AMA Supercross Championship

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Monster Energy AMA Supercross, an FIM World Championship
Monster Energy AMA Supercross logo.png
CategoryMotorcycle racing
CountryUnited States
Inaugural season1974
Classes450SX, 250SX East, 250SX West, KTM Junior
Riders50
ConstructorsHonda • Husqvarna · Kawasaki · KTM · Suzuki · Yamaha
Riders' championUnited States Cooper Webb
Teams' championRed Bull KTM Factory Racing
Official websitewww.supercrosslive.com
Motorsport current event.svg Current season

The AMA Supercross Championship is an American motorcycle racing series. Founded by the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) in 1974, the AMA Supercross Championship races are held from January through early May. Supercross is a variant of motocross which involves off-road motorcycles on a constructed dirt track consisting of steep jumps and obstacles; the tracks are usually constructed inside a sports stadium. The easy accessibility and comfort of these stadium venues helped supercross surpass off-road motocross as a spectator attraction in the United States by the late 1970s.[1]

History[edit]

The first motocross race held on a race track inside a stadium took place on August 28, 1948, at Buffalo Stadium in the Paris suburb of Montrouge.[2] As the popularity of motocross surged in the United States in the late 1960s, Bill France added a professional motocross race to the 1971 Daytona Beach Bike Week schedule.[2] The 1972 race was held at Daytona International Speedway on an constructed track on the grass surface between the main grandstand and the pit lane.[2] Jimmy Weinert won the 250 class and Mark Blackwell was the winner of the 500 class.[2]

The event that paved the way for constructed, stadium-based motocross events was a 1972 race held in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, promoted by Mike Goodwin and Terry Tiernan, then-president of the AMA, and won by 16-year-old Marty Tripes.[2][3] It was billed as the "Super Bowl of Motocross" which led to the coining of the term "Supercross." The Super Bowl of Motocross II held the following year was an even greater success and, eventually evolved into the AMA Supercross championship held in stadiums across the United States and Canada.[2]

Motocross and Supercross eventually diverged into different forms of racing, with the latter displacing the Grand Prix world championship as the premier off-road motorcycle racing series.[1][2]

Originally, each of the AMA Supercross races were promoted by different companies, most notably Mike Goodwin in the West, Pace Motorsports in the Midwest and Southwest, and Super Sports in the East. In the 1980s, Mickey Thompson (MTEG) partnered Goodwin, then took over the West region. In the 1990s, MTEG went bankrupt and Super Sports sold its business to Pace, which became the single AMA Supercross promoter. In 1998, Pace was bought by SFX Entertainment, which was bought in turn by Clear Channel in 2000. The live events division of Clear Channel was split off as Live Nation in 2005, and the motorsports division was sold to Feld Entertainment in 2008, which currently promotes the championship.

While growing consistently since the '70s, the modern Supercross schedule since 1985 has become further compacted. The schedule would run from February to November, with both the "outdoor" (Motocross) and "indoor" (Supercross) schedules coinciding with each other during the year. By 1986, the schedule was compacted to a January to June schedule, and in 1998, the series adopted its present format, starting in early January and ending in early May, with races weekly except for Easter weekend (a traditional off-week for motorsport in the United States). In 2000, the present calendar was adopted with the season starting in the Los Angeles area on the Saturday after the first Thursday of January (between January 3-9) and ending with an early May race in Las Vegas, by which the Lucas Oil Motocross Championship "outdoor season" begins. By the early part of the 21st Century Supercross' popularity really took off.[1] In the United States, Supercross races today are now some of the most popular races regularly held.

The American Motorcyclist Association awards three Supercross Championships each year. They are the 450cc (was known as 250cc two-stroke), and both an East and West division on the 250cc (was 125cc two-stroke). Supercross racing classifications are governed by the displacement of the motorcycle's engine. They were based on two-stroke engines until 2006, when four-stroke engines replaced two-stroke engines. From 2007 until 2012, a formula nomenclature similar to IndyCar was used, with the 450cc class known as Supercross and 250cc as Supercross Lites. Starting in 2013, the AMA and Feld Motor Sports returned to the traditional nomenclature, based on four-stroke engines: 450cc (known as "MX1" in Europe), and 250cc (also known as "MX2"). The 450cc Champion has always been generally considered to be the most prestigious.

