|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||284.153 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|Melting point||310 °C (590 °F)|
2C-B-FLY is 8-bromo-2,3,6,7-benzo-dihydro-difuran-ethylamine. The full name of the chemical is 2-(8-bromo-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrofuro[2,3-f] benzofuran-4-yl)ethanamine. It has been subject to little formal study, but its appearance as a designer drug has led the DEA to release analytical results for 2C-B-FLY and several related compounds.
Analogues and derivatives
In theory, dihydrodifuran analogues of any of the 2Cx / DOx family of drugs could be made, and would be expected to show similar activity to the parent compound. So in the same way that 2C-B-FLY is the dihydrodifuran analogue of 2C-B, the 8-iodo equivalent 2C-I-FLY would be the dihydrodifuran analogue of 2C-I, and the 8-methyl equivalent 2C-D-FLY would be the dihydrodifuran analogue of 2C-D.
Other related compounds can also be produced, where the alpha carbon of the ethylamine chain is methylated, the amphetamine derivative DOB-FLY can be made, this compound being the dihydrodifuran analogue of DOB, or conversely can be viewed as the saturated derivative of Bromo-DragonFLY.
Where only one methoxy group of a 2Cx drug is cyclised into a dihydrofuran ring, the resulting compound is known as a "hemifly", and when an unsaturated furan ring is used, the compound is known as a "hemi-dragonfly". The larger saturated hexahydrobenzodipyran ring derivatives have been referred to as "butterfly" compounds. The 8-bromo group can also be replaced by other groups to give compounds such as TFMFly.
A large number of symmetrical and unsymmetrical derivatives can be produced by using different combinations of ring systems. Because the 2- and 5- positions (using phenethylamine numbering scheme, 1,5-positions if numbered as benzodifuran) are not equivalent, all unsymmetrical combinations also have two possible positional isomers, with different potencies at the various 5-HT2 subtypes. Isomeric "Ψ"-derivatives with the oxygens positioned at the 2,6- positions, and mescaline analogues with the oxygens at 3,5- have also been made, but both are less potent than the corresponding 2,5- isomers. The symmetrical aromatic benzodifuran derivatives tend to have the highest binding affinity at 5-HT2A, but the saturated benzodifuran derivatives have higher efficacy, while the saturated benzodipyran derivatives are more selective for 5-HT2C. A large number of possible combinations have been synthesised and tested for activity, but these represent only a fraction of the many variations that could be produced.
Alexander Shulgin lists a dosage of 2C-B-FLY at 10 mg orally.
The toxicity of 2C-B-FLY in humans is unknown. Two deaths occurred in October 2009, in Denmark and the United States, after ingestion of a substance that was sold as 2C-B-FLY a small-time RC shop, but in fact consisted of Bromo-DragonFLY contaminated with a small amount of unidentified impurities.
As of October 31, 2016; 2C-B-FLY is a controlled substance (Schedule III) in Canada. http://gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p2/2016/2016-05-04/html/sor-dors72-eng.php
The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The hallucinogenic effect of 2C-B-FLY is mediated by its partial agonistic activity at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor, but also has a high binding affinity for the 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors.
- "Reed EC, Kiddon GS. The Characterization of Three FLY Compounds (2C-B-FLY, 3C-B-FLY, and Bromo-DragonFLY) DEA Microgram Journal. 2007;Volume 5, Numbers 1-4". Archived from the original on 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
- Monte AP; et al. (September 1997). "Dihydrobenzofuran analogues of hallucinogens. 4. Mescaline derivatives". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 40 (19): 2997–3008. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.690.9370. doi:10.1021/jm970219x. PMID 9301661.
- Chambers JJ, Kurrasch-Orbaugh DM, Nichols DE (August 2002). "Translocation of the 5-alkoxy substituent of 2,5-dialkoxyarylalkylamines to the 6-position: effects on 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor affinity". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 12 (15): 1997–9. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.688.9483. doi:10.1016/S0960-894X(02)00306-2. PMID 12113827.
- Nichols DE; et al. (January 1991). "2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran analogues of hallucinogenic phenethylamines". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 34 (1): 276–81. doi:10.1021/jm00105a043. PMID 1992127.
- Monte AP; et al. (July 1996). "Dihydrobenzofuran analogues of hallucinogens. 3. Models of 4-substituted (2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)alkylamine derivatives with rigidified methoxy groups". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 39 (15): 2953–61. doi:10.1021/jm960199j. PMID 8709129.
- Parker, MA (1998). Studies of perceptiotropic phenethylamines: Determinants of affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor (PhD. Thesis). Purdue University.
- Chambers JJ, Kurrasch-Orbaugh DM, Parker MA, Nichols DE (March 2001). "Enantiospecific synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a series of super-potent, conformationally restricted 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonists". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 44 (6): 1003–10. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.691.362. doi:10.1021/jm000491y. PMID 11300881.
- Whiteside MS; et al. (October 2002). "Substituted hexahydrobenzodipyrans as 5-HT2A/2C receptor probes". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 10 (10): 3301–6. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1010.6813. doi:10.1016/S0968-0896(02)00209-2. PMID 12150876.
- Chambers JJ; et al. (July 2003). "Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of a series of geometrically constrained 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor ligands". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 46 (16): 3526–35. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.688.3544. doi:10.1021/jm030064v. PMID 12877591.
- Schultz DM; et al. (June 2008). ""Hybrid" Benzofuran–Benzopyran Congeners as Rigid Analogues of Hallucinogenic Phenethylamines". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 16 (11): 6242–51. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2008.04.030. PMC 2601679. PMID 18467103.
- Evans, Paul (2000). Design and Synthesis of Novel 5-HT2A/2C Receptor Agonists (PDF) (PhD.). University of Wisconsin-La Cross. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2010-05-27.
- Heim, Ralf (2004). Synthese und Pharmakologie potenter 5-HT2A-Rezeptoragonisten mit N-2-Methoxybenzyl-Partialstruktur. Entwicklung eines neuen Struktur-Wirkungskonzepts (PhD.). Der Freien Universität Berlin.
- Braden, Michael Robert (2007). Towards a biophysical understanding of hallucinogen action (PhD.). Purdue University.
- Silva, Maria (2009). Theoretical study of the interaction of agonists with the 5-HT2A receptor (PhD.). Universität Regensburg.
- "Erowid 2C-B-Fly Vault: Death Report".
- Thomas S. Ray (February 2010). "Psychedelics and the Human Receptorome". PLoS ONE. 5 (2): e9019. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...5.9019R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009019. PMC 2814854. PMID 20126400.