1820 and 1821 United States House of Representatives elections

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1820 and 1821 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1818 / 1819 July 3, 1820 – August 10, 1821 1822 / 1823 →

All 187[a] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
94 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  PPBarbour.jpg LMcLane.jpg
Leader Philip Barbour Louis McLane
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Leader's seat Virginia 11th Delaware at-large
Last election 160 seats 26 seats
Seats won 155[a] 32
Seat change Decrease 5 Increase 6

Speaker before election

John W. Taylor
Democratic-Republican

Elected Speaker

Philip Barbour
Democratic-Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 17th Congress took place in the various states between July 3, 1820 (Louisiana) and August 10, 1821 (Tennessee). In four states (Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi) the election coincided with the taking of the 4th Census (August 7, 1820). Future enumerations would henceforth be held at a different time of year.

James Monroe won reelection and the Era of Good Feelings, a period of near-complete dominance of national politics by the Democratic-Republican Party, continued after this campaign. However, the Democratic-Republicans lost a small number of seats, due to growing discontent in some urban, eastern areas. However, the huge Democratic-Republican majority remained intact and the Federalist Party started to become increasingly fragmented.

Election summaries[edit]

One seat was added during this Congress for the new State of Missouri[1]

155 32
Democratic-Republican Federalist
State Type ↑ Date Total
seats
Democratic-Republican Federalist
Seats Change Seats Change
Louisiana At-large July 3–5, 1820 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois At-large August 7, 1820 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana At-large August 7, 1820 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky Districts August 7, 1820 10 10 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large August 7–8, 1820 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire At-large August 18, 1820 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri At-large August 28, 1820 1 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 29, 1820 2 2 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District September 5, 1820[b] 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 2, 1820 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland Districts October 2, 1820 9 6 Steady 3 Steady
Delaware At-large October 3, 1820 2 1 Steady 1 Steady
South Carolina Districts October 9–10, 1820 9 9 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio Districts October 10, 1820 6 6 Increase1 0 Decrease1
Pennsylvania Districts October 10, 1820 23 15 Decrease4 8 Increase4
Massachusetts Districts November 6, 1820[c] 13[d] 6 Decrease1[e] 7 Increase1[e]
Maine[f] Districts November 7, 1820[g] 7 5 Decrease1[h] 2 Increase1[h]
New Jersey At-large November 7, 1820 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Late elections (after the March 4, 1821 beginning of the term)
Virginia Districts April 1821 23 21 Increase1 2 Decrease1
Connecticut At-large April 2, 1821 7 7 Steady 0 Steady
New York Districts April 24–26, 1821 27 19 Decrease2 8 Increase2
Alabama At-large August 5–6, 1821 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina Districts August 9, 1821 13 12 Increase2 1 Decrease2
Tennessee Districts August 9–10, 1821 6 5[i] Decrease1 0 Steady
Total[a] 187 155
82.9%
Decrease5 32
17.1%
Increase6
House seats
Democratic-Republican
82.89%
Federalist
17.11%

Special elections[edit]

There were special elections in 1820 and 1821 to the 16th United States Congress and 17th United States Congress.

Special elections are sorted by date then district.

16th Congress[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 17 James Pleasants Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent resigned December 14, 1819 when elected U.S. Senator.
New member elected January 3, 1820.[2]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated January 18, 1820.[3]
Successor later re-elected in the April 1821 election to the next term, see below.
New Jersey at-large John Condit Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent resigned November 4, 1819 to become assistant collector of the Port of New York.[3]
New member elected February 2, 1820.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated February 16, 1820.[3]
Successor was not a candidate in the November 7, 1820 election for the next term, see below.
Virginia 10 George F. Strother Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent resigned February 10, 1820 to become as Receiver of Public Monies in St. Louis, Missouri.
New member elected in August 1820.[5]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated November 13, 1820.[3]
Successor later re-elected in the April 1821 election to the next term, see below.
Virginia 1 James Pindall Federalist 1817 Incumbent resigned July 6, 1820.
New member elected sometime in 1820.[6]
Democratic-Republican gain.
Successor seated November 13, 1820.[3]
Successor later re-elected in the April 1821 election to the next term, see below.
Virginia 20 James Johnson Democratic-Republican 1813 Incumbent resigned when appointed as collector of customs in Norfolk.
New member elected sometime in 1820.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated November 13, 1820.[3]
Successor later lost re-election in the April 1821 election to the next term, see below.
Kentucky 9 Tunstall Quarles Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent resigned June 15, 1820.
New member elected August 7, 1820.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor was also elected to the next term, see below.
Successor seated November 13, 1820.[3]
Kentucky 6 David Walker Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent died March 1, 1820.
New member elected August 7, 1820.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor was also elected to the next term, see below.
Successor seated November 13, 1820.[3]
Massachusetts 13 Edward Dowse Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent resigned.
New member elected August 21, 1820.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor later re-elected in the November 6, 1820 election to the next term, see below.
Successor seated November 13, 1820.[3]
Pennsylvania 5 David Fullerton Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent resigned May 15, 1820.
New member elected October 10, 1820.
Federalist gain.
Successor was not a candidate in the same day's election for the next term, see below.
Successor seated November 13, 1820.[3]
Massachusetts 1 Jonathan Mason Federalist 1817 (Special) Incumbent resigned May 15, 1820 to pursue his law practice.
New member elected on the second ballot November 6, 1820.
Democratic-Republican gain.[j]
Successor also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
Successor seated November 27, 1820.[3]
First ballot (October 23, 1820):