Since 2011, the final race of the season, known as the Monster Energy Cup for sponsorship reasons, is held at Sam Boyd Stadium in Las Vegas. A US $1 million purse is available to the rider who wins all three featured races. Ryan Villopoto won the purse at the inaugural event in 2011, as did Marvin Musquin in the 2017 edition,[4] and Eli Tomac in the 2018 race.[5]

Calendar[edit]

The AMA series begins in early January and continues until early-May. It consists of 17 rounds in the 450cc Class, and 9 rounds in 250cc West Class and 9 rounds in the 250cc East Class, which the twelfth round at Indianapolis in April and the final round at Las Vegas in May have an East-West Showdown, and 14 major stadiums and one permanent racing circuit (in a temporary stadium setup) from all over North America.

Event format[edit]

Each meet is structured similarly to Short track motor racing with two heat races and a consolation race in each class. In both classes, each heat race is five minutes plus one lap. Each heat features 20 riders (one may have 21 riders depending on qualifying results), with the top nine advancing to the feature. The other 22-23 riders are relegated to the consolation race, known as the Last Chance Qualifier, which is three minutes plus one lap, with the top four advancing to the final.

In the 450cc class, the highest placed competitor in points, provided he is in the top ten in national points, and has yet to qualify after either heat race or consolation race, will receive a provisional for the feature race. The feature race is 15 minutes plus one lap in the 250cc class, and 20 minutes plus one lap for the 450cc class, with 25 championship points for the race win. At three races in 2018 (the second Anaheim, and also the Minneapolis and Atlanta rounds), a three-heat format will be used (six, ten, and twelve minutes for 250cc, eight, twelve, and fifteen minutes for 450cc), and rules similar to the Monster Energy Cup individual heat scoring will determine the overall race winner.

For the season-ending East-West Shootout at Las Vegas for the 250cc class starting in May 2011, each region's top 20 will race in the non-championship event for a 15-minute heat race. Standard rules apply, with the feature race being 10 laps. In 2016, the East-West Shootout became a points-paying round where both regions' champions would be decided in the same feature. Starting in 2018, the combined East-West Shootout will also be held in the middle of the season, at the Indianapolis round.

Ever since the 2018 supercross season there has been three “Triple Crown” events every season. A triple crown event format is when instead of one 20 minute main event the riders are forced to race three shooter length races almost back to back to back. At the end of each race the riders are give a point for each position and the rider with the fewest points at the end of the night wins the event. Over the year the person who places the best over all of the main events will win the “triple crown cup” a trophy showing you skill in the triple crown format. The first winner of this event was Eli Tomac in 2018.

Starting with the 2012 Season, riders who are in first place in the Series' Points Lead will use the red plate to race in the Series.

If at any point during the Heat Races, LCQs or the Feature Races, that the race is red-flagged within less than 3 laps, the race will be a complete restart. However, if the race is red-flagged with more than 3 laps completed but less than 90% of the total race distance and after a minimum of a 10-minute delay, the race will be a staggered restart with riders lined up from the previous lap they went.

Track[edit]

Supercross tracks feature a combination of obstacles such as whoop sections (where riders skim along the tops of multiple bumps), rhythm sections (irregular series of jumps with a variety of combination options), and triple jumps (three jumps in a row that riders normally clear in a single leap of 70 feet or more). Many of the turns have banked berms, but some are flat. It takes roughly five hundred truckloads of dirt to make up a supercross track. Soil conditions can be hard-packed, soft, muddy, sandy, rutted, or any combination thereof.

