people’s life and property."[225][226]

On 11 September 2018, China called for U.N. human rights chief Michelle Bachelet to "respect its sovereignty", after she urged China to allow monitors into Xinjiang and expressed concern about the situation there.[227] Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Geng Shuang said: "China urges the U.N. human rights high commissioner and office to scrupulously abide by the mission and principles of the U.N. charter, respect China's sovereignty, fairly and objectively carry out its duties, and not listen to one-sided information".[228][229][230]

A Radio Free Asia report from 12 December 2018 says that authorities in Xinjiang are 'making preparations' in advance of anticipated eventual international inspection teams visiting, which they anticipate "within weeks".[231] The report received from its source a "confidentiality agreement" that authorities in Awat County are reportedly requiring camp detainees to sign, which states that they will "not discuss the workings of the camps, accept any interviews, or use communication channels such as social media or SMS messaging to disseminate information about the camp system." Violations there-of are subject to "accountability according to related national laws."[231] One interviewee, who chose to be anonymous for fear of reprisals, said that officials have been going house to house, and that "People are taught [by officials] what to say, and they were warned not to mention the difficulties they are facing."[231] The anonymous source says people are told to "praise the [Communist] Party’s policies" and to "say only good things about the government," and that there "may be foreigners among [the inspection teams]," so they should refrain from mentioning anything about re-education camps. Authorities threatened residents that any negative comments could lead to imprisonment or detention in the re-education camps, he added, while those who complain about the situation in the region will have "three generations of their family blacklisted," and the government "will not leave them alone."[231]

On 30 November 2018, Washington-based lawyer and Uyghur activist Nury Turkel said that international pressure has forced China to "deny its brutal treatment and criminalization of the Uyghur people based on their race, religion, culture and traditions," and create a narrative to suggest that Beijing "is doing a favor for the Uyghurs."[232] He has urged the international community "to be extremely cautious of China’s calculated propaganda campaigns to mislead the world while continuing its onslaught on the Uyghur people."[232]

In March 2019, against the background of the US considering imposing sanctions against Chen Quanguo, who is the region's most senior Communist Party official, Xinjiang governor Shohrat Zakir denied the existence of the camps.[233]

On 18 March 2019, the Chinese government released a white paper about the counterterrorism, de-radicalization in Xinjiang. The white paper claims "A country under the rule of law, China respects and protects human rights in accordance with the principles of its Constitution." The white paper also claims Xinjiang has not had violent terrorist cases for more than two consecutive years, extremist penetration has been effectively curbed, and social security has improved significantly.[234]

On July 2019, the Chinese government released another white paper which claims "The Uygur people adopted Islam not of their own volition … but had it forced upon them by religious wars and the ruling class."[235] A Global Times article on 31 July claimed that the re-eduction camps employed "the advanced version of normal social govern" and said the process is "the victory of all the Chinese people including Xinjiang people".[236]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "A Summer Vacation in China's Muslim Gulag". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Arrests skyrocketed in China's Muslim far west in 2017". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  3. ^ a b Zenz, Adrian. "Brainwashing, Police Guards and Coercive Internment: Evidence from Chinese Government Documents about the Nature and Extent of Xinjiang's "Vocational Training Internment Camps"". Journal of Political Risk. 7 (7). Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  4. ^ "China putting minority Muslims in 'concentration camps,' U.S. says". 4 May 2018.
  5. ^ "China claims Muslims detention camps are just 'boarding schools'". The Independent. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  6. ^ "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to put Uighur Muslims in concentration camps". The Daily Telegraph. 22 February 2019.
