1967 Madras Legislative Assembly election
All 234 seats in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
The fourth legislative assembly election of Madras State (later renamed as Tamil Nadu) was held in February 1967. The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) led coalition under the leadership of C.N. Annadurai won the election defeating the Indian National Congress (Congress). Anti-Hindi agitations, the rising prices of essential commodities and a shortage of rice were the dominant issues. K. Kamaraj's resignation as the Chief Minister in 1963, to concentrate on party affairs, along with persistent rumours of corruption had weakened the incumbent Congress Government. This was the second time after Communist Party of India winning Kerala assembly elections in 1957, for a non-Congress party to gain majority in a state in India, and the last time that Congress held power in Tamil Nadu. It was the first time a party or pre-election alliance was formed a non-Congress government with absolute majority. It marked the beginning of Dravidian dominance in the politics of Tamil Nadu. Annadurai, who became the first non-Congress chief minister of post-independence Tamil Nadu, died in office in 1969 and V.R. Nedunchezhiyan took over as acting chief minister.
The Congress party began to show weakness in the years after the 1962 election. In the summer of 1962, DMK conducted demonstrations against rising prices. These demonstrations turned violent throughout the state leading to the arrest of 6500 DMK volunteers, 14 members of the assembly and four members of the Lok Sabha, including Annadurai.
Kamaraj resigned the Chief Ministership in 1963 to assume the presidency of the All India Congress Committee and was replaced by M. Bakthavatsalam. Robert L. Hardgrave, Jr. (Temple Professor Emeritus in the Humanities, Government and Asian Studies from the University of Texas) wrote in an article published in the journal Pacific Affairs, that M. Bhaktavatsalam did not have the personal charisma or political acumen of Kamaraj. Persistent rumours of corruption tarnished the image of the Government. In October 1964, the food crisis brought the popularity of the Congress Government to an all-time low.
The major issues at play in the election were the official language issue, the rise in essential commodity prices and the shortage of rice. The central Government led by the Indian National Congress had implemented an act replacing English with Hindi as an official language of India while retaining a possible "associate" status to English. The switchover came into effect on 26 January 1965. In protest to the vague wording of the act, fearing a possible elimination of English and imposition of Hindi, DMK had launched an agitation opposing the switchover and that agitation turned violent. The 1967 election was held in the aftermath of this violence.
The acute rice shortage prevailing in the state became an election issue with the DMK promising to supply three padis (approx. 4.5 kg) of rice for 1 Rupee in its election manifesto. The DMK capitalised on the rice shortage as well as widespread discontent with the Bhaktavatsalam administration. Slogans like Kamarajar Annachi kadalaiparuppu vilai ennachu (Elder Brother (Annachi is a title historically been used to refer to a person of Kamaraj's caste) Kamaraj, what happened to the price of chana dal?), Bhaktavatsalam annachi arisi vilai ennachu (lit. Brother Bhatavatsalam, what happened to the price of rice?) were used effectively by the DMK to stir public anger against the Congress.
This election was noted for popular actor, DMK candidate and future Chief Minister M.G. Ramachandran (MGR) being shot in the throat by actor M.R. Radha. He survived the shooting, but the incident created a huge popularity wave for MGR. This eventually helped to increase the popularity of not only MGR, but also the DMK in the election, and is attributed as one of the reasons for the victory of the DMK.
There were two major political coalitions running in the elections. The Indian National Congress contested alone, while the Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) under Periyar E. V. Ramasamy supported and campaigned for the incumbent Congress against his protege Annadurai. The DMK-led front comprised the Swatantra Party, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Praja Socialist Party, Samyukta Socialist Party, Tamil Nadu Toilers Party, Republican Party of India and the Indian Union Muslim League. The Tamil Arasu Kazhagam and the We Tamils party campaigned using the DMK election symbol. This opposition coalition was forged by C. Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) with the sole purpose of defeating the Kamaraj led Congress. Rajaji's personal hostility to Kamaraj and his opposition to the Congress party were the main reasons behind Swatantra's alliance with DMK. The Communist Party of India campaigned alone without joining either of the two coalitions.
The electoral alliance between DMK, Swatantra Party and Muslim League had emerged in the years before the 1964 civic elections throughout Madras state. During the 1964 election campaign Rajagopalachari had said, "The DMK and Muslim League are my children and I am duty bound to nurse them to strength and stature."
Both Congress and DMK used films and actors for campaigning. Gemini Studios produced a political film for the Congress – Vazhga Nam Thayagam starring Shivaji Ganesan and Nagesh. Sivaji and Padmini worked for the Congress party. Despite its efforts, Congress could not counter the DMK's propaganda, which had a long history of using films for political campaigns since its founding.