Second ballot (November 6, 1820):
Maine at-large John Holmes Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent's seat moved from Massachusetts's 14th district but incumbent resigned when elected U.S. Senator.
New member elected November 7, 1820.
Federalist gain.
Successor also elected the same day in the 1st district to the next term, see below.
Successor seated December 11, 1820.[3]
Massachusetts 8 Zabdiel Sampson Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent resigned July 26, 1820.
New member elected November 24, 1820 on the second ballot.
Successor seated December 18, 1820.[3]
Successor was already elected to the next term, see below.
First ballot (October 16, 1820):

Second ballot (November 24, 1820):
  • Aaron Hobart (Democratic-Republican) 68.7%
  • Scattering 31.3%
Pennsylvania 7 Joseph Hiester Democratic-Republican 1798
1804 (Retired)
1814
Incumbent resigned in December 1820 when elected Governor of Pennsylvania.
New member elected December 10, 1820.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor had not been a candidate in the October 10, 1820 election for the next term, see below.
Successor seated January 8, 1821.[3]
North Carolina 4 Jesse Slocumb Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent died December 20, 1820.
New member elected February 7, 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated February 7, 1821.[3]
Successor later re-elected in the August 9, 1821 election to the next term, see below.

17th Congress[edit]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 7 George Robertson Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent resigned sometime before the start of the new Congress.
New member elected August 6, 1821.[12]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 3, 1821.[13]
New Jersey at-large John Linn Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent died January 5, 1821.
New member elected October 8, 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 3, 1821.[13]
Ohio 4 John C. Wright Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent member-elect declined to serve in the next term and resigned March 3, 1821.
New member elected October 9, 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 3, 1821.[13]
Pennsylvania 5 James Duncan Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent resigned in April 1821.
New member elected October 9, 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 12, 1821.[13]
Pennsylvania 10 William Cox Ellis Federalist 1820 Incumbent resigned July 20, 1821.
New member elected October 9, 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 12, 1821.[13]
New York 6 Selah Tuthill Democratic-Republican 1821 Incumbent died September 7, 1821.
New member elected November 6–8, 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 3, 1821.[13]
South Carolina 9 John S. Richards Democratic-Republican 1820 Member-elect declined to serve.
New member elected sometime in 1821.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 3, 1821.[13]
Kentucky 8 Wingfield Bullock Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent died October 13, 1821.
New member elected November 22, 1821.[16]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated January 2, 1822.[13]

Alabama[edit]

Alabama elected its member August 5–6, 1821, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama at-large John Crowell Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Connecticut[edit]

Connecticut elected its members April 2, 1821, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large
7 seats on a general ticket
James Stevens Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Jonathan O. Moseley Democratic-Republican 1804 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Gideon Tomlinson Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Elisha Phelps Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Russ Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Henry W. Edwards Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel A. Foot Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Delaware[edit]

Delaware elected its members October 3, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Louis McLane Federalist 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Willard Hall Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Georgia[edit]

Georgia elected its members October 2, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Robert R. Reid Democratic-Republican 1819 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Joel Crawford Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Joel Abbot Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
John A. Cuthbert Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William Terrell Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Thomas W. Cobb Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Illinois[edit]

Illinois elected its member August 7, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois at-large Daniel P. Cook Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.