  7. ^ "China is creating concentration camps in Xinjiang. Here's how we hold it accountable". The Washington Post. 24 November 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  8. ^ "'Permanent cure': Inside the re-education camps China is using to brainwash Muslims". Business Insider. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  9. ^ "China: Big Data Fuels Crackdown in Minority Region". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  10. ^ "China detains thousands of Muslims in re-education camps". Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  11. ^ "High Numbers of Uyghurs Targeted for Re-Education Camps". Voice of America. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  12. ^ "Xinjiang's "transformation through education" camps". Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  13. ^ "Why are Muslim Uyghurs being sent to 're-education' camps". Al Jazeera. 8 June 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  14. ^ "How Should the World Respond to Intensifying Repression in Xinjiang?". 4 June 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  15. ^ "Rights groups criticise sharp rise in arrests in China's Xinjiang province". The Irish Times. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  16. ^ a b "China's reeducation camps for Muslims are beginning to look like concentration camps". Vox. 24 October 2018.
  17. ^ "China steps up surveillance on Xinjiang Muslims". Financial Times. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  18. ^ "Thousands of Uyghur Muslims detained in Chinese 'political education' camps". CNN. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  19. ^ "100 Christians sent to 're-education' camps in Xinjiang". Business Insider. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  20. ^ "Muslims forced to drink alcohol and eat pork in China's're-education'camps, former inmate claims". The Independent. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  21. ^ "Kazakhstan National Missing, Believed Detained in China, Amid Ongoing Crackdown". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  22. ^ "China Uighurs: One million held in political camps, UN told". BBC. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  23. ^ "U.N. says it has credible reports that China holds million Uighurs in secret camps". Reuters. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  24. ^ a b "Former inmates of China's Muslim 'reeducation' camps tell of brainwashing, torture". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  25. ^ a b "Islamic Leaders Have Nothing to Say About China's Internment Camps for Muslims". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  26. ^ "Inside the re-education camps China is using to brainwash muslims". Business Insider. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  27. ^ "What The Inside of One of China's Re-Education Camps Looks Like". NPR. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  28. ^ "Shocking details emerge from China's re-education camps for Muslims". Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  29. ^ "US accuses China of using 'concentration camps' against Muslim minority". 4 May 2018.
  30. ^ "China putting minority Muslims in 'concentration camps,' U.S. says". 4 May 2018.
  31. ^ "In Push for Trade Deal, Trump Administration Shelves Sanctions Over China's Crackdown on Uighurs". 4 May 2018.
  32. ^ Sudworth, John (24 October 2018). "China's hidden camps". BBC News. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  33. ^ Mamtimin Ala (7 November 2018). "Xi Jinping's Genocide of the Uyghurs". Foreign Policy Journal. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  34. ^ "Indigenous Uyghurs: Genocide Case". Center for World Indigenous Studies. 30 January 2018. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  35. ^ "China is creating concentration camps in Xinjiang. Here's how we hold it accountable". The Washington Post. 24 November 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  36. ^ "Q&A with Dolkun Isa, president of the World Uyghur Congress". Deutsche Welle. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  37. ^ "Turkey demands China close camps after reports of musician's death". BBC News. 10 February 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  38. ^ a b "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to put Uighur Muslims in concentration camps". The Daily Telegraph. 22 February 2019.
  39. ^ "Narratives and internment camps in China, US, Israel". Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  40. ^ "22 countries sign letter calling on China to close Xinjiang Uyghur camps". CNN.
  41. ^ "Exclusive: China to invite European diplomats to Xinjiang in new..." Reuters. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  42. ^ "Turkey's Erdogan says solution possible for China's Muslims". Al Jazeera. 4 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  43. ^ "EU rejects China's offer of Xinjiang tour, but is open to one later". South China Morning Post.
  44. ^ "U.S. official denounces 'choreographed' visits for European diplomats to China's Xinjiang region". The Japan Times Online. 24 March 2019.
  45. ^ a b c d "Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?". The Diplomat. 15 July 2019.
  46. ^ "22 countries sign letter calling on China to close Xinjiang Uyghur camps". CNN.
  47. ^ "More than 20 ambassadors condemn China's treatment of Uighurs in Xinjiang | Xinjiang | The Guardian".
