1864 and 1865 United States House of Representatives elections

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1864 and 1865 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1862 / 63 June 5, 1864 – November 7, 1865[Note 1] 1866 →

All 193[Note 2] seats to the United States House of Representatives
97 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Schuyler Colfax portrait.jpg JamesBrooks.jpg
Leader Schuyler Colfax James Brooks
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Indiana-9th New York-8th
Last election 87 seats 72 seats
Seats won 137[Note 3] 38
Seat change Increase 50 Decrease 34

  Third party
  Francis Thomas of Maryland - photo portrait seated.jpg
Leader Francis Thomas
Party Unionist
Leader's seat Maryland-4th
Last election 25 seats
Seats won 18
Seat change Decrease 7

Speaker before election

Schuyler Colfax
Republican

Elected Speaker

Schuyler Colfax
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1864 to elect Representatives to the 39th United States Congress. The election coincided with the presidential election of 1864, in which President Abraham Lincoln was re-elected.

In the midst of the American Civil War, the opposition Democrats were divided between the Copperheads, a group that demanded an immediate negotiated settlement with the Confederate States of America, and the War Democrats, who supported the war. The Democrats lacked a coherent message, and Lincoln's Republican Party gained 50 seats, increasing their majority over the Democrats. The National Union Party (formerly known as the Unionists) lost seven seats, retaining control of 18 seats (some classify the Representatives as including 13 Unconditional Unionists and five Unionists), all from the border states of Maryland, Tennessee, and Kentucky, as well as West Virginia.

Election summaries[edit]

One new seat was added for the new State of Nevada[1] and 8 vacancies were filled by the readmission of Tennessee, the first secessionist state to be readmitted. Three former Confederate States held elections in 1865 that were rejected by Congress.

137 18 38
Republican Unionist Democratic
State Type Date Total
seats
Republican Democratic Unionist[Note 4]
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Oregon At-large June 5, 1864 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District September 6, 1864 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District September 11, 1864 5 5 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Indiana District October 10, 1864 11 9 Increase 5 2 Decrease 5 0 Steady
Nevada[Note 5] At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District 19 17 Increase 12 2 Decrease 12 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District 24 16 Increase 4 8 Decrease 4 0 Steady
West Virginia District October 22, 1864 3 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady
California District[Note 6] November 8, 1864
(Election Day)[Note 7]
3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District +
1 at-large
14 11 Increase 6 3 Decrease 6 0 Steady
Iowa District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kansas At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 5 0 Steady 2 Increase 1 3 Decrease 1
Massachusetts District 10 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 6 6 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Minnesota District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 9 8[Note 3] Increase 7 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 8
New Jersey District 5 2 Increase 1 3 Decrease 1 0 Steady
New York District 31 21 Increase 7 10 Decrease 7 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 6 5 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady
1865 elections
New Hampshire District March 14, 1865 3 3 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Connecticut District April 3, 1865 4 4 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Rhode Island District April 5, 1865 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee[Note 8] District August 3, 1865[Note 9] 8 0 Steady 0 Steady 8 Increase 8
Kentucky District August 7, 1865 9 0 Steady 5 Increase 5 4 Decrease 5
Nevada At-large November 7, 1865 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Secessionist States not yet readmitted
Alabama District 6
Arkansas District 3
Florida At-large November 29, 1865[Note 10] 1
Georgia District 7
Louisiana District 5
Mississippi District October 2, 1865[Note 10] 5
North Carolina District November 9, 1865[Note 10] 7
South Carolina District 4
Texas District 4
Virginia District 8
Total[Note 2] 193
50 vacancies[Note 11]
137[Note 3]
71.0%
Increase46 38
19.7%
Decrease31 18
9.3%
Decrease 6
House seats
Republican
70.98%
Democratic
19.69%
Unionist
9.33%

Of the rejected elections, Florida's and Mississippi's claimants' parties are unknown, while North Carolina elected 4 Union and 3 Conservative Representatives.

California[edit]

Note: This was the first election in which California elected representatives from congressional districts.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1
New seat
Cornelius Cole
Redistricted from the at-large district.
Republican 1863 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost renomination.
New member elected.
Donald C. McRuer (Republican) 58.2%
Joseph B. Crockett (Democratic) 41.8%
California 2
New seat
William Higby
Redistricted from the at-large district.
Republican 1863 Incumbent re-elected. William Higby (Republican) 61.3%
James W. Coffroth (Democratic) 38.7%
California 3
New seat
Thomas B. Shannon
Redistricted from the at-large district.
Republican 1863 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
John Bidwell (Republican) 55.8%
Jackson Temple (Democratic) 44.2%

Nevada[edit]

On October 31, 1864, the new state of Nevada elected Republican Henry G. Worthington to finish the term ending March 3, 1865.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Nevada at-large New state New member elected October 31, 1864.
Republican gain.
Henry G. Worthington (Republican) 9,776 votes
Other 6,552 votes[2]

Worthington was not renominated for the next term, however, and on November 7, 1865, Republican Delos R. Ashley was elected for the term that had already begun but would not formally meet until December 4, 1865.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Nevada at-large Henry G. Worthington Republican 1864 (New state) Incumbent lost renomination.[2]
New member elected November 7, 1865.
Republican hold.
Delos R. Ashley (Republican) 3,691 votes
Henry K. Mitchell 2,215 votes[3]

Ohio[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[4]
Ohio 1 George H. Pendleton Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired to run for U.S. Vice President.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 2 Alexander Long Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 3 Robert C. Schenck Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 4 John F. McKinney Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 5 Francis C. Le Blond Democratic 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 6 Chilton A. White Democratic 1860 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 7 Samuel S. Cox Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 8 William Johnston Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 9 Warren P. Noble Democratic 1860 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 10 James M. Ashley Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 11 Wells A. Hutchins Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 12 William E. Finck Democratic 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 13 John O'Neill Democratic 1862 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 14 George Bliss Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 15 James R. Morris Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 16 Joseph W. White Democratic 1882 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 17 Ephraim R. Eckley Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 18 Rufus P. Spalding Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 19 James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted after the start of Congress.
  2. ^ a b Including late elections.
  3. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Republican, John R. Kelso, elected to MO-04.
  4. ^ Including Unconditional Unionists.
  5. ^ New state.
  6. ^ Changed from at-large.
  7. ^ Although "An Act to establish a uniform time for holding elections for electors of President and Vice President in all the States of the Union (28th Congress, 2nd Session, Chapter 1, 5 Stat. 721, enacted January 23, 1845) was only for presidential elections, the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections.
  8. ^ Readmitted state.
  9. ^ Not admitted until July 24, 1866.
  10. ^ a b c Rejected election.
  11. ^ There were a total of 50 vacancies remaining, after the readmission of Tennessee.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 14 Stat. 391
  2. ^ a b History of Nevada, p. 87.
  3. ^ History of Nevada, p. 88–89.
  4. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 195, 196.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]