DMK's long term association with the Tamil Film industry was put to good use in the campaign. MGR's films were used to attack Congress policies and to popularise DMK's positions. Similar to the tactics employed in the elections of 1957 and 1962, film songs and dialogues from Kaanji Thalaivan (1963), "Deivathai (1964) , "Padakotti (1964)", Aayirathil Oruvan (1965 film)", Enga Veettu Pillai (1965), Anbe Vaa (1966), Naan Aanaiyittal (1966), "[[Mugarasi (1966), "Petralthan Pillaya (1966)",Vivasayee (1967) and Arasakattalai (1967) were used for political messaging. Lesser known film stars like Ravichandran and Jaishankar used their films for praising DMK and Annadurai. The DMK put up posters of MGR recuperating in a hospital bed with a neck cast (from his gunshot wounds) all over Tamil Nadu to garner public sympathy and support.
The election was held for a total of 234 constituencies, including 43 Scheduled Caste and 2 Scheduled Tribe reserved constituencies. 778 candidates, including 11 women were in the fray, of whom 231 men and 3 women were elected to the assembly. The election saw a turnout of 76.57 percent of all eligible voters, with 79.19% men and 73.99% women casting their votes. The polling for the assembly election took place along with the polling for the 1967 parliamentary elections. It took place in three phases between 5 and 21 February (5, 18 and 21 February).
DMK and its coalition allies won 179 seats (76.5%). The Indian National Congress won 51 seats (21.8%). Four candidates of the Naam Thamizhar Party led by S. P. Adithanar and two candidates of Tamil Arasu Kazhagam led by M. P. Sivagnanam contested under DMK's "Rising Sun" Symbol. The Indian Union Muslim League candidates contested as independents.
|Alliances||Party||Popular Vote||Vote %||Seats contested||Seats won||Change|
||Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||6,230,556||40.69%||174||137||+87|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist)||623,114||4.07%||22||11||+11|
|Praja Socialist Party||136,188||0.89%||4||4||+4|
|Indian Union Muslim League||95,494||0.62%||3||3||+3|
|Sanghata Socialist Party||84,188||0.55%||3||2||+2|
|DMK Backed Independents||70,665||0.46%||2||2||+2|
|Indian National Congress
Seat Change: -88
Popular Vote: 6,293,378
Popular Vote %: 41.10%
|Indian National Congress||6,293,378||41.10%||232||51||-88|
Seat Change: -5
|Communist Party of India||275,932||1.80%||32||2||—|
|Republican Party of India||31,286||0.20%||13||0||—|
|Bharatiya Jana Sangh||22,745||0.15%||24||0||—|
|Total||11 Political Parties||15,310,702||100%||—||234||—|
The effective grass roots campaigning by the DMK and the political acumen of Annadurai, defeated the Congress and its leader M. Bhaktavatsalam. The popularity of the United Front was so large that they were able to win an absolute majority in ten out of the 14 districts in the state, while Congress could not accomplish that in a single district. This was largely due to the fact that the United Front was able to capitalize on its growing support in large towns and cities, combined with the decline in Congress support in its traditional Schedule Caste constituencies.
Margin of Victory
The following table shows the number of seats won by corresponding parties, by the margin of votes.
|Party||Less than 500||500-1000||1000-3000||3000-5000||5000-10000||10000-20000||20000+|
The former chief minister and popular leader of the Indian National Congress, K. Kamaraj lost his seat in Virudunagar by 1285 votes to the student leader P. Seenivasan from the DMK. A few days before the election, Kamaraj had an accident and could not campaign. This led to his famous declaration that he would win lying down (Tamil: படுத்துக் கொண்டே ஜெயிப்பேன்). He lost the election along with the incumbent Chief Minister M. Bakthavatsalam, who lost his seat in Sriperumbudur to D. Rajarathinam from the DMK by 8926 votes. Except for G. Bhuvaraghan (the minister for Information and Publicity), all ministers of the outgoing Bakthavatsalam cabinet were defeated in this election.