AMA Supercross Championship winners by year[edit]

Merged with World Supercross Championship in 2008.[6][7][8][9]

Year 450cc Class
(formerly 250 cc 2-stroke)
250cc West
(formerly 125 cc 2-stroke West)
250cc East
(formerly 125 cc 2-stroke East)
2019 United States Cooper Webb France Dylan Ferrandis United States Chase Sexton
2018 United States Jason Anderson United States Aaron Plessinger United States Zach Osborne
2017 United States Ryan Dungey United States Justin Hill United States Zach Osborne
2016 United States Ryan Dungey United States Cooper Webb United States Malcolm Stewart
2015 United States Ryan Dungey United States Cooper Webb France Marvin Musquin
2014 United States Ryan Villopoto United States Jason Anderson United States Justin Bogle
2013 United States Ryan Villopoto Germany Ken Roczen United States Wil Hahn
2012 United States Ryan Villopoto United States Eli Tomac United States Justin Barcia
2011 United States Ryan Villopoto United States Broc Tickle United States Justin Barcia
2010 United States Ryan Dungey United States Jake Weimer France Christophe Pourcel
2009 United States James Stewart Jr. United States Ryan Dungey France Christophe Pourcel
2008 Australia Chad Reed United States Jason Lawrence United States Trey Canard
2007 United States James Stewart Jr. United States Ryan Villopoto New Zealand Ben Townley
2006 United States Ricky Carmichael South Africa Grant Langston United States Davi Millsaps
2005 United States Ricky Carmichael United States Ivan Tedesco South Africa Grant Langston
2004 Australia Chad Reed United States Ivan Tedesco United States James Stewart Jr.
2003 United States Ricky Carmichael United States James Stewart Jr. United States Branden Jesseman
2002 United States Ricky Carmichael United States Travis Preston Australia Chad Reed
2001 United States Ricky Carmichael Costa Rica Ernesto Fonseca United States Travis Pastrana
2000 United States Jeremy McGrath United States Shae Bentley France Stéphane Roncada
1999 United States Jeremy McGrath United States Nathan Ramsey Costa Rica Ernesto Fonseca
1998 United States Jeremy McGrath United States John Dowd United States Ricky Carmichael
1997 United States Jeff Emig United States Kevin Windham United States Tim Ferry
1996 United States Jeremy McGrath United States Kevin Windham France Mickaël Pichon
1995 United States Jeremy McGrath United States Damon Huffman France Mickaël Pichon
1994 United States Jeremy McGrath United States Damon Huffman United States Ezra Lusk
1993 United States Jeremy McGrath United States Jimmy Gaddis United States Doug Henry
1992 United States Jeff Stanton United States Jeremy McGrath United States Brian Swink
1991 France Jean-Michel Bayle United States Jeremy McGrath United States Brian Swink
1990 United States Jeff Stanton United States Ty Davis United States Denny Stephenson
1989 United States Jeff Stanton United States Jeff Matiasevich United States Damon Bradshaw
1988 United States Rick Johnson United States Jeff Matiasevich United States Todd DeHoop
1987 United States Jeff Ward United States Willie Surratt United States Ron Tichenor
1986 United States Rick Johnson United States Donny Schmit United States Keith Turpin
1985 United States Jeff Ward United States Bobby Moore United States Eddie Warren
1984 United States Johnny O'Mara
1983 United States David Bailey
1982 United States Donnie Hansen
1981 United States Mark Barnett
1980 United States Mike Bell
1979 United States Bob Hannah
1978 United States Bob Hannah
1977 United States Bob Hannah
1976 United States Jimmy Weinert 500 cc Winner
1975 United States Jimmy Ellis United States Steve Stackable
1974 Netherlands Pierre Karsmakers United States Gary Semics

Supercross All Time Wins List[edit]