Indiana[edit]

Indiana elected its member August 7, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Indiana at-large William Hendricks Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected.

Kentucky[edit]

Kentucky elected its members August 7, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1 David Trimble Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
  • David Trimble (Democratic-Republican) 68.5%
  • William P. Fleming 31.5%
Kentucky 2 Henry Clay Democratic-Republican 1810
1814 (Resigned)
1814
1815 (Seat declared vacant)
1815 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Kentucky 3 William Brown Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Kentucky 4 Thomas Metcalfe Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 5 Alney McLean Democratic-Republican 1814
1816 (Retired)
1818
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Kentucky 6 David Walker Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent died March 1, 1820.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor also elected to finish the term.
Kentucky 7 George Robertson Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Incumbent resigned sometime before the start of the new Congress, leading to an August 6, 1821 special election.
Kentucky 8 Richard C. Anderson Jr. Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor died October 13, 1821, leading to a November 22, 1821 special election.
Kentucky 9 Tunstall Quarles Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent resigned June 15, 1820.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor also elected to finish the term.
Kentucky 10 Benjamin Hardin Democratic-Republican 1814
1816 (Retired)
1818
Incumbent re-elected.

Louisiana[edit]

Louisiana elected its member July 3–5, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana at-large Thomas Butler Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Maine[edit]

This was the first election in Maine since its separation from Massachusetts. In the previous election, Massachusetts had had 20 representatives. Seven seats (representing the 14th-20th districts) were reassigned from Massachusetts to Maine. In addition, under the terms of the law which admitted Maine to the union, any vacancies in the 16th Congress by Representatives elected to represent Massachusetts but residing in the new states of Maine would be filled by a resident of Maine.[3] John Holmes, who had been elected to the House for the former 14th district of Massachusetts was elected as one of the first two senators for Maine. The vacancy was filled in a special election by Joseph Dane (Federalist). Dane was the only Representative officially considered as representing Maine in the 16th Congress. The Representatives from the 15th-20th districts were still classified as being from Massachusetts for the remainder of the 16th Congress.

Maine elected its members November 7, 1820. Maine law required a majority to win electionecessitating additional ballots if a majority was not received so additional ballots were held January 22, 1821 and September 10, 1821, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 1 Joseph Dane Federalist 1820 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  • Joseph Dane (Federalist) 52.8%
  • Alexander Rice (Democratic-Republican) 38.7%
  • Isaac Lyman 6.0%
  • William Moody 2.4%
Maine 2 Ezekiel Whitman
Redistricted from Massachusetts's 15th district
Federalist 1808
1810 (Lost)
1816
Incumbent re-elected.
Maine 3 Mark Langdon Hill
Redistricted from Massachusetts's 16th district
Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected on the second ballot. First ballot (November 7, 1820):

Second ballot (January 22, 1821):
Maine 4 Martin Kinsley
Redistricted from Massachusetts's 17th district
Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected on the third ballot after the beginning of the term but before Congress convened.
Democratic-Republican hold.
First ballot (November 7, 1820):
  • William Durkee Williamson (Democratic-Republican) 44.7%
  • Jacob MacGaw (Federalist) 21.2%
  • John Cooper 11.8%
  • Martin Kinsley (Democratic-Republican) 11.2%
  • John Wilkins (Democratic-Republican) 9.3%
  • Josiah Kedder 1.3%

Second ballot (January 22, 1821):

Third ballot (September 10, 1821):
Maine 5 James Parker
Redistricted from Massachusetts's 18th district
Democratic-Republican 1813
1814 (Lost)
1819
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected on the third ballot after the beginning of the term but before Congress convened.
Democratic-Republican hold.
First ballot (November 7, 1820):
  • Ebenezer Herrick (Democratic-Republican) 38.2%
  • Ebenezer T. Warren (Democratic-Republican) 31.3%
  • James Parker (Democratic-Republican) 21.6%
  • Joshua Gage (Democratic-Republican) 4.7%
  • Peter Grant (Federalist) 1.5%
  • Others 2.8%

Second ballot (January 22, 1821):
  • Ebenezer Herrick (Democratic-Republican) 38.1%
  • Joshua Gage (Democratic-Republican) 27.6%
  • Ebenezer T. Warren (Democratic-Republican) 24.7%
  • Peter Grant (Federalist) 8.6%
  • James Parker (Democratic-Republican) 1.0%