The election results were announced on 23 February 1967 and the DMK won an absolute majority on its own. It had increased its vote share to 40.6% from 27.1% in 1962 election. Annadurai resigned as the Member of Parliament from the Madras South Lok Sabha constituency, which was later won by Murasoli Maran in the following by-election. Annadurai was nominated as Chief Minister of Madras State and staked a claim to form a Government on 2 March 1967. He was sworn in by Governor Ujjal Singh on 6 March 1967 in Rajaji Hall. He was later elected to the Madras Legislative Council on 22 April 1967.
|C.N. Annadurai||Chief Minister, General Administration, Finance, Civil services, Planning, Police, Prohibition, Overseas Indians, Refugees and Evacuees|
|V. R. Nedunchezhiyan||Education, Industries, Official Language, Textiles, Yarn, Handlooms, Mines and Minerals, Electricity, Iron and Steel, Companies and Religious Endowments|
|M. Karunanidhi||Public Works, Highways, Transport, Ports and Minor Irrigation|
|K. A. Mathialagan||Food, Revenue and Commercial Taxes|
|A. Govindasamy||Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries, Forests and Chinchona|
|S. J. Sadiq Pasha||Public Health|
|Satyavani Muthu||Harijan Welfare and Information|
|M. Muthuswamy||Local Administration, Community Development, Khadi and Village Industries, Bhoodan and Gramdhan, Ex-servicemen|
|S. Madhavan||Law, Co-operation and Housing|
|N. V. Natarajan||Labour|
List of elected members
|**||Muslim League Candidates contesting as independents|
|*||DMK backed Independents|
|1||Acharapakkam||P. S. Ellappan||SWA||P. Saradambal||INC||14,901|
|2||Aduthurai||A. Marimuthu||INC||M. G. Mani||DMK||4,572|
|3||Alangudi||K. V. Subbiah||DMK||T. A. S. Thangavelu||INC||836|
|4||Alangulam||V. Arunachalam||DMK||A. B. Balagan||INC||2,571|
|5||Ambasamudram||G. G. S. Dikshidar||INC||A. Nallasivan||CPM||2,513|
|6||Ambur||M. Panneerselvam||DMK||P. Rajagopal||INC||10,607|
|7||Andhiyur||E. M. Natarajan||DMK||Gurumurthi||INC||7,468|
|8||Andimadam||K. N. Ramachandran||DMK||M. S. T. Padayachi||INC||5,683|
|9||Andipatti||S. Paramasivam||SWA||A. Thiruvenkidasamy||INC||6,260|
|10||Arakkonam||S. J. Ramasamy||DMK||B. Naidu||INC||7,608|
|11||Arantangi||A. Thurairasan||DMK||K. B. Dervaikarar||INC||6,421|
|12||Aravakurichi||S. K. Gounder||SWA||V. P. Gounder||INC||24,132|
|13||Arcot||Arcot N. Veeraswami||DMK||A. G. R. Naicker||INC||14,330|
|15||Arni||A. C. Narasimhan||DMK||T. B. J. Chettiar||INC||20,718|
|16||Aruppukottai||S. S. Bharathi||SWA||T. K. Sundarm||INC||9,141|
|17||Athoor||V. S. S. Manichettiar||DMK||R. R. Reddiar||INC||1,755|
|18||Attur||K. N. Sivaperumal||DMK||M. P. Subramaniam||INC||10,204|
|19||Avanashi||R. K. Gounder||SWA||K. M. Gounder||INC||5,119|
|20||Basin Bridge||M. R. Kannan||DMK||K. Ramdas||INC||9,352|
|21||Bhavani||A. M. Raja||DMK||P. K. Mudaliar||INC||21,353|
|23||Bhuvanagiri||A. Govindarasan||DMK||D. Ramachandran||INC||10,561|
|24||Bodinayakkanur||N. Srinivasan||INC||P. V. Durairaj||CPM||766|
|25||Chengalpattu||C. G. Viswanathan||DMK||T. Naicker||INC||23,549|
|26||Chengam||P. S. Santhanam||DMK||A. Arumugham||INC||11,055|
|27||Cheranmadevi||D. S. Adhimoolam||SWA||S. Chellapandian||INC||6,375|
|28||Cheyyar||K. Govindan||DMK||K. M. Kangan||INC||19,673|
|29||Chidambaram||R. Kanagasabai Pillai||INC||P. Ponchockalingam||DMK||1,555|
|30||Coimbatore East||M. Bhupathy||CPM||G. R. Damodaran||INC||5,645|