All time Supercross wins list [10]
450/250 Class Wins 250/125 Class Wins Combined Wins
United States Jeremy McGrath 72 United States James Stewart Jr. 18 United States Jeremy McGrath 85
United States James Stewart Jr. 50 United States Nathan Ramsey 15 United States James Stewart Jr. 68
United States Ricky Carmichael 48 United States Jeremy McGrath 13 United States Ricky Carmichael 60
Australia Chad Reed 44 United States Ricky Carmichael 12 United States Ryan Villopoto 52
United States Ryan Villopoto 41 United States Ryan Dungey 12 Australia Chad Reed 50
United States Ryan Dungey 34 United States Kevin Windham 12 United States Ryan Dungey 46
United States Ricky Johnson 28 Costa Rica Ernesto Fonseca 12 United States Eli Tomac 39
United States Bob Hannah 27 United States Damon Huffman 12 United States Kevin Windham 30
United States Eli Tomac 27 United States Brian Swink 12 United States Ricky Johnson 28
United States Jeff Ward 20 France Christophe Pourcel 12 United States Bob Hannah 27
United States Damon Bradshaw 19 United States Eli Tomac 12
United States Kevin Windham 18 United States Ryan Villopoto 11
United States Jeff Stanton 17 France Marvin Musquin 11
United States Mark Barnett 17 United States Jeff Matiasevich 11
France Jean-Michel Bayle 16 United States Justin Barcia 11
United States David Bailey 12 United States Cooper Webb 11
United States Ezra Lusk 12 United States Adam Cianciarulo 11
Germany Ken Roczen 11 France Mickaël Pichon 10
United States Mike Bell 11 United States Ivan Tedesco 10
United States Broc Glover 10 United States Jake Weimer 9
United States Mike Larrocco 10 United States Denny Stephenson 8
United States Ron Lechien 8 United States Keith Turpin 8
United States Jimmy Ellis 8 Scotland Dean Wilson 8
France Marvin Musquin 8 United States Travis Pastrana 8
United States Johnny O'Mara 7 South Africa Grant Langston 7
France David Vuillemin 7 France Stéphane Roncada 7
United States Jason Anderson 7 United States John Dowd 7
United States Jeff Emig 7 United States Ezra Lusk 7
United States Cooper Webb 7 United States Doug Henry 7
United States Davi Millsaps 5 United States Trey Canard 7
United States Mike Kiedrowski 5 United States Josh Hansen 7
United States Kent Howerton 5 United States Davi Millsaps 7
United States Trey Canard 5 United States Austin Forkner 7
United States Jimmy Weinert 4 United States Damon Bradshaw 6
United States Donnie Hansen 4 United States Justin Hill 6
United States Doug Henry 4 United States Zach Osborne 6
United States Darrell Schultz 4 United States Aaron Plessinger 6
United States Marty Smith 3 Australia Chad Reed 6
United States Justin Barcia 3 United States Jeremy Martin 6
United States Larry Ward 3 United States Shane McElrath 6
United States Marty Tripes 2 United States Jeff Emig 6
United States Tony DiStefano 2 United States Braden Jesseman 5
United States Andrew Short 1 United States Jason Anderson 5
United States Josh Grant 1 United States Joey Savatgy 5
United States Josh Hill 1 Germany Ken Roczen 5
United States Nathan Ramsey 1 United States Andrew Short 5
United States John Dowd 1 United States Cole Seely 5
France Sébastien Tortelli 1 Ecuador Martin Davalos 5
United States Damon Huffman 1 United States Ryan Hughes 4
South Africa Greg Albertyn 1 United States Jimmy Button 4
United States Michael Craig 1 United States Donnie Scmit 4
United States Doug Dubach 1 United States Rich Tichenor 4
United States Jeff Matiasevich 1 United States Willie Surratt 4
United States Rex Staten 1 United States Blake Baggett 4
United States Chuck Sun 1 United States Broc Sellards 4
United States Steve Wise 1 United States Michael Brown 4
United States Gaylon Mosier 1 United States Travis Preston 4
Czechoslovakia Jaroslav Falta 1 France David Vuillemin 4
United States Jim Pomeroy 1 United States David Pingree 4
Netherlands Pierre Karsmakers 1 United States Jason Lawrence 3
United States Rick Ryan 1 New Zealand Ben Townley 3
United States Justin Brayton 1 United States Malcom Stewart 3
United States Blake Baggett 1 United States Justin Bogle 3
United States Cole Seely 1 United States Jordon Smith 3
450/250 Class SX Championships

250/125 Class is a divisional championship featuring 2 regional champions per year