  48. ^ a b "Fifty ambassadors throw weight behind China on Xinjiang". Global Times. 27 July 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  49. ^ a b "Saudi Arabia and Russia among 37 states backing China's Xinjiang policy". Reuters. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  50. ^ "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to fight 'terrorism'". Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  51. ^ Wines, Michael (10 July 2009). "A Strongman Is China's Rock in Ethnic Strife". New York Times. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  52. ^ Swain, Jon (12 July 2009). "Security chiefs failed to spot signs calling for Uighur revolt". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 12 July 2009.
  53. ^ "Religious Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 11 April 2005.
  54. ^ "Integrating Islam The Key To 'Modern Culture' In Xinjiang – OpEd". Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  55. ^ "No Tolerance for 'Wild Imams' in China – But 'Weibo Imams' are Thriving". Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  56. ^ "China Detains, Brainwashes 'Wild' Imams Who Step Out of Line in Xinjiang". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  57. ^ "New Evidence for China's Political Re-Education Campaign in Xinjiang". Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  58. ^ "Why is China Banning Baby Names and Beards in Xinjiang?". Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  59. ^ "China Bans Veils and 'Abnormal' Beards in Western Province of Xinjiang". NBC News. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  60. ^ "Police are reportedly cutting too-long dresses off ethnic minority women in the middle of streets in China". Business Insider. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  61. ^ "Chinese authorities accused of cutting Uighur dresses in latest crackdown on Muslim minority". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  62. ^ "Chinese police are reportedly cutting the dresses off of Uighur Muslim women in public". Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  63. ^ "China Uighurs: Xinjiang ban on long beards and veils". BBC. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  64. ^ "China bans burqas and 'abnormal' beards in Muslim province of Xinjiang". The Independent. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  65. ^ "US-China trade war; More on the Xinjiang "re-education" camps". Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  66. ^ "Semi-Autonomous Region of China with Terrorist Ties: Xinjiang and the Uyghur". Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  67. ^ "Xinjiang: China ignores lessons from the past". Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  68. ^ "New Evidence for China's Political Re-Education Campaign in Xinjiang". Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  69. ^ "List of Government Bids Related to Re-Education Facilities". Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  70. ^ "Tibetan self-immolators dismissed as 'criminals' by Chinese officials". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 March 2012.
  71. ^ "Chen Quanguo: The Strongman Behind Beijing's Securitization Strategy in Tibet and Xinjiang - Jamestown". Jamestown. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  72. ^ "A Surveillance State Unlike Any the World Has Ever Seen". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  73. ^ 英媒:新疆铁腕控制 汉人也叫苦连天. BBC. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  74. ^ "New Evidence for China's Political Re-Education Campaign in Xinjiang". Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  75. ^ a b "How a Chinese region that accounts for just 1.5% of the population became one of the most intrusive police states in the world". Business Insider. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  76. ^ a b "China Xinjiang police state: Fear and resentment". BBC. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  77. ^ a b "China: one in five arrests take place in 'police state' Xinjiang". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  78. ^ "China has turned Xinjiang into a police state like no other". The Economist. 31 May 2018. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  79. ^ a b "China: Free Xinjiang 'Political Education' Detainees". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  80. ^ "International Attention on 'Crimes Against Humanity' in Xinjiang". China Digital Times. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  81. ^ "Uyghurs Afraid to Speak Out Due to Government Repression". Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  82. ^ "Xinjiang strengthens security, the number of arrests has soared". Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  83. ^ "Xinjiang sentenced 7 times more than the previous year". Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  84. ^ "Human rights organization: Xinjiang arrested more Uighurs in 2017". Radio France Internationale. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  85. ^ "List of Government Bids Related to Re-Education Facilities". Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  86. ^ "What's happening to Xinjiang's Uighur Muslims?". BBC. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  87. ^ "A Summer Vacation in China's Muslim Gulag". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  88. ^ "Muslims in China province detained in 're-education camps'". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  89. ^ "Chen Quanguo: The Strongman Behind Beijing's Securitization Strategy in Tibet and Xinjiang". Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  90. ^ "Passports taken, more police ... new party boss Chen Quanguo acts to tame Xinjiang with methods used in Tibet". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  91. ^ "A Political Economist on How China Sees Trump's Trade War | The New Y…". 23 May 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  92. ^ Phillips, Tom (25 January 2018). "China 'holding at least 120,000 Uighurs in re-education camps'". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  93. ^ "China suggests its camps for Uighurs are just vocational schools". The Economist. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  94. ^ "Approval opinion for the environmental impact report on Atush vocational skills training center project". Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  95. ^ "Patriotic songs and self-criticism: why China is 're-educating' Muslims in mass detention camps". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  96. ^ "China's Mass Internment Camps Have No Clear End in Sight". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  97. ^ a b "Chinese blogger documents the construction of 31 new mass re-education camps in Xinjiang". Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  98. ^ Li, Zaili (12 November 2018). "Camps for Uyghurs, "schools" or jails?". Bitter Winter. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  99. ^ Introvigne, Massimo (26 November 2018). "Another "Transformation Through Education" Camp for Uyghurs Exposed in Xinjiang". Bitter Winter. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  100. ^ Introvigne, Massimo (11 December 2018). "Yingye'er Re-education Camp Managed Like Prison". Bitter Winter. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  101. ^ Ma, Alexandra (27 November 2018). "Shocking footage purportedly shows cells inside prison camp where China oppresses Muslim minority". Business Insider. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  102. ^ "list of government bids related to re-education facilities". Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  103. ^ "Kargilik County government bid". Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  104. ^ "UBC student Shawn Zhang uses satellite images to track suspected Chinese re-education centres where Uyghurs imprisoned". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  105. ^ "Is China building 'political re-education' camps for Muslim minorities?". Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  106. ^ "Activists target China's human-rights record with new ad campaign in Vancouver". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  107. ^ "Law student locates suspected Uyghurs re-education camps in China with satellite imagery". Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  108. ^ Zhang, Shawn (20 May 2018). "List of Re-education Camps in Xinjiang 新疆再教育集中营列表". Medium.
  109. ^ Ruser, Fergus Ryan, Danielle Cave, Nathan. "Mapping Xinjiang's 're-education' camps". Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  110. ^ "ASPI ICPC Xinjiang re-education camp database". Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  111. ^ Wen, Phillip; Auyezov, Olzhas (29 November 2018). Hirschberg1-last, Scarr2-last, Peter; Simon Scarr (eds.). "Tracking China's Muslim Gulag". Reuters. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  112. ^ "Knocking the door of the mind with emotion, use reasons to ease the mood of the people". Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  113. ^ "The Repression of Uyghurs Is Now an All-Out War Against a People". Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  114. ^ "China's re-education camps for a million Muslims: What everyone needs to know". Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  115. ^ "China tightens grip on Xinjiang region: Report". Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  116. ^ "What Really Happens in China's 'Re-education' Camps". Business Insider. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  117. ^ "China Operates Political and Ideological Re-Education Camps in Xinjiang". Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  118. ^ "Re-education camps make a comeback in China's far-west". Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  119. ^ "RFA: 120,000 Uyghurs Held in Kashgar for Re-education". China Digital Times. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  120. ^ "China's reeducation camps". Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  121. ^ "Human Rights Activists Say Xinjiang Uighur Reeducation Camps Overflowing". Sputnik News Agency. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  122. ^ "$9 Billion Spent on Surveillance Tech in Xinjiang in 2017". Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  123. ^ "One in 10 Uyghur Residents of Xinjiang Township Jailed or Detained in 'Re-Education Camp'". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  124. ^ "Xinjiang Police Sends Dozens of Muslims to "Re-Education" Camps". Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  126. ^ "A New Gulag in China". National Review. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  127. ^ "'More Than 30' Relatives of Uyghur Exile Leader Rebiya Kadeer Detained in Xinjiang". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  128. ^ "Uyghur Activist Rebiya Kadeer's Relatives Detained". China Digital Times. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  130. ^ "Overcrowded Political Re-Education Camps in Hotan Relocate Hundreds of Uyghur Detainees". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  131. ^ "Kazakh Trial Sheds Light on Interned Chinese Muslims". Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  132. ^ "China's 'prison-like re-education camps' strain relations with Kazakhstan as woman asks Kazakh court not to send her back". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  133. ^ "Kazakhstan-China deportation case sparks trial of public opinion". Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  134. ^ "China's 'prison-like re-education camps' strain relations with Kazakhstan as woman asks Kazakh court not to send her back". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  135. ^ "Ethnic Kazakh's life in balance as deportation to China looms". Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  136. ^ "Sayragul Sauytbay, 41, an ethnic Kazakh Chinese national and former employee of the Chinese state in Kazakh court". Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  137. ^ "Kazakh trial throws spotlight on China's internment centres". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  138. ^ "Chinese 'reeducation camps' in spotlight at Kazakh trial". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  139. ^ "Kazakh court frees woman who fled Chinese re-education camp". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  140. ^ "Sauytbay Trial Ends in Kazakhstan With Surprising Release". Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  141. ^ "Cheers as Kazakh court thwarts deportation of Chinese woman who fled 're-education camp' in Xinjiang". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  142. ^ "Database of Xinjiang Victims". Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  143. ^ "Judicial Bureau official: In Bulaksu township 2514 people were imprisoned and 806 people were sent to reeducation centers". www Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  144. ^ "Judicial Bureau official: In Bulaksu township 1731 people were imprisoned and 1721 people were sent to reeducation centers". Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  145. ^ "Police Station: "We approximately sent 5000 people to the reeducation centers"". www Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  146. ^ "Police: "In this county approximately 22,000 people are in reeducation centers"". Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  147. ^ "Police: "There has 4 reeducation centers in this county and currently 30,000 people are in education centers"". Retrieved 20 August 2018.
  148. ^ "Keriya County Police: "Almost 30 thousand people are in reeducation centers"". Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  149. ^ "Keriya County official: "seven people who currently have bank loans died in reeducation centers"". (in Uyghur). Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  150. ^ a b "Xinjiang Authorities Arrest Uyghur Court Official Who Denounced Political Re-education Camps". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  151. ^ a b "Kazakh Man Recounts 'Reeducation' In Western Chinese Camp". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  152. ^ "Muslim inmates in China detention camp forced to eat pork, drink alcohol and physically tortured as some commit suicide". Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  153. ^ "Woman describes torture, beatings in Chinese detention camp". Associated Press News. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  154. ^ "China Has Been Forcing Muslims To Drink Alcohol And Eat Pork In 'Reeducation Camps'". 18 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  155. ^ "Former inmates of China's Muslim 'reeducation' camps tell of brainwashing, torture". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  156. ^ "NGO reports custodial deaths, tortures in China's Xinjiang". Business Standard. 24 August 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  157. ^ "Muslims forced to drink alcohol and eat pork in China's 're-education' camps". The Independent. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  158. ^ "China Has Been Forcing Muslims To Drink Alcohol And Eat Pork in Reeducation Camps". 18 May 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  159. ^ "Former detainees recount abuse in Chinese re-education centres". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  160. ^ "Chinese torture allegedly kills Islamic scholar". Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  161. ^ "Uyghur Human Rights Project Condemns Death in Custody of Scholar Muhammad Salih Hajim". Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  163. ^ "Uyghur Exile Group Leader's Mother Died in Xinjiang Detention Center". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
  164. ^ "Elderly Uyghur Woman Dies in Detention in Xinjiang 'Political Re-Education Camp'". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  165. ^ "Uyghur Teenager Dies in Custody at Political Re-Education Camp". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  166. ^ "Uyghur Man Buried Amid Strict Security After Latest Xinjiang Reeducation Camp Death". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  167. ^ "A Uyghur Muslims die in re-education camps, go crazy in psychiatric hospitals". Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  168. ^ "Families Of The Disappeared: A Search For Loved Ones Held In China's Xinjiang Region". NPR. 12 November 2018.
