1988 United States presidential election in Missouri

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United States presidential election in Missouri, 1988

← 1984 November 8, 1988 1992 →
  1988 Bush.jpg 1988 Dukakis.jpg
Nominee George H. W. Bush Michael Dukakis
Party Republican Democratic
Home state Texas Massachusetts
Running mate Dan Quayle Lloyd Bentsen
Electoral vote 11 0
Popular vote 1,084,953 1,001,619
Percentage 51.83% 47.85%

MO1988.jpg
County Results

President before election

Ronald Reagan
Republican

Elected President

George H. W. Bush
Republican

The 1988 United States presidential election in Missouri took place on November 8, 1988. All 50 states and the District of Columbia, were part of the 1988 United States presidential election. Missouri voters chose 11 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Missouri was won by incumbent United States Vice President George H. W. Bush of Texas, who was running against Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis. Bush ran with Indiana Senator Dan Quayle as Vice President, and Dukakis ran with Texas Senator Lloyd Bentsen.

Missouri weighed in for this election as 2% more Democratic than the national average.

Partisan background[edit]

Bush speaking at rally in St. Louis, 1988.


The presidential election of 1988 was a very partisan election for Missouri, with more than 99% of the electorate voting for either the Democratic or Republican parties, and only three parties total appearing on the ballot.[1] In typical form for the time, the more rural counties in Missouri turned out for the Republican candidate, while the more populated centers of the city of St. Louis (though, notably, not St. Louis County), and Kansas City, voted overwhelmingly Democratic. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which St. Louis County voted for a Republican presidential candidate.

Republican victory[edit]

Bush won the election in the battleground state of Missouri by a narrow 4 point margin which was far below the margin of support the state gave Reagan just four years earlier. Bush's loss of many northern rural counties combined with Dukakis's stronger than normal performance across much of the state and his over performance in the St. Louis city area made the final election results in this state much closer than usual. The election results in Missouri are reflective of a nationwide reconsolidation of base for the Republican Party, which took place through the 1980s. Through the passage of some very controversial economic programs, spearheaded by then President Ronald Reagan (called, collectively, "Reaganomics"), the mid-to-late 1980's saw a period of economic growth and stability. The hallmark for Reaganomics was, in part, the wide-scale deregulation of corporate interests, and tax cuts for the wealthy.[2]

Dukakis ran on a socially liberal platform, and advocated for higher economic regulation and environmental protection. Bush, alternatively, ran on a campaign of continuing the social and economic policies of former President Reagan - which gained him much support with social conservatives and people living in rural areas. Additionally, while the economic programs passed under Reagan, and furthered under Bush and Clinton, may have boosted the economy for a brief period, they are criticized by many analysts as "setting the stage" for economic troubles in the United State after 2007, such as the Great Recession.[3]

From 1904 to 2004, Missouri voted for the eventual winner of the election in a presidential election, with the exceptions of 1956. However, it appears to have lost its bellwether status, voting significantly more Republican than the nation in 2008, 2012 and 2016.

Results[edit]

United States presidential election in Missouri, 1988
Party Candidate Votes Percentage Electoral votes
Republican George H. W. Bush 1,084,953 51.83% 11
Democratic Michael Dukakis 1,001,619 47.85% 0
New Alliance Party Lenora Fulani 6,656 0.32% 0
Totals 2,093,228 100.0% 11

Results by county[edit]