450/250 Class Titles 250/125 Class Titles
United States Jeremy McGrath 7 United States Jeremy McGrath 2
United States Ricky Carmichael 5 United States Jeff Matiasevich 2
United States Ryan Villopoto 4 United States Brian Swink 2
United States Ryan Dungey 4 United States Damon Huffman 2
United States Jeff Stanton 3 France Mickael Pichon 2
United States Bob Hannah 3 United States Kevin Windham 2
Australia Chad Reed 2 United States Ivan Tedesco 2
United States James Stewart Jr. 2 United States James Stewart Jr. 2
United States Rick Johnson 2 United States Cooper Webb 2
United States Jeff Ward 2 United States Brian Swink 2
United States Jeff Emig 1 South Africa Grant Langston 2
France Jean-Michel Bayle 1 France Christophe Pourcel 2
United States Johnny O'Mara 1 United States Justin Barcia 2
United States David Bailey 1 United States Zach Osborne 2
United States Donnie Hansen 1 United States Jason Anderson 1
United States Mark Barnett 1 United States Malcolm Stewart 1
United States Mike Bell 1 United States Aaron Plessinger 1
United States Jimmy Weinert 1 United States Ryan Villopoto 1
United States Jimmy Ellis 1 France Marvin Musquin 1
Netherlands Pierre Karsmakers 1 United States Jake Weimer 1
United States Jason Anderson 1 United States Ryan Dungey 1
United States Cooper Webb 1 United States Eli Tomac 1
Germany Ken Roczen 1
United States Broc Tickle 1
United States Wil Hahn 1
United States Jimmy Gaddis 1
United States Jason Lawrence 1

Rookie Season Champions[edit]

1993 Jeremy McGrath won the Supercross title in his rookie season.

In 2010, Ryan Dungey became the only rider to capture both the Supercross and Motocross titles in his rookie year.[11]

Venues[edit]

Sources:[12][13]

Venue City State/Province Period Type
Angel Stadium Anaheim California 1976–1979, 1981–1987,
1989–1996, 1999–present
Baseball
AT&T Stadium Arlington Texas 2010–present Football
CenturyLink Field Seattle Washington 2005–2014, 2017–present Football
Daytona International Speedway Daytona Beach Florida 1971–present Racetrack
Ford Field Detroit Michigan 2006–2008, 2014–2017, 2019-present Football
Lucas Oil Stadium Indianapolis Indiana 2009–present Football
Mercedes-Benz Stadium Atlanta Georgia 2018–present Football
MetLife Stadium East Rutherford New Jersey 2014–2017, 2019-present Football
Broncos Stadium at Mile High Denver Colorado 2019-present Football
Nissan Stadium Nashville Tennessee 2019-present Football
NRG Stadium Houston Texas 2003–2015, 2018–present Football
Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum Oakland California 1979–1980, 1984, 2011–present Baseball / football
Petco Park San Diego California 2015–present Baseball
Sam Boyd Stadium Las Vegas Nevada 1990–1995, 1997–present Football
State Farm Stadium Glendale Arizona 2016–present Football
U.S. Bank Stadium Minneapolis Minnesota 2017–present Football
Astrodome Houston Texas 1974–2002 Baseball / football
AT&T Park San Francisco California 2003–2010 Baseball
Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium Atlanta Georgia 1977–1986, 1989–1992 Baseball / football
Charlotte Motor Speedway Charlotte North Carolina 1996–1998 Racetrack
Chase Field Phoenix Arizona 1999–2015 Baseball
Camping World Stadium Orlando Florida 1983–1985, 1991–1997, 2005–2007 Football
Dodger Stadium Los Angeles California 2011–2012 Baseball
The Dome at America's Center St. Louis Missouri 1996–2018 Football
Georgia Dome Atlanta Georgia 1993–2017 Football
Gillette Stadium Foxborough Massachusetts 2016, 2018 Football
Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome Minneapolis Minnesota 1994–2004, 2008, 2013 Baseball / football
Jacksonville Municipal Stadium Jacksonville Florida 2009–2011 Football
Kingdome Seattle Washington 1978–1999 Baseball / football
Levi's Stadium Santa Clara California 2015–2016 Football
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Los Angeles California 1972–1979, 1981–1982,
1984–1992, 1997–1998
Football
Mile High Stadium Denver Colorado 1996 Football
Mercedes-Benz Superdome New Orleans Louisiana 1977–1980, 1998–2002, 2009, 2012 Football
Qualcomm Stadium San Diego California 1980–1982, 1985–1987,
1989–1996, 1998–2014
Baseball / football
Raymond James Stadium Tampa Florida 1999, 2018 Football
Rice-Eccles Stadium Salt Lake City Utah 2001–2004, 2009–2013, 2017–2018 Football
Rogers Centre Toronto Ontario 2008–2014, 2016–2017 Baseball / football
Route 66 Raceway Joliet Illinois 2000 Racetrack
Pontiac Silverdome Pontiac Michigan 1976–1984, 1986–2005 Football
Spartan Stadium San Jose California 1990–1995 Football
Sun Devil Stadium Phoenix Arizona 1986–1987, 1991, 1997–1998 Football
Tampa Stadium Tampa Florida 1987–1990, 1992–1994, 1996, 1998 Football
Texas Stadium Irving Texas 1975–1977, 1985–1989, 1991–2008 Football
Three Rivers Stadium Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 1978, 1983 Baseball / football
Arrowhead Stadium Kansas City Missouri 1980–1983 Football
John F. Kennedy Stadium Philadelphia Pennsylvania 1980 Football
RCA Dome Indianapolis Indiana 1992–2008 Football
Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium Washington, D.C. 1983 Baseball / football
Foxboro Stadium Foxborough Massachusetts 1983–1984, 1990 Football
Rose Bowl Pasadena California 1983–1985, 1990, 1993 Football
Talladega Superspeedway Talladega Alabama 1984 Racetrack
New Era Field Orchard Park New York 1984 Football
Cal Expo Sacramento California 1984 Racetrack
Miami Orange Bowl Miami Florida 1987, 1989 Football
Giants Stadium East Rutherford New Jersey 1987–1991 Football
State Fair Speedway Oklahoma City Oklahoma 1989–1991 Racetrack
American Legion Memorial Stadium Charlotte North Carolina 1990–1995 Football
Tropicana Field St. Petersburg Florida 1991 Baseball / Football
Cleveland Stadium Cleveland Ohio 1995 Baseball / football
Cotton Bowl Dallas Texas 1983–1984, 1990 Football