Third ballot (September 10, 1821):
  • Ebenezer Herrick (Democratic-Republican) 52.7%
  • Ebenezer T. Warren (Democratic-Republican) 24.6%
  • Peter Grant (Federalist) 10.5%
  • Joshua Gage (Democratic-Republican) 7.1%
  • James Parker (Democratic-Republican) 5.2%
Maine 6 Joshua Cushman
Redistricted from Massachusetts's 19th district
Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Maine 7 Enoch Lincoln
Redistricted from Massachusetts's 20th district
Democratic-Republican 1818 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  • Enoch Lincoln (Democratic-Republican) 95.9%
  • Samuel A. Bradley 1.5%
  • Others 2.6%

Maryland[edit]

Maryland elected its members October 2, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 1 Raphael Neale Federalist 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Raphael Neale (Federalist) 54.0%
  • Nicholas Stonestreet (Federalist) 46.0%
Maryland 2 Joseph Kent Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 3 Henry R. Warfield Federalist 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 4 Samuel Ringgold Democratic-Republican 1810
1814 (Lost)
1816
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Maryland 5
Plural district with 2 seats
Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican 1792
1803 (Retired)
1816
Incumbent re-elected.
Peter Little Democratic-Republican 1810
1812 (Lost)
1816
Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 6 Stevenson Archer Democratic-Republican 1811 (Special)
1816 (Lost)
1818
Incumbent retired.
New member elected by lot after tied vote.
Democratic-Republican hold.[l]
Maryland 7 Thomas Culbreth Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Maryland 8 Thomas Bayly Federalist 1816 Incumbent re-elected.

Massachusetts[edit]

This was the first election in Massachusetts after the separation of the former District of Maine as the new State of Maine, taking the old 14th20th districts with it.

Massachusetts elected its members November 6, 1820. Massachusetts had a majority requirement for election, which was not met in the 2nd district necessitating two additional elections on January 8, 1821 and April 16, 1821, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

District[m] Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1 Jonathan Mason Federalist 1817 (Special) Incumbent resigned May 15, 1820 to pursue his law practice.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.[j]
Successor also elected the same day to finish the term.
  • Benjamin Gorham (Democratic-Republican)[j] 57.9%
  • Samuel Wells 40.2%
  • Jesse Putname 1.4%
  • Others 0.5%
Massachusetts 2 Nathaniel Silsbee Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected late on the third ballot after the term began but before the Congress convened.
Democratic-Republican hold.
First ballot (November 6, 1820):

Second ballot (January 8, 1821):
  • Gideon Barstow (Democratic-Republican) 48.4%
  • John Hooper (Federalist) 28.1%
  • Willard Peele (I) 10.1%
  • Charles Saunders 9.1%
  • Others 4.4%

Third ballot (April 16, 1821):
Massachusetts 3 Jeremiah Nelson Federalist 1804
1806 (Retired)
1814
Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 4 Timothy Fuller Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Timothy Fuller (Democratic-Republican) 58.2%
  • John Hart (Democratic-Republican) 20.9%
  • Samuel P. Fay (Federalist) 17.8%
  • Others 3.1%
Massachusetts 5 Samuel Lathrop Federalist 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Samuel Lathrop (Federalist) 73.7%
  • Thomas Shepherd (Democratic-Republican) 26.3%
Massachusetts 6 Samuel C. Allen Federalist 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 7 Henry Shaw Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
  • Henry W. Dwight (Federalist) 51.4%
  • William P. Walker (Democratic-Republican) 43.9%
  • Others 4.7%
Massachusetts 8 Zabdiel Sampson Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent resigned July 26, 1820.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Massachusetts 9 Walter Folger Jr. Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Massachusetts 10 Marcus Morton Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain
Massachusetts 11 Benjamin Adams Federalist 1816 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Massachusetts 12 Jonas Kendall Federalist 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Massachusetts 13 William Eustis Democratic-Republican 1800
1804 (Lost)
1820 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected.
  • William Eustis (Democratic-Republican) 65.0%
  • James Richardson (Federalist) 30.7%
  • Richard Sullivan (Federalist) 4.3%

Mississippi[edit]

Mississippi elected its member August 7–8, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi at-large Christopher Rankin Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.