  169. ^ "Carefully, Kazakhstan Confronts China About Kazakhs in Xinjiang Re-Education Camps". Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  170. ^ "Chairs Urge Ambassador Branstad to Prioritize Mass Detention of Uyghurs, Including Family Members of Radio Free Asia Employees". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  171. ^ "U.S. Lawmakers Call for Probe into Uyghur Detentions". China Digital Times. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  172. ^ "US Senator Marco Rubio calls For Investigation of Incarcerations and Surveillance of Uyghurs". Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  173. ^ "US Lawmakers Call For Investigation of Mass Incarcerations, Surveillance of Uyghurs in Xinjiang". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  174. ^ "US Rejects China's Request For UN to Cut Ties With NGO Linked to Exiled Uyghur Leader". 22 March 2018.
  175. ^ "U.S. Once Jailed Uighurs, Now Defends Them at U.N." 25 March 2018.
  176. ^ "K Parliamentary Roundtable on Xinjiang". Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  177. ^ "Remarks by Vice President Pence at Ministerial To Advance Religious Freedom". White House. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  178. ^ "Religious Freedom forum draws attention to persecution, false imprisonment and re-education camps". The Washington Times. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  179. ^ "Secretary of State Mike Pompeo: Religious persecution in Iran, China must end now". USA Today. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  180. ^ "Surveillance, Suppression, and Mass Detention: Xinjiang's Human Rights Crisis". Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  181. ^ "Congressional Hearing: US Tech Giants Fueling Emerging Xinjiang Human Rights Disaster". 29 July 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  182. ^ "Ministerial to Advance Religious Freedom Statement on China". Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  183. ^ Cumming-Bruce, Nick (10 August 2018). "U.N. Panel Confronts China Over Reports That It Holds a Million Uighurs in Camps". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  184. ^ "UN Expert: China Holds Millions of Ethnic Uighurs in 'Re-Education Camps'". 15 August 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  185. ^ "We can't ignore this brutal cleansing in Chin". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  186. ^ "Credible reports China holds 1 million Uighurs in 'massive internment camp' – UN". The Irish Times. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  187. ^ "Group of U.S. lawmakers urges China sanctions over Xinjiang abuses". Reuters. Reuters. 30 August 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  188. ^ "Lawmakers urge Trump administration to sanction China over Muslim crackdown". ABC News. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  189. ^ "American Lawmakers Push to Sanction Chinese Officials Over Xinjiang Camps". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  190. ^ "India Times: US lawmakers call for sanctions over Xinjiang camps". The Times of India. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  191. ^ "US lawmakers call for sanctions over Xinjiang camps". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  192. ^ "Eradicating Ideological Viruses: China's Campaign of Repression Against Xinjiang's Muslims". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  193. ^ "China: Massive Crackdown in Muslim Region". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  194. ^ "Interview: China's Crackdown on Turkic Muslims". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  195. ^ "Human Rights Watch Assails Chinese Treatment of Muslim Uyghur Minority". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  196. ^ "New UN Rights Chief Takes on China, Other Powers". Voice of America. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  197. ^ "U.N. rights chief Bachelet takes on China, other powers in first speech". Reuters. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  198. ^ "Speech by HR/VP Mogherini at the plenary session of the European Parliament on the state of the EU-China relations". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  199. ^ "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to fight 'terrorism'". al-Jazeera. 23 February 2019.
  200. ^ "Iran's Careful Approach to China's Uyghur Crackdown". The Diplomat. 18 September 2018.