World Supercross Championship winners by year[edit]

Conceived in 2003; merged with AMA series prior to the 2008 season.[14][15][16]

Year 450 Class
2019 Cooper Webb
2018 Jason Anderson
2017 Ryan Dungey
2016 Ryan Dungey
2015 Ryan Dungey
2014 Ryan Villopoto
2013 Ryan Villopoto
2012 Ryan Villopoto
2011 Ryan Villopoto
2010 Ryan Dungey
2009 James Stewart, Jr.
2008 Chad Reed
2007 James Stewart, Jr.
2006 James Stewart, Jr.
2005 Ricky Carmichael
2004 Heath Voss
2003 Chad Reed

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Pro MX: Vital Signs Are Good". Google Books. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Taking Motocross to the people". motorcyclemuseum.org. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  3. ^ "The First Supercross". motorcyclistonline.com. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  4. ^ Stallo, Chase (October 12, 2016). "Monster Energy Cup Moments". Racer X Online. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  5. ^ https://racerxonline.com/results/2018/monster-energy-cup/monster-energy-cup
  6. ^ AMA Supercross Champions (USA) / SX / 450 (4-stroke) / 250 (4-stroke and 2-stroke) at motorsportsetc.com Archived January 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ AMA Supercross Lites West Champions (USA) / SX / 250 (4-stroke) / 125 (4-stroke and 2-stroke) at motorsportsetc.com Archived December 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ AMA Supercross Lites East Champions (USA) / SX / 250 (4-stroke) / 125 (2-stroke) at motorsportsetc.com Archived January 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ AMA Supercross 500 Champions (USA) / SX (2-stroke) at motorsportsetc.com Archived January 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ 2017 AMA Supercross media guide
  11. ^ Moore, Eli (May 18, 2017). "Ryan Dungey: An Epic Career Part 2". redbull.com. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
  12. ^ 2015 AMA Supercross media guide
  13. ^ The Vault - Racer X Online
  14. ^ 2003 World Supercross at MotoSM.com Archived March 12, 2004, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ 2004 World & AMA Supercross at MotoSM.com Archived October 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ 2005 World & AMA Supercross at MotoSM.com Archived October 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine

External links[edit]