|31||Coimbatore West||J. Govindarajulu||DMK||S. R. P. P. Chettiar||INC||17,808|
|32||Colachel||A. Chidambaranatha Nadar||INC||S. Retnaraj||SWA||1,446|
|33||Coonoor||B. Gowder||DMK||M. K. N. Gowder||INC||9,475|
|34||Cuddalore||E. Re. Elamvazhuthi||DMK||P. R. S. Padayachi||INC||7,248|
|35||Cumbum||Rajangam||DMK||N. S. K. S. Pandiaraj||INC||13,415|
|37||Dharmapuri||M. S. Gounder||DMK||D. N. Vadivel||INC||6,691|
|38||Dindigul||A. Balasubramanyam||CPM||O. C. Pillai||INC||12,844|
|39||Edapadi||A. Arumugam||INC||K. S. S. Gounder||INC||6,342|
|40||Egmore||A. V. P. Asaithambi||DMK||J. Vencatachellum||INC||6,946|
|41||Erode||M. Chinnasamy||DMK||P. Arjunan||INC||19,663|
|42||Gandarvakottai||R. R. Durai||INC||D. G. Kalingarar||DMK||4,231|
|43||Gangaikondan||A. Karuppiah||DMK||M. Chellappa||INC||13,221|
|44||Gingee||V. Munusami||DMK||G. Rajaram||INC||11,612|
|45||Gobichettipalayam||K. M. R. Gounder||SWA||M. Gounder||INC||4,571|
|47||Gudiyatham||V. K. Kothandaraman||CPM||B. R. Naidu||INC||16,924|
|49||Harbour||Habibullah Baig||IND||K. S. G. H. Shereef||INC||3,850|
|50||Harur||N. Theerthagiri||INC||N. Arumugam||DMK||548|
|51||Hosur||B. Venkataswami||SWA||K. A. Pillai||INC||2,201|
|52||Ilayangudi||V. Malaikannan||DMK||S. Ramachandran||INC||10,483|
|53||Jayankondam||K. A. A. K. Moorthy||DMK||S. Ramasami||INC||5,960|
|54||Kadaladi||M. Alangaram||DMK||K. Paramalai||INC||18,125|
|55||Kadambattur||C. V. M. Annamalai||DMK||C. C. Naidu||INC||21,758|
|56||Kadavur||K. K. Muthiah||INC||Anbil P. Dharmalingam||DMK||6,314|
|57||Kadayanallur||A. R. S. Mudaliar||IND||S. M. A. Majid||INC||446|
|58||Kalasapakkam||S. Murugaiyan||INC||M. Sundarasan||DMK||12,143|
|59||Kallakurichi||D. K. Naidu||DMK||V. T. Elayapillai||INC||10,533|
|60||Kamiyambadi||L. Balaraman||INC||T. Thiruvengadam||DMK||1,412|
|61||Kancheepuram||N. Krishnan||DMK||V. C. S. Nayagar||INC||11,550|
|62||Kandamangalam||M. Raman||DMK||M. S. Saraswathi||INC||7,437|
|63||Kangayam||A. S. Gounder||INC||Velusami||DMK||146|
|64||Kanyakumari||B. M. Pillai||INC||S. M. Pillai||SWA||9,738|
|65||Kapilamalai||C. V. Velappan||DMK||R. S. Gounder||INC||8,293|
|66||Karaikudi||S. Meiyappan||SWA||C. V. C. V. V. Chettiar||INC||16,318|
|67||Kariapatti||A. R. perumal||SWA||P. M. Baskaran||INC||1,118|
|68||Karur||T. M. Nallasamy||INC||S. Nallaswamy||CPM||4,875|
|69||Katpadi||G. Natarajan||DMK||P. S. R. Naidu||INC||7,920|
|70||Kattumannarkoil||S. Sivasubramanian||INC||C. Govindarasu||DMK||134|
|71||Kaveripattinam||P. Naidu||INC||P. V. Seeramulu||DMK||3,421|
|73||Kinathukadavu||M. Kannappan||DMK||S. Gounder||INC||19,954|
|74||Kodavasal||C. Krishnamoorthi||DMK||M. D. T. Pillai||INC||6,295|
|75||Kottur||A. K. Subbiah||CPI||C. M. Ambikapathy||INC||5,529|
|76||Kovilpatti||S. Alagarsamy||CPI||V. O. C. A. Pillai||INC||10,426|
|77||Krishnagiri||P. M. M. Gounder||INC||C. Manniappan||DMK||185|
|78||Krishnarajapuram||P. Soundarapandian||DMK||T. V. Sannasi||INC||2,541|
|79||Kulittalai||M. Kandaswamy||DMK||P. E. S. Reddiar||INC||3,815|
|80||Kumbakonam||N. Kasiraman||INC||K. S. Mani||DMK||1,193|
|81||Kunnathur||M. Gopal||DMK||P. Appavoo||INC||27,209|
|82||Kurinjipadi||N. Rajangam||DMK||M. Jayaraman||INC||7,252|
|83||Kuttalam||G. B. Mohan||CPM||M. Sivakadaksham||INC||6,736|
|84||Lalgudi||D. Natarajan||DMK||D. R. Udaiyar||INC||2,640|
|86||Madurai Central||C. Govindarajan||DMK||V. Sankaran||INC||16,779|