  201. ^ "Movius, Lisa. "'Hundreds' of cultural figures caught up in China's Uyghur persecution". The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  202. ^ "The West Ignored Crimes Against Humanity in the 1930s; It's Happening Again Now". The Washington Post.
  203. ^ "Why Is Turkey Breaking Its Silence on China's Uyghurs?". The Diplomat. 12 February 2019.
  204. ^ "Saudi Arabia's Mohammed bin Salman Defends China's Use of Concentration Camps for Muslims During Visit to Beijing". Newsweek. 22 February 2019.
  205. ^ "Saudi crown prince defended China's imprisonment of a million Muslims in internment camps, giving Xi Jinping a reason to continue his 'precursors to genocide'". Business Insider. 23 February 2019.
  206. ^ "China says Turkey president offered support over restive Xinjiang". Reuters. 2 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  207. ^ "Erdogan says Xinjiang camps shouldn't spoil Turkey-China relationship". CNN. 2 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  208. ^ Cumming-Bruce, Nick (10 July 2019). "China Rebuked by 22 Nations Over Xinjiang Repression". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  209. ^ "China's 'Re-Education Camps' For Muslims Expand, Echo Cultural Revolution". Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  210. ^ "Reeducation Returns to China". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  211. ^ "Protecting peace, stability is top of human rights agenda for Xinjiang". Global Times. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  212. ^ "China newspaper defends Xinjiang Muslim crackdown". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  213. ^ "China has prevented 'great tragedy' in Xinjiang, state-run paper says". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  214. ^ "China has prevented 'great tragedy' in Xinjiang, state-run paper says". Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  215. ^ "Xinjiang policies justified". Global Times. 13 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  216. ^ "China flat out denies the mass incarceration of Xinjiang's Uyghurs as testimonies trickle out". Quartz. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  217. ^ "China says claims 1 million Uyghurs put in camps 'completely untrue'". CNN. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  218. ^ "China Uighurs: Beijing denies detaining one million". BBC. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  219. ^ "China denies violating minority rights amid detention claims". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  220. ^ "China Denies Detaining One Million Uighurs in 'Re-education' Camps". Time. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  221. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Lu Kang answered questions from reporters". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  222. ^ "Crackdown in Xinjiang: Where have all the people gone?". Financial Times. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  223. ^ "Harmony in Xinjiang Is Based on Three Principles". Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  224. ^ "A Call for a UN Investigation, And US Sanctions, On The Human Rights Disaster Unfolding in Xinjiang". China Change. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  225. ^ "China calls Human Rights Watch 'full of prejudice' after criticism of Xinjiang policy". Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  226. ^ "China says Human Rights Watch report on Xinjiang suppression 'full of prejudice and distorted facts'". Hongkong Free Press. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  227. ^ "China tells U.N. rights chief to respect its sovereignty after Xinjiang comments". Reuters. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  228. ^ "China urges UN human rights chief Michelle Bachelet to respect its sovereignty after comments on Xinjiang". Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  229. ^ "China Tells U.N. Rights Chief to Respect Its Sovereignty After Xinjiang Comments". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  230. ^ "China to UN rights chief Bachelet: 'Respect our sovereignty'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  231. ^ a b c d "Xinjiang Authorities 'Preparing' Re-education Camps Ahead of Expected International Monitors". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  232. ^ a b Seytoff, Alim; Lipes, Joshua. "Exile Leaders Slam China Claims of 'Vocational Training' For Detained Uyghurs in Xinjiang". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  233. ^ "China claims Muslims detention camps are just 'boarding schools'". The Independent. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  234. ^ "China strikes at terrorism, extremism in accordance with law: white paper". 18 March 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  235. ^ "Xinjiang Uygurs didn't choose to be Muslims, China says". South China Morning Post. 21 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  236. ^ "大量教培学员结业,新疆局势软着陆". Global Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 1 August 2019.

External links[edit]