The 1878 South Carolina United States House of Representatives elections were held on November 5, 1878 to select five Representatives for two-year terms from the state of South Carolina. Two Democratic incumbents were re-elected, two Republican incumbents were defeated and the open seat was picked up by the Democrats. The composition of the state delegation after the election was solely Democratic.
South Carolina was one state rampant with voter fraud, particularly through the use of tissue ballots, thin ballots hidden in the normal ballot, typically 10 to 20 at a time. The almost statewide exclusion of Republicans as Commissioners of Elections, and the ensuing appointment of nearly all Democratic Managers of Elections, allowed to Democratic Managers to perpetrate this scheme. When the votes were counted and more votes than voters were found, the Managers removed and destroyed the Republican ballots resulting in the complete takeover of the state.
^The Life of James Abram Garfield, by William Ralston Balch, 1881
"Annual Report of the Secretary of State to the General Assembly of South Carolina." Reports and Resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina at the Regular Session of 1878. Columbia, SC: Calvo and Patton, 1878, pp. 440–444.