|87||Madurai East||K. P. Janakiammal||CPM||A. G. Subburaman||INC||8,244|
|88||Madurai West||N. Sankaraiah||CPM||M. Chelliah||INC||23,870|
|89||Manamadurai||K. Cheemaichamy||SWA||C. B. Rena||INC||453|
|90||Mangalore||A. Krishnan||DMK||P. Vedamanickam||INC||12,869|
|91||Mannargudi||T. S. S. Odayar||INC||S. Narayanaswamy||DMK||923|
|92||Mayuram||N. Kittappa||DMK||G. N. Naidu||INC||3,342|
|93||Melapalayam||M. M. Peer Mohammed||IND||S. R. Reddiar||INC||8,124|
|94||Melmalayanur||R. R. Munusamy||DMK||K. G. Gounder||INC||15,820|
|95||Melur North||P. Malaichamy||DMK||M. A. Ambalam||INC||8,519|
|96||Melur South||O. P. Raman||DMK||P. Kakkan||INC||21,537|
|97||Mettupalayam||T. T. S. Thippiah||INC||Thooyamani||DMK||2,973|
|98||Mettur||M. Surendaran||PSP||K. K. Gounder||INC||6,038|
|99||Modakkurichi||K. R. Nallasivam||SSP||C. Kulandiammal||INC||19,859|
|100||Mudukulathur||R. R. Thevar||SWA||S. A. Servai||INC||11,290|
|101||Mugaiyur||A. Govindasamy||DMK||N. K Ganapathy||INC||12,043|
|102||Musiri||P. S. Muthuselvan||DMK||K. V. K. Reddiar||INC||4,865|
|103||Mylapore||Arangannal||DMK||V. R. Radhakrishnan||INC||9,228|
|104||Nagapattinam||K. R. Gnanasambandan||CPM||R. R. V. Naidu||INC||10,134|
|105||Nagercoil||M. C. Balan||DMK||T. Nadar||INC||6,692|
|106||Namakkal||M. Muthuswamy||DMK||V. R. K. Gounder||INC||7,859|
|107||Nanguneri||N. Duraipandian||INC||T. G. Nadar||DMK||4,172|
|108||Nannilam||P. Jayaraj||INC||T. P. Ramachandran||CPM||6,482|
|109||Natrampalli||T. C. T. Gounder||DMK||R. C. S. Gounder||INC||2,439|
|110||Nellikuppam||C. Govindarajan||CPM||A. Lakshminarayanan||INC||4,973|
|111||Nilakkottai||A. Muniyandi||DMK||A. S. Ponnammal||INC||12,486|
|113||Oddanchatram||N. Gounder||DMK||A. P. Palaniappan||INC||8,864|
|114||Omalur||C. Palani||DMK||C. Govindan||INC||10,245|
|115||Orathanad||L. Ganesan||DMK||M. D. Pillai||INC||16,093|
|116||Ottapidaram||M. Muthiah||SWA||S. Dhanushkodi||INC||5,123|
|117||Padmanabhapuram||V. George||INC||M. M. Ali||CPM||6,923|
|118||Palacode||K. Murugesan||INC||M. B. Munusamy||DMK||3,090|
|120||Palladam||K. N. K. Gounder||PSP||R. Sengaliappan||INC||7,556|
|121||Panamarathupatti||T. Ponnumalai||DMK||C. Sepperumal||DMK||7,727|
|122||Panruti||S. Ramachandran||DMK||V. V. Padayachi||INC||15,566|
|123||Papanasam||R. S. Moopanar||INC||A. M. Sali||IND||10,246|
|124||Paramakudi||T. K. Siraimeetan||DMK||R. Thavasi||INC||14,466|
|125||Park town||H. V. Hande||SWA||T. N. Anandanayaki||INC||2,679|
|126||Pattukkottai||A. R. Marimuthu||PSP||N. Ramasamy||INC||7,142|
|127||Pennagaram||P. K. C. Muthusamy||INC||N. Manickam||DMK||1,343|
|128||Perambalur||J. S. Rasu||DMK||M. Ayyakannu||INC||4,793|
|129||Perambur||Satyavani Muthu||DMK||D. Sulochana||INC||6,687|
|130||Peravurani||M. Krishnamurthy||DMK||A. V. Servai||INC||9,118|
|131||Periyakulam||M. Metha||DMK||R. S. Subramaniam||INC||6,375|
|132||Pernambattu||P. Jayaraman||DMK||T. Manavalan||INC||8,911|
|133||Pernamallur||V. D. A. Mudaly||DMK||P. Ramachandran||INC||9,188|
|134||Perundurai||S. Balasubramanian||SSP||N. Nallasenapathi Sarkarai Mandradiar||INC||3134|
|135||Perur||N. Marudachalam||CPM||R. Rayappan||INC||17,192|
|136||Pollachi||A. P. S. Gounder||DMK||E. Gounder||INC||11,792|
|137||Polur||S. Kuppammal||DMK||S. M. Annamalai||INC||13,068|
|138||Pongalur||P. N. P. Gounder||DMK||P.S. Rangaswamy||INC||15,957|
|139||Ponneri||P. Nagalingam||DMK||T. P. Elumalai||INC||9,995|
|140||Pudukkottai||R. V. Thondaiman||INC||Thiagarajan||DMK||20,087|