Missouri[edit]

Missouri was admitted to the union on August 10, 1821,[13] but elections had been held August 28, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri at-large None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

New Hampshire[edit]

New Hampshire elected its members August 18, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Josiah Butler Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Nathaniel Upham Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Clifton Clagett Democratic-Republican 1802
1804 (Retired)
1816
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Joseph Buffum Jr. Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William Plumer Jr. Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
Arthur Livermore Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

New Jersey[edit]

New Jersey elected its members November 7, 1820. There were an unusally large number of candidates, 119 candidates according to one contemporary newspaper.[19] Some candidates ran under an "Anti-Caucus" ticket. Only 1 of the 6 six incumbents would serve in the next term, as 4 retired and 1 died after re-election.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Ephraim Bateman Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
John Linn Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected but died January 5, 1821, leading to a October 8, 1821 special election.
Bernard Smith Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Henry Southard Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Joseph Bloomfield Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Charles Kinsey Democratic-Republican 1816
1818 (Lost)
1820 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

New York[edit]

New York elected its members April 24–26, 1821, after the term began but before the new Congress convened. The 21st district, previously a plural district with two seats, was divided into two single-member districts for the 17th Congress, the 21st and 22nd.

The Democratic-Republican party in New York was divided between "Bucktails" and "Clintonians". The Clintonians ran on a joint ticket with the remaining Federalists. In a few cases, marked as "Clintonian/Federalist" below, it is unclear whether a candidate on the joint ticket was Democratic-Republican or Federalist.

Only five of the twenty-seven incumbents were re-elected to the next term. Sixteen incumbents retired and five lost re-election. Despite this high turnover of membership, there was only a one-seat net gain for the Federalists.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1
Plural district with 2 seats
Silas Wood Federalist 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
James Guyon Jr. Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.[n]
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Henry Meigs Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Peter H. Wendover Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 3 Caleb Tompkins Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Jeremiah H. Pierson (Democratic-Republican) 59.2%
  • John T. Smith (Clintonian/Federalist) 37.7%
  • Peter S. Van Orden (Democratic-Republican) 9.4%
New York 4 Randall S. Street Federalist 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • William W. Van Wyck (Democratic-Republican) 56.8%
  • William Taber (Clintonian/Federalist) 43.2%
New York 5 James Strong Federalist 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
New York 6 Walter Case Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor died September 7, 1821, before the Congress convened, leading to a November 6–8, 1821 special election.
New York 7 Jacob H. De Witt Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New York 8 Robert Clark Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 9 Solomon Van Rensselaer Federalist 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 10 John D. Dickinson Federalist 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 11 John W. Taylor Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent re-elected.
  • John W. Taylor (Democratic-Republican) 53.3%
  • Guert Van Schoonhoven (Democratic-Republican) 46.5%
New York 12
Plural district with 2 seats
Nathaniel Pitcher Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Ezra C. Gross Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 13 Harmanus Peek Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • John Gebhard (Democratic-Republican) 51.0%
  • William Mann (Democratic-Republican) 49.0%
New York 14 John Fay Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 15
Plural district with 2 seats
Robert Monell Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Joseph S. Lyman Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 16 Henry R. Storrs Federalist 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
New York 17 Aaron Hackley Jr. Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 18 William D. Ford Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
New York 19 George Hall Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 20
Plural district with 2 seats
Jonathan Richmond Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Caleb Baker Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 21 Nathaniel Allen Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 22 Albert H. Tracy
Redistricted from the 21st district
Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.

North Carolina[edit]

North Carolina elected its members August 9, 1821, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1 Lemuel Sawyer Democratic-Republican 1806
1813 (Lost)
1817
Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 2 Hutchins G. Burton Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 3 Thomas H. Hall Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Thomas H. Hall (Democratic-Republican) 53.0%
  • William Clarke (Federalist) 47.0%
North Carolina 4 William S. Blackledge Federalist 1821 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 5 Charles Hooks Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special)
1817 (Lost)
1819
Incumbent re-elected.
  • Charles Hooks (Democratic-Republican) 65.3%
  • Daniel Glisson (Federalist) 34.7%
North Carolina 6 Weldon N. Edwards Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 7 John Culpepper Federalist 1806
1808 (Contested election)
1808 (Special)
1813
1816 (Lost)
1819
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
North Carolina 8 James S. Smith Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
North Carolina 9 Thomas Settle Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
North Carolina 10 Charles Fisher Democratic-Republican 1819 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • John Long (Democratic-Republican)[k]
  • John L. Henderson (Federalist)
North Carolina 11 William Davidson Federalist 1818 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
North Carolina 12 Felix Walker Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 13 Lewis Williams Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent re-elected.

