1794 in science
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- Antonio Scarpa publishes Tabulae neurologicae ad illustrandam historiam cardiacorum nervorum, noni nervorum cerebri, glossopharingei et pharingei, the first work to give an accurate depiction of cardiac innervation, and to include the discovery that the inner ear is filled with fluid.
- Ernst Chladni publishes Über den Ursprung der von Pallas gefundenen und anderer ihr ähnlicher Eisenmassen und über einige damit in Verbindung stehende Naturerscheinungen ("On the Origin of the Pallas Iron and Others Similar to it, and on Some Associated Natural Phenomena") in which he proposes that meteorites have their origins in outer space.
- Completion of the Radcliffe Observatory for the University of Oxford, Thomas Hornsby being the first observer.
- Erasmus Darwin publishes the first edition of Zoonomia, a medical work in two volumes that touches upon proto-evolutionary concepts, notably arguing that all extant organisms are descended from one common ancestor. The work will later influence his grandson, Charles Darwin.
- Lazzaro Spallanzani publishes his conclusion that bats use a means other than sight for locating themselves in darkness.
- Adrien-Marie Legendre publishes Éléments de géométrie, which becomes a popular textbook for many years.
- Jurij Vega publishes Thesaurus Logarithmorum Completus, a book of mathematical tables which reaches its 90th edition in 1924.
Physiology and medicine
- October 31 – John Dalton delivers a pioneering paper on colour blindness (a condition which he inherited) to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society in England a few weeks after joining.
- December – Glasgow Royal Infirmary first opens in Scotland.
- Thomas Beddoes with James Watt publish Considerations on the Medicinal Use and on the Production of Factitious Airs in Bristol.
- March 14 – Eli Whitney receives a patent for his cotton gin in the United States.
- Journal des Mines first published in Paris by l'Agence des mines de la République.
- The École centrale des travaux publics is founded by Lazare Carnot and Gaspard Monge in Paris under the National Convention in Revolutionary France; a year later it becomes the École Polytechnique.
- The Musée des Arts et Métiers is established in Paris.
- May 24 – William Whewell, scientist, English philosopher, and historian of science (died 1866)
- May 29 – Johann Heinrich von Mädler, German astronomer (died 1874)
- August 15 – Elias Magnus Fries, Swedish botanist (died 1878)
- September 24 – Jeanne Villepreux-Power, French marine biologist (died 1871)
- October 6 – Charles Wilkins Short, American botanist (died 1863)
- October 28 – Robert Liston, Scottish surgeon (died 1847)
- Ferdinand Deppe, German naturalist, explorer and painter (died 1861)
- Friedrich Freese, German botanist (died 1878)
- February 22 – Caspar Friedrich Wolff, German physiologist (born 1733)
- February 27 – Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, French bridge engineer (born 1708)
- March 28 – Marquis de Condorcet, French mathematician (born 1743)
- May 8 – Antoine Lavoisier, French chemist (born 1743) (guillotined)
- October 28 – John Smeaton, English civil engineer (born 1724)
- Acierno, Louis J. (1994). The History of Cardiology. Informa Health Care. ISBN 1-85070-339-6.
- Jahn, Anthony F.; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph, eds. (2001). Physiology of the Ear. Thomson Delmar Learning. ISBN 1-56593-994-8.
- Williams, Henry Smith (1904). "5". A History of Science. 3. Harper. pp. 168ff. ISBN 0-250-40142-8.
- Spallanzani, Lazzaro (1794). Lettere sopra il sospetto di un nuovo senso nei pipistrelli (Letters on the suspicion of a new sense in bats). Turin: Stamperia Reale (in Italian).
- Dalton, J. (1798). "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours; with observations". Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. 5: 28–45.
- Stansfield, Dorothy A.; Ronald G. (1986). "Dr Thomas Beddoes and James Watt: Preparatory Work 1794–96 for the Bristol Pneumatic Institute". Medical History. 30 (3): 276–302. doi:10.1017/s0025727300045713. PMC 1139651. PMID 3523076.
- Later numbered as X72.
- Accès en ligne du Journal et des Annales des mines 1794-1881.