|141||Purasawalkam||V. S. Govindarajan||DMK||Damodaran||INC||12,226|
|142||Radhapuram||N. Soundrapandian||INC||V. Kartheesan||DMK||548|
|143||Rajapalayam||A. A. S. Raja||IND||P. A. A. Raja||INC||13,261|
|144||Ramanathapuram||T. Thangappan||DMK||R. Shanmuga Rajeshwara Sethupathi||INC||8,610|
|145||Ranipet||M. Abdul Gaffoor Sahib||IND||S. K. Sheriff||INC||1,058|
|146||Rasipuram||P. Periasamy||DMK||K. Muthuswamy Gounder||INC||7,529|
|147||Rishivandiyam||M. Anandan||DMK||L. Anandan||INC||318|
|148||Saidapet||M. Karunanidhi||DMK||S. G. Vinayagamurthy||INC||20,482|
|149||St. Thomas Mount||M. G. Ramachandran||DMK||T. L. Ragupathy||INC||27,674|
|150||Salem - I||K. Jayaraman||DMK||P. Thiagarajan||INC||14,066|
|151||Salem - II||E. R. Krishnan||DMK||A. R. Gounder||INC||11,496|
|152||Sankarapuram||S. P. Pachaiyappan||DMK||D. Muthusami||INC||5,518|
|153||Sankarankoil||P. Durairaj||DMK||P. Urkavalan||INC||17,962|
|154||Sankari||R. Nallamuthu||DMK||A. Rajendran||INC||12,928|
|155||Sattur||S. Ramaswamy Naidu||SWA||R. Krishnasamy Naidu||INC||19,910|
|157||Satyamangalam||P. G. Karuthiruman||INC||S. M. Marappan||CPM||1,206|
|158||Sedapatti||V. T. Thevar||SWA||T. A. Nadar||INC||19,614|
|159||Sembanarkoil||S. Ganesan||DMK||S. Ramalingam||INC||18,947|
|160||Sendamangalam||A. S. Gounder||INC||S. T. Doraiswamy||CPM||771|
|161||Sholavandan||P. S. Maniyan||DMK||R. S. Servai||INC||16,493|
|162||Sholinghur||Aranganathan||DMK||A. M. P. Mudaliar||INC||7,024|
|163||Singanallur||P. Velusamy||PSP||V. K. L. Gounder||INC||13,263|
|164||Sivaganga||S. Sethuraman||DMK||R. V. Swaminathan||INC||12,950|
|165||Sivakasi||S. A. Thevar||SWA||R. R. Thevar||INC||11,498|
|166||Sirkazhi||K. B. S. Mani||IND||R. Thangavelu||INC||12,814|
|167||Srirangam||S. Ramalingam||INC||M. Aruna||INC||1,118|
|168||Sriperumbudur||D. Rajarathinam||DMK||M. Bakthavatsalam||INC||8926|
|169||Srivaikuntam||S. P. Adithanar||DMK||Eral.R.L.Ramasamy Nadar(R.L.R)||INC||19,061|
|170||Srivilliputhur||K. A. A. Gurusamy||DMK||S. P. Dharmaraj||INC||8,941|
|171||Talavasal||Moo. Marimuthu||DMK||A. Doraisamy||INC||8,841|
|172||Taramangalam||Govindan||DMK||M. S. Krishnan||INC||8,963|
|173||Tenkasi||I. A. C. Pillai||INC||K. M. K. Samsudin||DMK||743|
|174||Thandrambattu||K. S. Kandar||INC||R. Dharmalingam||DMK||1,339|
|175||Thanjavur||A. Y. S. Parisutha Nadar||INC||S. Natarajan||DMK||4,511|
|176||Theni||P. T. R. Palanivel Rajan||DMK||M. Malaichami||INC||12,514|
|177||Thirumangalam||N. S. V. Chithan||INC||M. P. Rajan||SWA||3,257|
|178||Thirupparangundram||S. Agniraju||DMK||S. Sonaimuthu||INC||22,377|
|179||Thiruvattar||J. James||INC||D. Gnanasigamani||CPM||8,092|
|180||Thondamuthur||R. Manickavasakam||DMK||V. E. Naidu||INC||15,419|
|182||Thousand lights||K. A. Mathialagan||DMK||M. Sivaraj||INC||14,148|
|183||T. Nagar||M. P. Sivagnanam||DMK||K. M. Subramaniam||IND||9,993|
|185||Thiruthuraipundi||N. Dharmalingam||DMK||K. C. Manali||CPI||1,502|
|186||Thiruvaiyaru||G. M. Sethurar||DMK||K. B. Palani||INC||3,528|
|187||Thiruvarambur||V. Swaminathan||INC||K. Kamakshi||DMK||4,629|
|189||Tindivanam||K. Ramamoorthy||INC||A. Thangavelu||DMK||2098|
|190||Tiruchendur||E. Fernando||DMK||S. Nadar||INC||10,648|
|191||Tiruchengode||T. A. Rajavelu||DMK||T. P. Natesan||INC||20,348|
|192||Tiruchy - I||M. S. Mani||DMK||A. S. G. L. Pillai||INC||3,305|
|193||Tiruchy - II||R. Nagasundaram||DMK||M. K. M. A. Salam||INC||7,206|
