1839 in the United States
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Events from the year 1839 in the United States.
- President: Martin Van Buren (D-New York)
- Vice President: Richard M. Johnson (D-Kentucky)
- Chief Justice: Roger B. Taney (Maryland)
- Speaker of the House of Representatives: James K. Polk (D-Tennessee) (until March 4), Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter (W-Virginia) (starting December 16)
- Congress: 25th (until March 4), 26th (starting March 4)
- February 11 – The University of Missouri is established in Columbia, Missouri, becoming the first public university west of the Mississippi River.
- March 5 – Longwood University is founded in Farmville, Virginia.
- March 7 – Baltimore City College, the third public high school in the United States, is established in Baltimore, Maryland.
- March 23 – The Boston Morning Post first records the use of "OK".
- August 8 – The Beta Theta Pi fraternity is founded in Oxford, Ohio.
- September 9 – In the Great Fire of Mobile, Alabama hundreds of buildings are burned.
- October – Robert Cornelius takes the first self portrait in the United States.
- November 11 – The Virginia Military Institute is founded in Lexington, Virginia.
- November 27 – In Boston, Massachusetts, the American Statistical Association is founded.
- The first U.S. state law permitting women to own property is passed in Jackson, Mississippi.
- Episcopal High School in Alexandria, Virginia is founded.
- Second Seminole War (1835–1842)
- April 7 – David Baird, Ireland-born U.S. Senator from New Jersey from 1918 to 1919 (died 1927)
- July 8 – John D. Rockefeller, oil industry business magnate and philanthropist (died 1937)
- August 1 – Middleton P. Barrow, U.S. Senator from Georgia from 1882 to 1883 (died 1903)
- August 23 – George Clement Perkins, U.S. Senator from California from 1893 to 1915 (died 1923)
- August 26 – Hernando Money, U.S. Senator from Mississippi from 1897 to 1911 (died 1912)
- September 2 – Henry George, writer, politician and political economist (died 1897)
- September 18 – William J. McConnell, U.S. Senator from Idaho from 1890 to 1891 (died 1925)
- September 28 – Frances Willard, American educator, temperance reformer, and women's suffragist (died 1898)
- September 29 – James Kimbrough Jones, U.S. Senator from Arkansas from 1885 to 1903 (died 1908)
- October 20 – Augustus Octavius Bacon, U.S. Senator from Georgia from 1895 to 1914 (died 1914)
- November 4 – Thomas M. Patterson, Ireland-born U.S. Senator from Colorado from 1901 to 1907 (died 1916)
- December 5 – George Armstrong Custer, U.S. Army Officer and Cavalry Commander from Ohio from 1861 to 1876 (died 1876)
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- February 26 – Sybil Ludington, heroine of the American Revolutionary War (born 1761)
- April 1 – Benjamin Pierce, father of 14th U.S. president Franklin Pierce, governor of New Hampshire from 1827 to 1828 and from 1829 to 1830 (born 1757)
- April 5 – John Tipton, U.S. Senator from Indiana from 1832 to 1839 (born 1786)
- June 10 – Nathaniel Hale Pryor, sergeant in the Lewis and Clark Expedition (born 1772)
- Media related to 1839 in the United States at Wikimedia Commons