County George Herbert Walker Bush
Republican
Michael Stanley Dukakis
Democratic
Leonora Branch Fulani
New Alliance
Others Total votes cast[4]
# % # % # % # %
Adair 4,721 56.65% 3,571 42.85% 42 0.50% 1,150 13.80% 8,334
Andrew 3,407 52.08% 3,108 47.51% 27 0.41% 299 4.57% 6,542
Atchison 1,761 54.37% 1,468 45.32% 10 0.31% 293 9.05% 3,239
Audrain 5,072 49.11% 5,226 50.61% 29 0.28% -154 -1.49% 10,327
Barry 7,231 63.00% 4,210 36.68% 36 0.31% 3,021 26.32% 11,477
Barton 3,339 67.35% 1,603 32.33% 16 0.32% 1,736 35.01% 4,958
Bates 3,574 51.57% 3,332 48.08% 24 0.35% 242 3.49% 6,930
Benton 3,467 56.42% 2,654 43.19% 24 0.39% 813 13.23% 6,145
Bollinger 2,710 58.94% 1,883 40.95% 5 0.11% 827 17.99% 4,598
Boone 22,948 48.35% 24,370 51.35% 140 0.29% -1,422 -3.00% 47,458
Buchanan 15,336 44.99% 18,601 54.57% 152 0.45% -3,265 -9.58% 34,089
Butler 7,968 58.00% 5,751 41.86% 19 0.14% 2,217 16.14% 13,738
Caldwell 2,074 54.38% 1,726 45.25% 14 0.37% 348 9.12% 3,814
Callaway 6,687 56.01% 5,209 43.63% 42 0.35% 1,478 12.38% 11,938
Camden 7,773 66.10% 3,930 33.42% 56 0.48% 3,843 32.68% 11,759
Cape Girardeau 16,583 67.53% 7,904 32.19% 69 0.28% 8,679 35.34% 24,556
Carroll 2,811 54.59% 2,330 45.25% 8 0.16% 481 9.34% 5,149
Carter 1,429 56.53% 1,087 43.00% 12 0.47% 342 13.53% 2,528
Cass 12,799 55.75% 10,092 43.96% 67 0.29% 2,707 11.79% 22,958
Cedar 2,966 62.52% 1,774 37.39% 4 0.08% 1,192 25.13% 4,744
Chariton 2,193 48.14% 2,347 51.53% 15 0.33% -154 -3.38% 4,555
Christian 7,670 61.66% 4,724 37.97% 46 0.37% 2,946 23.68% 12,440
Clark 1,493 43.52% 1,925 56.11% 13 0.38% -432 -12.59% 3,431
Clay 30,293 50.26% 29,620 49.15% 357 0.59% 673 1.12% 60,270
Clinton 3,282 47.15% 3,653 52.48% 26 0.37% -371 -5.33% 6,961
Cole 18,023 68.16% 8,359 31.61% 59 0.22% 9,664 36.55% 26,441
Cooper 3,737 59.64% 2,510 40.06% 19 0.30% 1,227 19.58% 6,266
Crawford 3,856 55.19% 3,107 44.47% 24 0.34% 749 10.72% 6,987
Dade 2,154 61.97% 1,315 37.83% 7 0.20% 839 24.14% 3,476
Dallas 2,898 55.55% 2,293 43.95% 26 0.50% 605 11.60% 5,217
Daviess 1,765 50.17% 1,743 49.55% 10 0.28% 22 0.63% 3,518
DeKalb 1,863 48.48% 1,970 51.26% 10 0.26% -107 -2.78% 3,843
Dent 2,975 54.92% 2,421 44.69% 21 0.39% 554 10.23% 5,417
Douglas 3,225 64.85% 1,735 34.89% 13 0.26% 1,490 29.96% 4,973
Dunklin 5,026 48.70% 5,281 51.17% 13 0.13% -255 -2.47% 10,320
Franklin 16,611 58.06% 11,891 41.56% 108 0.38% 4,720 16.50% 28,610
Gasconade 4,216 72.01% 1,621 27.69% 18 0.31% 2,595 44.32% 5,855
Gentry 1,554 45.27% 1,872 54.53% 7 0.20% -318 -9.26% 3,433
Greene 52,211 59.36% 35,475 40.33% 267 0.30% 16,736 19.03% 87,953