Ohio[edit]

Ohio elected its members October 10, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio 1 Thomas R. Ross Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 2 John W. Campbell Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 3 Henry Brush Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Ohio 4 Samuel Herrick Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner declined to serve, leading to an October 9, 1821 special election.
Ohio 5 Philemon Beecher Federalist 1816 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Joseph Vance (Democratic-Republican) 40.9%[o]
    Philemon Beecher (Federalist) 44.6%
  • Daniel Smith (Federalist) 7.9%
  • Orris Parrish (Democratic-Republican) 6.3%
  • John Kilbourn 0.3%
Ohio 6 John Sloane Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
  • John Sloane (Democratic-Republican) 91.7%
  • Alred Kelley (Democratic-Republican) 8.2%
  • Others 0.1%

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania elected its members October 10, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[15]
Pennsylvania 1
Plural district with 4 seats
Joseph Hemphill Federalist 1800
1802 (Lost)
1818
Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel Edwards Federalist 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Thomas Forrest Federalist 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
John Sergeant Federalist 1815 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
William Darlington Democratic-Republican 1814
1816 (Lost)
1818
Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel Gross Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 3
Plural district with 2 seats
James M. Wallace Democratic-Republican 1815 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Jacob Hibshman Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Pennsylvania 4 Jacob Hostetter Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania 5
Plural district with 2 seats
Andrew Boden Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
David Fullerton Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent resigned May 15, 1820.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor was not a candidate in the same day's election to finish the term.
Successor resigned in April 1821, leading to a October 9, 1821 special election.
Pennsylvania 6
Plural district with 2 seats
Samuel Moore Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Samuel Moore (Democratic-Republican) 30.7%
  • Thomas J. Rogers (Democratic-Republican) 28.6%
  • Daniel W. Dingman (Federalist) 21.1%
  • Matthais Morris (Federalist) 19.6%
Thomas J. Rogers Democratic-Republican 1818 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 7 Joseph Hiester Democratic-Republican 1798
1804 (Retired)
1814
Incumbent retired to run for Governor of Pennsylvania.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Incumbent then resigned in December 1820 when elected Governor of Pennsylvania and successor lost the December 10, 1820 special election to finish the term.
Pennsylvania 8 Robert Philson Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania 9 William P. Maclay Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania 10
Plural district with 2 seats
George Denison Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
John Murray Democratic-Republican 1817 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Incumbent resigned July 20, 1821, leading to an October 9, 1821 special election.
Pennsylvania 11 David Marchand Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • George Plumer (Democratic-Republican) 54.7%
  • Alexander W. Foster (Federalist) 45.3%
Pennsylvania 12 Thomas Patterson Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Thomas Patterson (Democratic-Republican) 67.3%
  • Thomas McGiffen (Federalist) 32.7%
Pennsylvania 13 Christian Tarr Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania 14 Henry Baldwin Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 15 Robert Moore Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Rhode Island[edit]

Rhode Island elected its members August 29, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Samuel Eddy Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Nathaniel Hazard Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Incumbent died December 17, 1820 and seat remained vacant until the end of term.

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina elected its members October 9–10, 1820.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 Charles Pinckney Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
South Carolina 2 William Lowndes Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3 James Ervin Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
South Carolina 4 James Overstreet Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 5 Starling Tucker Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 6 Eldred Simkins Democratic-Republican 1818 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
South Carolina 7 Elias Earle Democratic-Republican 1804
1814 (Lost)
1816
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.<
Democratic-Republican hold.
South Carolina 8 John McCreary Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.<
Democratic-Republican hold.
South Carolina 9 Joseph Brevard Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner declined to serve, leading to a special election sometime in 1821.
  • √ John S. Richards (Democratic-Republican) 100%

Tennessee[edit]

Tennessee elected its members August 9–10, 1821, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 John Rhea Democratic-Republican 1803
1815 (Lost)
1817
Incumbent re-elected.
  • John Rhea (Democratic-Republican) 40.4%
  • John Tipton 35.6%
  • John A. Rogers 24.1%
Tennessee 2 John Cocke Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 3 Francis Jones Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Francis Jones (Democratic-Republican) 99.6%
  • Reuben Lidwell 0.4%
Tennessee 4 Robert Allen Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 5 Newton Cannon Democratic-Republican 1814 (Special)
1817 (Lost)
1819
Incumbent re-elected.
  • Newton Cannon (Democratic-Republican) 99.0%
  • Fitzgerald Beasley 1.0%
Tennessee 6 Henry H. Bryan Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
Winner never appeared to take his seat.
  • Henry H. Bryan (Democratic-Republican) 62.5%
  • Eldridge B. Robertson 34.5%
  • Colmore Duvall 3.0%

Vermont[edit]

In 1820, Vermont returned to using districts. This would be the only election in which the 6th district would be used.

