1831 in the United States
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Events from the year 1831 in the United States.
- President: Andrew Jackson (D-Tennessee)
- Vice President: John C. Calhoun (D-South Carolina)
- Chief Justice: John Marshall (Virginia)
- Speaker of the House of Representatives: Andrew Stevenson (D-Virginia)
- Congress: 21st (until March 4), 22nd (starting March 4)
- January 1 – William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing The Liberator, an antislavery newspaper, in Boston, Massachusetts.
- March 18 – Cherokee Nation v. Georgia: An injunction requested by the Cherokee nation, claiming that Georgia's state legislature had created laws which, "go directly to annihilate the Cherokees as a political society", is denied.
- April 18 – The University of Alabama is founded.
- April 21 – New York University is founded in New York City.
- August 7 – American Baptist minister William Miller preaches his first sermon on the Second Advent of Christ in Dresden, New York, launching the Advent Movement in the United States.
- August 21 – Outbreak of Nat Turner's slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia. Approximately 55 whites are stabbed, shot and clubbed to death.
- October 30 – In Southampton County, Virginia, escaped slave Nat Turner is captured and arrested for leading the bloodiest slave revolt in United States history.
- November 11 – In Jerusalem, Virginia, Nat Turner is hanged after inciting a violent slave uprising.
- Alexis de Tocqueville visits the United States.
- Founding of:
- January 2 – Justin Winsor, historian and librarian (died 1897)
- January 14 – William D. Washburn, U.S. Senator from Minnesota from 1889 to 1895 and businessman (died 1912)
- January 15 – Ozora P. Stearns, U.S. Senator from Minnesota in 1871 (died 1896)
- January 26 – Mary Mapes Dodge, children's writer (died 1907)
- March 3 – George Pullman, inventor and industrialist (died 1897)
- March 6 – Philip Sheridan, general (died 1888)
- March 12 – Clement Studebaker, automobile pioneer (died 1901)
- March 20 – Solomon L. Spink, U.S. Congressman from Illinois (died 1881)
- June 1 or 29 Exact Date Unknown – John Bell Hood, Confederate general (died 1879)
- July 8 – John Pemberton, inventor of Coca-Cola (died 1888)
- July 21 – Martha Maxwell, naturalist and artist (died 1881)
- August 26 – Lucy Hayes, wife of Rutherford B. Hayes, First Lady of the United States, (died 1889)
- September 3 – States Rights Gist, lawyer, a militia general in South Carolina, and a Confederate Army brigadier general (died 1864)
- September 10 – William A. Peffer, U.S. Senator from Kansas from 1891 to 1897 (died 1912)
- September 20 – Kate Harrington, poet, teacher and writer (died 1917)
- September 29 – John Schofield, general (died 1906)
- October 15 – Helen Hunt Jackson, poet, writer and activist (died 1885)
- October 16 – Lucy Stanton, abolitionist (died 1910)
- October 28 – Charles Colcock Jones, Jr., Georgia politician, attorney, historian and folklorist (died 1893)
- October 29 – Othniel Charles Marsh, paleontologist (died 1899)
- October 31 – Romualdo Pacheco, Governor of California (died 1899)
- November 19 – James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States from March to September 1881 (died 1881)
- November 21 – John Franklin Miller, U.S. Senator from California from 1881 to 1886 (died 1886)
- November 22 – Thomas J. Latham, lawyer and businessman (died 1911)
- December 19 – Bernice Pauahi Bishop, Hawaiian aliʻi (died 1884)
- March 26 – Richard Allen, founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1794 (born 1760)
- April 4 – Isaiah Thomas, publisher (born 1749)
- May 11 – John Trumbull, poet (born 1750)
- May 24 –
- May 27 – Jedediah Smith, explorer, hunter, trapper and fur trader (born 1799)
- July 4 – James Monroe, fifth President of the United States from 1817 to 1825 (born 1758)
- November 11 – Nat Turner, leader of slave rebellion (born 1800)
- December 8 – James Hoban, architect of the White House (born 1755 in Ireland)
- Media related to 1831 in the United States at Wikimedia Commons