Grundy 2,668 56.38% 2,052 43.36% 12 0.25% 616 13.02% 4,732
Harrison 2,271 55.89% 1,776 43.71% 16 0.39% 495 12.18% 4,063
Henry 4,167 50.04% 4,135 49.65% 26 0.31% 32 0.38% 8,328
Hickory 2,043 54.82% 1,677 45.00% 7 0.19% 366 9.82% 3,727
Holt 1,583 55.54% 1,258 44.14% 9 0.32% 325 11.40% 2,850
Howard 1,865 43.15% 2,446 56.59% 11 0.25% -581 -13.44% 4,322
Howell 7,277 62.49% 4,324 37.13% 44 0.38% 2,953 25.36% 11,645
Iron 1,877 45.01% 2,283 54.75% 10 0.24% -406 -9.74% 4,170
Jackson 107,810 42.02% 147,964 57.67% 793 0.31% -40,154 -15.65% 256,567
Jasper 19,934 63.92% 11,159 35.78% 94 0.30% 8,775 28.14% 31,187
Jefferson 29,279 51.16% 27,738 48.47% 215 0.38% 1,541 2.69% 57,232
Johnson 7,512 58.14% 5,373 41.58% 36 0.28% 2,139 16.55% 12,921
Knox 1,212 49.03% 1,255 50.77% 5 0.20% -43 -1.74% 2,472
Laclede 6,070 63.65% 3,442 36.09% 24 0.25% 2,628 27.56% 9,536
Lafayette 6,825 54.54% 5,654 45.18% 35 0.28% 1,171 9.36% 12,514
Lawrence 6,911 60.73% 4,432 38.95% 36 0.32% 2,479 21.79% 11,379
Lewis 1,803 42.20% 2,460 57.57% 10 0.23% -657 -15.38% 4,273
Lincoln 5,305 53.38% 4,605 46.34% 28 0.28% 700 7.04% 9,938
Linn 3,061 49.15% 3,150 50.58% 17 0.27% -89 -1.43% 6,228
Livingston 3,462 52.88% 3,077 47.00% 8 0.12% 385 5.88% 6,547
Macon 3,406 51.30% 3,215 48.43% 18 0.27% 191 2.88% 6,639
Madison 2,528 53.75% 2,167 46.08% 8 0.17% 361 7.68% 4,703
Maries 1,919 55.14% 1,552 44.60% 9 0.26% 367 10.55% 3,480
Marion 5,034 47.16% 5,617 52.62% 23 0.22% -583 -5.46% 10,674
McDonald 3,812 61.95% 2,299 37.36% 42 0.68% 1,513 24.59% 6,153
Mercer 875 49.89% 877 50.00% 2 0.11% -2 -0.11% 1,754
Miller 5,662 68.82% 2,555 31.06% 10 0.12% 3,107 37.77% 8,227
Mississippi 2,218 43.99% 2,814 55.81% 10 0.20% -596 -11.82% 5,042
Moniteau 3,502 64.30% 1,936 35.55% 8 0.15% 1,566 28.76% 5,446
Monroe 1,542 38.42% 2,461 61.31% 11 0.27% -919 -22.89% 4,014
Montgomery 2,714 56.66% 2,064 43.09% 12 0.25% 650 13.57% 4,790
Morgan 3,958 60.13% 2,604 39.56% 20 0.30% 1,354 20.57% 6,582
New Madrid 3,387 46.99% 3,812 52.89% 9 0.12% -425 -5.90% 7,208
Newton 10,617 64.36% 5,798 35.15% 82 0.50% 4,819 29.21% 16,497
Nodaway 4,103 48.92% 4,240 50.55% 44 0.52% -137 -1.63% 8,387
Oregon 1,717 45.59% 2,042 54.22% 7 0.19% -325 -8.63% 3,766
Osage 3,885 68.58% 1,771 31.26% 9 0.16% 2,114 37.32% 5,665
Ozark 2,404 64.21% 1,329 35.50% 11 0.29% 1,075 28.71% 3,744
Pemiscot 3,066 48.18% 3,288 51.67% 10 0.16% -222 -3.49% 6,364
Perry 3,836 64.08% 2,136 35.68% 14 0.23% 1,700 28.40% 5,986
Pettis 9,648 63.47% 5,486 36.09% 66 0.43% 4,162 27.38% 15,200
Phelps 8,329 58.44% 5,867 41.16% 57 0.40% 2,462 17.27% 14,253