Vermont elected its members September 5, 1820. A majority was required for election, which was not met in the 2nd or 3rd district, requiring additional ballots to achieve a majority. The 2nd district required 7 ballots. The 3rd district required two additional ballots. The additional ballots were held December 11, 1820, and February 19, May 1, July 2, September 4, and October 22, 1821.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1 Rollin Carolas Mallary
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected.
Vermont 2 Mark Richards
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected on the seventh ballot.
Democratic-Republican hold.
First ballot (September 5, 1820):

Second ballot (December 11, 1820):

Third ballot (February 19, 1821):

Fourth ballot (May 1, 1821):

Fifth ballot (July 2, 1821):

Sixth ballot (September 4, 1821):

Seventh ballot (October 22, 1821):
  • Phineas White (Democratic-Republican) 49.9%
  • Mark Richards (Democratic-Republican) 42.6%
  • James Elliot (Federalist) 2.9%
  • William Hall (Federalist) 1.6%
  • Martin Field (Democratic-Republican) 1.2%
  • Others 1.8%
Vermont 3 Charles Rich
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1812
1814 (Lost)
1816
Incumbent re-elected on the third ballot. First ballot (September 5, 1820):
  • Charles Rich (Democratic-Republican) 38.9%
  • David Edmonds (Federalist) 27.9%
  • Ezra Meech (Democratic-Republican) 17.0%
  • Henry Olin (Democratic-Republican) 13.9%
  • Others 2.3%

Second ballot (December 11, 1820):

Third ballot (February 19, 1821):
  • Charles Rich (Democratic-Republican) 50.6%
  • David Edmonds (Federalist) 41.2%
  • Ezra Meech (Democratic-Republican) 8.2%
Ezra Meech
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent lost re-election.
Democratic-Republican loss.
Vermont 4 William Strong
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1810
1814 (Lost)
1818
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Vermont 5 Samuel C. Crafts
Redistricted from the at-large district
Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.
Vermont 6 None (District created) New seat.
New memebr elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Virginia[edit]

Virginia elected its members in April 1821, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1 Edward B. Jackson Democratic-Republican 1820 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 2 Thomas Van Swearingen Federalist 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 3 Jared Williams Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Jared Williams (Democratic-Republican) 63.3%
  • William Steinbergen (Democratic-Republican) 36.7%
Virginia 4 William McCoy Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 5 John Floyd Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 6 Alexander Smyth Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 7 Ballard Smith Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • William Smith (Democratic-Republican) 53.2%
  • James Wilson (Democratic-Republican) 46.8%
Virginia 8 Charles F. Mercer Federalist 1817 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 9 William Lee Ball Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 10 Thomas L. Moore Democratic-Republican 1820 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  • Thomas L. Moore (Democratic-Republican) 70.7%
  • Mark A. Chilton (Democratic-Republican) 29.3%
Virginia 11 Philip P. Barbour Democratic-Republican 1814 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 12 Robert S. Garnett Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 13 Severn E. Parker Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Burwell Bassett (Democratic-Republican) 66.6%
  • John Patterson (Federalist) 30.0%
  • Brazure W. Pryor (Federalist) 3.4%
Virginia 14 William A. Burwell Democratic-Republican 1806 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Jabez Leftwich (Democratic-Republican) 93.5%
  • James Calloway (Democratic-Republican) 6.5%
Virginia 15 George Tucker Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
  • George Tucker (Democratic-Republican) 87.5%
  • William R. Roane (Federalist) 12.5%
Virginia 16 John Randolph Democratic-Republican 1799
1813 (Lost)
1815
1817 (Lost)
1819
Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 17 William S. Archer Democratic-Republican 1820 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 18 Mark Alexander Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 19 James Jones Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 20 John C. Gray Democratic-Republican 1820 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia 21 Thomas Newton Jr. Democratic-Republican 1797 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 22 Hugh Nelson Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 23 John Tyler Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Non-voting delegates[edit]

There were four territories that had the right to send a delegate to at least part of the 17th Congress, only three of which actually sent delegates. Missouri Territory's seat remained vacant, as the territory was admitted as the State of Missouri early in the 17th Congress.