|194||Tirukoilur||E. M. Subramaniam||INC||A. S. Kumarasamy||DMK||1,673|
|195||Tirunelveli||A. L. Subramanian||DMK||M. S. M. Pillai||INC||16,225|
|196||Tiruppattur (41)||C.K.Chinnaraj Gounder||DMK||Shanmugmam||INC||2,077|
|197||Tiruppattur (194)||S. Madhavan||DMK||V. S. S. Chettiar||INC||13,638|
|198||Tirupporur||Munu Adhi||DMK||N. M. Manivarma||INC||16,416|
|199||Tiruppur||S. Duraisamy||DMK||K. N. P. Gounder||INC||14,145|
|200||Tiruttani||K. Vinayakam||INC||V. K. Kuppuswamy||DMK||1,786|
|201||Tiruvadanai||K. Ambalam||SWA||M. Arunachalam||INC||3,969|
|202||Tiruvallur||S. M. Dorairaj||DMK||V. S. Arunachalam||INC||21,657|
|203||Tiruvannamalai||D. Vijayaraj||INC||P. U. Shanmugam||DMK||3,185|
|204||Tiruvottiyur||A. P. Arasu||DMK||V. Venkateswaralu||INC||18,873|
|205||Triplicane||V. R. Nedunchezhiyan||DMK||M. S. Sammandappa||INC||12,694|
|206||Tuticorin||M. S. Sivasami||DMK||S. P. Nadar||INC||14,658|
|207||Udagamandalam||K. Bojan||SWA||T. K. Gowder||INC||19,889|
|208||Uddanapalle||K. S. Kothandaramiah||SWA||D. C. Vijendriah||INC||14,078|
|209||Udumalpet||S. J. S. Pasha||DMK||K. Ramasami||INC||14,018|
|210||Uppiliyapuram||T. P. Alagamuthu||DMK||A. V. Mudaliar||INC||12,037|
|211||Usilambatti||P. K. M. Thevar||FBL||A. M. N. Thevar||INC||28,489|
|212||Ulundurpet||M. K. Padayachi||INC||V. S. Padayachi||DMK||1,560|
|213||Uthangarai||T. T. Gownder||INC||K. R. Krishnan||DMK||2,040|
|214||Uthiramerur||K. M. Rajagopal||DMK||O. S. Reddiar||INC||20,875|
|215||Vadamadurai||P. T. Naicker||INC||V. S. Lakshmanan||DMK||1,856|
|216||Valangiman||N. Somasundaram||DMK||R. Subramaniam||INC||4,018|
|217||Valparai||E. Ramaswamy||DMK||N. Nachimuthu||INC||20,077|
|218||Vanur||A. G. Balakrishnan||DMK||Velayudham||INC||70|
|221||Varahur||R. Narayanan||DMK||M. V. Perumal||INC||12,313|
|222||Vasudevanallur||A. Velladurai||DMK||M. P. Swamy||INC||6,980|
|223||Vedaranyam||P. V. Thevar||INC||P. V. Thevar||DMK||264|
|224||Vedasandur||N. Varadaraj||CPM||S. N. Rao||INC||691|
|225||Veerapandy||S. Arumugam||DMK||N. S. Sundararajan||INC||20,805|
|226||Vellakoil||K. N. S. Gounder||DMK||D. P. Gounder||INC||19,431|
|227||Vellore||M. P. Sarathi||DMK||J. Mudaliar||INC||14,414|
|228||Vilathikulam||M. Rathinasabapathy||DMK||M. P. S. Reddiar||IND||3,555|
|229||Vilavancode||R. Ponnappan Nadar||INC||P. M. N. Pillai||IND||11,327|
|230||Villupuram||M. Shanmugam||DMK||V. P. S. Gounder||INC||5,931|
|231||Viralimalai||S. S. Thethuvandar||DMK||P. P. Gounder||INC||3,934|
|232||Virudunagar||P. Seenivasan||DMK||K. Kamaraj||INC||1,285|
|233||Vridhachalam||G. Bhuvaraghan||INC||M. Selvaraj||DMK||8,867|
|234||Washermanpet||M. Vedachalam||DMK||M. Mayandi Nadar||INC||7,242|
- Indian general election in Madras, 1967
- Elections in Tamil Nadu
- Legislature of Tamil Nadu
- Government of Tamil Nadu
- Shankarlal C. Bhatt (2006). Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Tamil Nadu. Gyan Publishing House. pp. 525–. ISBN 978-81-7835-381-4. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Hardgrave, Robert L. Jr. (Winter 1964–1965). "The DMK and the Politics of Tamil Nationalism". Pacific Affairs. Pacific Affairs, University of British Columbia. 37 (4): 410. JSTOR 2755132.
- Chandra, Kanchan (15 February 2007). Why Ethnic Parties Succeed: Patronage and Ethnic Head Counts in India. Cambridge University Press. p. 276. ISBN 0-521-89141-8.
