1918 United States elections

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1918 United States elections
Midterm elections
Election dayNovember 5
Incumbent presidentWoodrow Wilson (Democratic)
Next Congress66th
Senate elections
Overall controlRepublican Gain
Seats contested38 of 96 seats
(32 Class 2 seats + 9 special elections)[1]
Net seat changeRepublican +6[2]
US 1918 senate election map.svg
1918 Senate election results

  Democratic gain   Democratic hold
  Republican gain   Republican hold

House elections
Overall controlRepublican Gain
Seats contestedAll 435 voting seats
Net seat changeRepublican +24
Gubernatorial elections
Seats contested32
Net seat changeRepublican +4
1918 gubernatorial election results

  Democratic gain   Democratic hold
  Republican gain   Republican hold

The 1918 United States elections elected the 66th United States Congress, and took place in the middle of Democratic President Woodrow Wilson's second term. The election was held during the Fourth Party System. It was the lone election to take place during America's involvement in World War I. Republicans won control of both chambers of Congress for the first time since the 1908 election.

In an example of the six-year itch phenomenon, Republicans took complete control of Congress from the Democrats. The Republicans won large gains in the House, taking 25 seats and ending coalition control of the chamber.[3] In the Senate, Republicans gained 5 seats, taking control of the chamber by a slim majority.[4]

The elections were a major defeat for progressives and Wilson's foreign policy agenda, and foreshadowed the Republican victory in the 1920 election. Republicans ran against the expanded war-time government and the Fourteen Points, especially Wilson's proposal for the League of Nations. The Republican victory left them in control of both houses of Congress until the 1930 election.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Three Class 2 seats held both a regularly-scheduled election and a special election in 1918. These seats are not double-counted for the total number of seats contested.
  2. ^ Republicans picked up four seats in the regularly-scheduled elections and gained an additional two seats in the special elections.
  3. ^ "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  4. ^ "Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present". United States Senate. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  5. ^ Busch, Andrew (1999). Horses in Midstream. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 87–91.