1984 Soviet Union legislative election

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1984 Soviet Union legislative election

← 1979 4 March 1984 1989 →

All 1500 seats to the Soviet Supreme Soviet
  First party Second party
  Черненко Константин Устинович, партийный билет (cropped).jpg
Leader Konstantin Chernenko
Party CPSU Independent
Leader since 13 February 1984
Seats won 1072 428
Percentage 71.5% 28.5%

Chairman of the Council of Ministers before election

Nikolai Tikhonov

Elected Chairman of the Council of Ministers

Nikolai Tikhonov

Elections to the Supreme Soviet were held in the Soviet Union on 4 March 1984.[1] They were the last in the Soviet Union to be held before Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and demokratizatsiya resulted in partially free elections in 1989. They were also the last direct elections to the Supreme Soviet, as in 1989 deputies were elected to the Congress of People's Deputies, who then elected the Supreme Soviet.

Electoral system[edit]

Candidates had to be nominated by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) or by a public organisation.[2] However, all public organisations were controlled by the party and were subservient to a 1931 law that required them to accept party rule.[2] The CPSU itself remained the only legal one in the country.[3]

Voters could vote against the CPSU candidate, but could only do so by using polling booths, whereas votes for the party could be cast simply by submitting a blank ballot.[2] Turnout was required to be over 50% for the election to be valid.[2]


CPSU candidates accounted for around three quarters of the nominees, whilst many of the others were members of Komsomol.[4]


With over 184 million Soviet citizens voting in the election, over 99% of the votes went to a deputy to the Supreme Soviet, with over 100,000 votes against Party candidates.[5]

Party Soviet of the Union Soviet of Nationalities
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Communist Party of the Soviet Union 183,897,278 99.94 551 183,892,271 99.95 521
Independents 199 229
Against 109,072 0.06 114,102 0.05
Invalid/blank votes 17 18
Total 184,006,373 100 750 184,006,373 100 750
Registered voters/turnout 184,029,412 100 184,029,412 100
Source: Nohlen & Stöver


  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1642 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ a b c d Nohlen & Stöver, p1630
  3. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p1654
  4. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p1631
  5. ^ Party, State, and Citizen in the Soviet Union: A Collection of Documents, edited by Mervyn Matthews, London: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1989, p. 5-6, 16-18.