- "The competitive politics of rice", The Hindu, 9 April 2009, retrieved 16 November 2009
- "The politics of rice", The Hindu Business Line, 12 May 2006, retrieved 16 November 2009
- The politics of Bioscope - Part 12, Thinnai.com (in Tamil)
- Velayutham, Selvaraj (2001). Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry. New York: Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 0-415-39680-8.
- In India the term "Contest" is used to denote participation in an election. The Representation of People Act of 1951, the legislation which governs elections in India uses the term and so does the Election Commission of India."FAQs - Contesting for Elections". Election Commission of India. Archived from the original on 5 October 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
- "Periyar Movement". periyar.org. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
- "E.V. Ramaswami Naicker and C.N. Annadurai - Cho Ramaswamy, India Today". Archived from the original on 24 October 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
- "Ariyapadavendiya Anna, Kalachuvadu Magazine (in Tamil)". Archived from the original on 4 January 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- "Annadurai's historic rise to fame", The Hindu, 15 September 2009, retrieved 16 November 2009
- B. N. Pandey (1977). Leadership in South Asia. p. 434.
- "How the Communists Fared", Economic and Political Weekly, 18 March 1989, JSTOR 4394522
- Jayakanthan, D (2006). A Literary Man's Political Experiences. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-4067-3569-7.
- Selvaraj Velayudham (2008). Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry. Routledge. p. 73. ISBN 9780415396806.
- The politics of Bioscope - Part 11, Thinnai.com (in Tamil)
- The politics of Bioscope - Part 20, Thinnai.com (in Tamil)
- "DETAILS OF TERMS OF SUCCESSIVE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLIES CONSTITUTED UNDER THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA". Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
- Madras (1968). Madras State administration report.
- 1967 Tamil Nadu Election Results, Election Commission of India accessed 19 April 2009
- Karunakaran, Kotta P. (1975). Coalition governments in India: problems and prospects. Indian Institute of Advanced Study. p. 233.
- Siddhartan, N. S. (17 June 1967). "Voting Pattern in the Fourth General Election. I: D M K Success in Madras". Economic and Political Weekly. Economic and Political Weekly. 2 (24): 1083–88. JSTOR 4358065.
- Kandaswamy. P (2008). The political Career of K. Kamaraj. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 116–18. ASIN B00069WY4K.
- Election rewind (in Tamil)[permanent dead link]
- "The meeting that made Periyar blush". The Hindu. 15 September 2009.
- Pushpa Iyengar, Sugata Srinivasaraju, "Where The Family Heirs Loom", Outlook India, retrieved 16 November 2009
- Gopal K. Bharghava, Shankarlal C. Bhatt (2005). Land and people of Indian states and union territories. 25. Tamil Nadu. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. p. 525. ISBN 81-7835-356-3.
- India, a reference annual. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. 1968. p. 447.
- India, a reference annual. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. 1967. p. 437.
- Ross Barnett, Marguerite (1975). Electoral politics in the Indian states: party systems and cleavages. Manohar Book Service. p. 86.