Pike 3,271 46.07% 3,816 53.75% 13 0.18% -545 -7.68% 7,100
Platte 11,838 51.18% 11,225 48.53% 66 0.29% 613 2.65% 23,129
Polk 5,030 59.39% 3,419 40.37% 21 0.25% 1,611 19.02% 8,470
Pulaski 4,642 57.22% 3,446 42.48% 24 0.30% 1,196 14.74% 8,112
Putnam 1,365 62.73% 803 36.90% 8 0.37% 562 25.83% 2,176
Ralls 1,494 37.44% 2,489 62.38% 7 0.18% -995 -24.94% 3,990
Randolph 4,384 45.22% 5,291 54.57% 20 0.21% -907 -9.36% 9,695
Ray 3,763 43.44% 4,879 56.33% 20 0.23% -1,116 -12.88% 8,662
Reynolds 1,162 38.29% 1,864 61.42% 9 0.30% -702 -23.13% 3,035
Ripley 2,647 57.29% 1,961 42.45% 12 0.26% 686 14.85% 4,620
Saint Charles 50,005 62.90% 29,286 36.84% 209 0.26% 20,719 26.06% 79,500
Saint Clair 2,312 55.27% 1,864 44.56% 7 0.17% 448 10.71% 4,183
Saint Francois 7,923 49.13% 8,158 50.59% 46 0.29% -235 -1.46% 16,127
Saint Louis County 262,784 54.67% 216,534 45.05% 1,358 0.28% 46,250 9.62% 480,676
Saint Louis City 40,906 26.96% 110,076 72.55% 732 0.48% -69,170 -45.59% 151,714
Sainte Genevieve 2,532 41.08% 3,612 58.60% 20 0.32% -1,080 -17.52% 6,164
Saline 4,625 47.70% 5,039 51.97% 32 0.33% -414 -4.27% 9,696
Schuyler 1,063 51.11% 1,013 48.70% 4 0.19% 50 2.40% 2,080
Scotland 1,248 52.61% 1,117 47.09% 7 0.30% 131 5.52% 2,372
Scott 8,013 57.45% 5,914 42.40% 21 0.15% 2,099 15.05% 13,948
Shannon 1,696 48.46% 1,796 51.31% 8 0.23% -100 -2.86% 3,500
Shelby 1,586 46.54% 1,818 53.35% 4 0.12% -232 -6.81% 3,408
Stoddard 5,822 55.25% 4,701 44.61% 15 0.14% 1,121 10.64% 10,538
Stone 5,080 63.49% 2,889 36.11% 32 0.40% 2,191 27.38% 8,001
Sullivan 1,897 54.75% 1,562 45.08% 6 0.17% 335 9.67% 3,465
Taney 7,043 66.17% 3,555 33.40% 46 0.43% 3,488 32.77% 10,644
Texas 4,584 53.91% 3,887 45.71% 32 0.38% 697 8.20% 8,503
Vernon 4,149 54.79% 3,402 44.93% 21 0.28% 747 9.87% 7,572
Warren 4,452 60.07% 2,935 39.60% 24 0.32% 1,517 20.47% 7,411
Washington 3,240 46.29% 3,744 53.49% 16 0.23% -504 -7.20% 7,000
Wayne 2,648 51.80% 2,456 48.04% 8 0.16% 192 3.76% 5,112
Webster 5,123 56.70% 3,890 43.05% 22 0.24% 1,233 13.65% 9,035
Worth 677 47.98% 732 51.88% 2 0.14% -55 -3.90% 1,411
Wright 4,151 64.92% 2,232 34.91% 11 0.17% 1,919 30.01% 6,394
Totals 1,084,953 51.83% 1,001,619 47.85% 6,656 0.32% 83,334 3.98% 2,093,228

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
  2. ^ "Since 1980s, the Kindest of Tax Cuts for the Rich". The New York Times. 2012-01-18. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
  3. ^ Jerry Lanson (2008-11-06). "A historic victory. A changed nation. Now, can Obama deliver?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
  4. ^ Our Campaigns; MO US President 1988