District Incumbent First
elected
Result Candidates
Arkansas Territory at-large James Woodson Bates 1819 Incumbent re-elected.
Michigan Territory at-large Solomon Sibley 1820 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Includes "late" elections held after the March 4 beginning of the term.
  2. ^ Majority requirement for election which was not met in 2 districts requiring 6 additional elections held on December 11, 1820, February 19, May 1, July 2, September 4, and October 22, 1821.
  3. ^ Majority requirement for election which was not met in 1 district requiring additional elections on January 8 and April 16, 1821.
  4. ^ After seven districts were moved to the new state of Maine.
  5. ^ a b Compared to districts 1-13 in 1818
  6. ^ Previously part of Massachusetts.
  7. ^ Majority requirement for election, which was not met in 3 districts requiring additional elections on January 22, 1821 and September 10, 1821.
  8. ^ a b Compared to the districts comprising the former District of Maine (Former Massachusetts's 14th district through Massachusetts's 20th district
  9. ^ Tennessee's 6th district remained vacant for the entirety of the 17th Congress.
  10. ^ a b c d e Some sources cite Benjamin Gorham as a Federalist.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Source does not give numbers of votes or has incomplete data.
  12. ^ In Maryland's 6th district, Philip Reed later successfully contested the tie, claiming 7 votes for him that had not been counted,[18] and was seated March 22, 1822.[13]
  13. ^ District numbers differed between source used and elsewhere on Wikipedia; district numbers used elsewhere on Wikipedia used here.
  14. ^ a b c d e In New York's 1st district, the winners were initially declared to be Silas Wood (Federalist) and Peter Sharpe (Democratic-Republican). Sharpe's election was challenged. Initial returns showed 3,339 votes for Cadwallader D. Colden (Federalist), with 395 for "Cadwallader Colden" and 220 for "Cadwallader D. Colder". After those votes were declared to be for Cadwallader D. Colden, he finished in 2nd place with 3,954 votes (27.1%), and thus received one of the two seats for that district in place of Sharpe. He was seated December 12, 1821.[13]
  15. ^ a b c d Based on incomplete returns
  16. ^ John Sergeant was also supported by the Democratic-Republicans.
  17. ^ a b c Changed parties
  18. ^ Job Durfee received votes in many towns from Federalists.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stat. 545
  2. ^ a b "Virginia 1820 U.S. House of Representatives, District 17, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Sixteenth Congress March 4, 1819, to March 3, 1821". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 23, 2019 – via History.house.gov.
  4. ^ "New Jersey 1820 U.S. House of Representatives, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Virginia 1820 U.S. House of Representatives, District 10, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Virginia 1820 U.S. House of Representatives, District 1, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  7. ^ "Virginia 1820 U.S. House of Representatives, District 20, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  8. ^ a b Cox, Harold (January 6, 2007). "16th Congress 1819-1821" (PDF). Pennsylvania Election Statistics: 1682-2006 The Wilkes University Election Statistics Project. Wilkes University.
  9. ^ "Massachusetts 1820 U.S. House of Representatives, Suffolk District, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  10. ^ "Massachusetts 1820 U.S. House of Representatives, Suffolk District, Special, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  11. ^ "Pennsylvania 1820 U.S. House of Representatives, District 7, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  12. ^ a b "Kentucky 1821 U.S. House of Representatives, District 7, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Seventeenth Congress March 4, 1821, to March 3, 1823". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved February 4, 2019 – via History.house.gov.
  14. ^ "Ohio 1821 U.S. House of Representatives, District 4, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  15. ^ a b c Cox, Harold (January 14, 2007). "17th Congress 1821-1823" (PDF). Pennsylvania Election Statistics: 1682-2006 The Wilkes University Election Statistics Project. Wilkes University.
  16. ^ a b "Kentucky 1821 U.S. House of Representatives, District 8, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
  17. ^ "Alabama 1821 U.S. House of Representatives". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  18. ^ "Maryland 1820 U.S. House of Representatives, District 6". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 18, 2019. (see footnotes 1,2, and 5)
  19. ^ a b "New Jersey 1820 U.S. House of Representatives". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
  20. ^ "Rhode Island 1820 U.S. House of Representatives". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved March 21, 2019.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]