1099 papal election
Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See
|Dates and location|
|13 August 1099|
Name taken: Paschal II
Death of Urban II
Urban II died in Rome on 29 July 1099 - two weeks before the soldiers of the First Crusade won Jerusalem, however, news of which arrived in Rome after his death. During this time, the schism initiated by Antipope Clement III, with the support of the Empire and much of the Roman clergy, was ongoing.
The election in 1099 was probably the last which was compliant with preference of cardinal-bishops as contained in the papal bull, In nomine Domini of 1059. It is known, however, that the cardinal-priests and cardinal-deacons also participated.
The election was attended by five of the six cardinal bishops and one bishop, who acted as a substitute for the Cardinal Bishop of Sabina. This office was vacant from 1094 years, and the territory of the Diocese of Sabina supporters controlled the antipope Clement III.
- Walter of Albano (cardinal-bishop from 1091) - Cardinal-bishop of Albano
- Odon de Chatillon (1095) - Cardinal-bishop of Ostia
- Milo from Angers (1095) - Cardinal-bishop of Palestrina
- Maurice (1097) - Cardinal-bishop of Porto
- Bovo (1099) - Cardinal-bishop of Tusculum
- Offo - Cardinal-bishop of Nepi
In August 1099, in obedience Urban II was only ten cardinal-priests and three cardinal-deacons, but probably no more than seven cardinal-priests and three cardinal-deacons participated in the election:
- Ranierius (1078)[notes 1] - Cardinal-priest of basilica of San Clemente, abbot of the basilica of Saint Lawrence outside the Walls
- Benedict (1080) - Cardinal-priest of Santa Pudenziana
- Alberto. Archbishop of Siponto (1090) - Cardinal-priest of Santa Sabina
- Teuzo (1090) - Cardinal-priest of Santi Giovanni e Paolo
- Giovanni da Piacenza (1096) - Cardinal-priest[notes 2]
- Benedict (1098) - Cardinal-priest of Santi Silvestro e Martino ai Monti
- Peter (1098) - Cardinal-priest of Santa Sisto
- Jean de Bourgogne (1098) - Cardinal-priest of Basilica di Sant'Anastasia al Palatino
- Giovanni Coniulo (1088) - Cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church
- Docibilis (1099) - Cardinal-deacon[notes 2]
- Pagano (1099) - Cardinal-deacon of Santa Maria Nuova
The cardinal-deacons present were probably the Palatine deacons, assistants to the Pope whose Cathedra is located in the Archbasilica of St John Lateran, which numbered up to six deacons. The twelve regional deacons joined the rank of cardinals only under Paschal II.
One cardinal-bishop and at least three cardinal-priests were absent during the election.
- Richard de Saint-Victor (1078) - Cardinal-priest[notes 2] and Abbot of Saint-Victor, Marseille and Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls and papal legate in southern France and Spain
- Oderisio de Marsi (Cardinal-deacon 1059, Cardinal-priest 1088) - Cardinal-priest[notes 3] and abbot of Monte Cassino
- Bernard degli Uberti, (1099) - Cardinal-Priest of San Crisogono, abbot of Vallombrosa Abbey, Superior General of the Vallumbrosan Order
Election of Paschal II
On 13 August 1099 the cardinals in the presence of the lower clergy and representatives of the city authorities unanimously elected Ranieirus, the cardinal-priest of San Clemente and abbot of the Basilica of Saint Lawrence outside the Walls as successor to Urban II. The new pope initially protested against this decision, stating that he was only a humble monk unfamiliar with the political problems attached to the office of Pope, but relented and accepted their decision. He took the Papal name Paschal II. On the next day he was consecrated Bishop of Rome by Cardinal-bishop of Ostia Eudes of Chatillon, who was assisted by other Cardinal-bishops and Offo, Cardinal-bishop of Nepi.
- Appointment date is approximate
- Titular church unknown
- Titular church unknown, believed to be Santa Cecilia
- Klewitz, Hans Walter, Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg, Darmstadt 1957
- Huls, Rudolf, Kardinal, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, Tübingen 1977
- Loughlin, James F. Pope Paschal II, Catholic Encyclopedia, (last accessed 21/12/2007)
- Dopierała, Kazimierz The Book of the Popes, Ed. Pallotinum, Poznan 1996, pp. 160
- Miranda, Salvador. "Election of August 10 to 14, 1099 (Paschal II)". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Florida International University.
- Robinson, I.S., The Papacy 1073-1198. Continuity and Innovations, Cambridge University Press 1990