Abortion in the United States by state

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Latest point in pregnancy a woman can get an abortion by state and territory (without special exceptions, including risk of death to the mother or fetus)
  Start of third trimester (25 weeks)
  Viability (24-28 weeks)
  24 weeks
  18–20 weeks
  13 weeks
  Abortion outlawed
  No limit
*Indicates a limit at 6–8 weeks is expected to come into effect
*Indicates a ban on abortion is expected to come into effect

Abortion in the United States is legal via the landmark case of Roe v. Wade. Specifically, abortion is legal in all U.S. states, and every state has at least one abortion clinic.[1][2] However, individual states can regulate/limit the use of abortion or create "trigger laws", which would make abortion illegal within the first and second trimesters if Roe were overturned by the Supreme Court of the United States[3][4][5] Also, nine states—Alabama, Arizona, Michigan, New Mexico, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and Wisconsin as well as the already mentioned Arkansas and Mississippi, still have their unenforced pre-Roe abortion bans on the lawbooks, which could start being enforced if Roe were overturned.[4] In accordance with the US Supreme Court case of Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992), states cannot place legal restrictions posing an undue burden for "the purpose or effect of placing a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus."[6]

Current legal status nationwide[edit]

Abortion laws in the US prior to Roe.
  Illegal
  Legal in case of rape
  Legal in case of danger to woman’s health
  Legal in case of danger to woman's health, rape or incest, or likely damaged fetus
  Legal on request
Parental notification and consent laws in the US
  Parental notification or consent not required
  One parent must be informed beforehand
  Both parents must be informed beforehand
  One parent must consent beforehand
  Both parents must consent beforehand
  One parent must consent and be informed beforehand
  Parental notification law currently enjoined
  Parental consent law currently enjoined
Mandatory waiting period laws in the US
  No mandatory waiting period
  Waiting period of less than 24 hours
  Waiting period of 24 hours or more
  Waiting period law currently enjoined
Abortion counseling laws in the US
  No mandatory counselling
  Counselling in person, by phone, mail, and/or other
  Counselling in person only
  Counselling law enjoined
Mandatory ultrasound laws in the US
  Mandatory. Must display image.
  Mandatory. Must offer to display image.
  Mandatory. Law unenforceable.
  Not mandatory. If ultrasound is performed, must offer to display image.
  Not mandatory. Must offer ultrasound.
  Not mandatory.
Fetal homicide laws in the fifty states
  Homicide or murder.
  Other crime against fetus.
  Depends on age of fetus.
  Assaulting mother.
  No law on feticide.

The current judicial interpretation of the US Constitution regarding abortion in the United States, following the Supreme Court of the United States 1973 landmark decision in Roe v. Wade, and subsequent companion decisions, is that abortion is legal but may be restricted by the states to varying degrees. States have passed laws to restrict late term abortions, require parental notification for minors, and mandate the disclosure of abortion risk information to patients prior to the procedure.[7]

The key, deliberated article of the US Constitution is the Fourteenth Amendment, which states that:

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.[8]

The official report of the US Senate Judiciary Committee, issued in 1983 after extensive hearings on the Human Life Amendment (proposed by Senators Orrin Hatch and Thomas Eagleton), stated:

Thus, the [Judiciary] Committee observes that no significant legal barriers of any kind whatsoever exist today in the United States for a woman to obtain an abortion for any reason during any stage of her pregnancy.[9]

One aspect of the legal abortion regime now in place has been determining when the fetus is "viable" outside the womb as a measure of when the "life" of the fetus is its own (and therefore subject to being protected by the state). In the majority opinion delivered by the court in Roe v. Wade, viability was defined as "potentially able to live outside the woman's womb, albeit with artificial aid. Viability is usually placed at about seven months (28 weeks, approx. 196 days) but may occur earlier, even at 24 weeks." When the court ruled in 1973, the then-current medical technology suggested that viability could occur as early as 24 weeks. Advances over the past three decades have allowed fetuses that are a few weeks less than 24 weeks old to survive outside the woman's womb. These scientific achievements, while life-saving for premature babies, have made the determination of being "viable" somewhat more complicated. The youngest child thought to have survived a premature birth in the United States was Amillia Taylor (born on 24 October 2006 in Miami, Florida, at 21 weeks and 6 days gestational age, approx. 153 days vs. possibly expected gestational period of 40 weeks, approx. 280 days).[10]

In comparison to other developed countries, the procedure is more available in the United States in terms of how late the abortion can legally be performed. However, in terms of other aspects such as government funding, privacy for non-adults, or geographical access, some US states are far more restrictive. In most European countries abortion on-demand is allowed only during the first trimester, with abortions during later stages of pregnancy being allowed only for specific reasons (e.g. physical or mental health reasons, risk of birth defects, if the woman was raped etc.). The reasons that can be invoked by a woman seeking an abortion after the first trimester vary by country, for instance, some countries, such as Denmark, provide a wide range of reasons, including social and economic ones.[11]

There are no laws or restrictions regulating abortion in Canada, while the law on abortion in Australia varies by state/territory. In many countries the right to abortion has been legalized by respective parliaments, while in the US the right to abortion has been deemed a part of a constitutional right to privacy by the Supreme Court.

Because of the split between federal and state law, legal access to abortion continues to vary somewhat by state. Geographic availability, however, varies dramatically, with 87 percent of US counties having no abortion provider.[12] Moreover, due to the Hyde Amendment, many state health programs which poor women rely on for their health care do not cover abortions; currently only 17 states (including California, Illinois and New York) offer or require such coverage.[13]

The 1992 case of Planned Parenthood v. Casey overturned Roe's strict trimester formula, but reemphasized the right to abortion as grounded in the general sense of liberty and privacy protected under the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution: "If the right of privacy means anything, it is the right of the individual, married or single, to be free from unwarranted governmental intrusion into matters so fundamentally affecting a person as the decision whether to bear or beget a child." Advancements in medical technology meant that a fetus might be considered viable, and thus have some basis of a right to life, at 22 or 23 weeks rather than at the 28 that was more common at the time Roe was decided. For this reason, the old trimester formula was ruled obsolete, with a new focus on viability of the fetus.

Since 1995, led by Congressional Republicans, the US House of Representatives and US Senate have moved several times to pass measures banning the procedure of intact dilation and extraction, also commonly known as partial birth abortion. After several long and emotional debates on the issue, such measures passed twice by wide margins, but President Bill Clinton vetoed those bills in April 1996 and October 1997 on the grounds that they did not include health exceptions. Congressional supporters of the bill argue that a health exception would render the bill unenforceable, since the Doe v. Bolton decision defined "health" in vague terms, justifying any motive for obtaining an abortion. Subsequent Congressional attempts at overriding the veto were unsuccessful.

On October 2, 2003, with a vote of 281–142, the House again approved a measure banning the procedure, called the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act. Through this legislation, a doctor could face up to two years in prison and face civil lawsuits for performing such an abortion. A woman who undergoes the procedure cannot be prosecuted under the measure. The measure contains an exemption to allow the procedure if the woman's life is threatened.

On October 21, 2003, the United States Senate passed the same bill by a vote of 64–34, with a number of Democrats joining in support. The bill was signed by President George W. Bush on November 5, 2003, but a federal judge blocked its enforcement in several states just a few hours after it became public law. The Supreme Court upheld the nationwide ban on the procedure in the case Gonzales v. Carhart on April 18, 2007. The 5-4 ruling said the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act does not conflict with previous Court decisions regarding abortion.

The decision marked the first time the court allowed a ban on any type of abortion since 1973. The swing vote, which came from moderate justice Anthony Kennedy, was joined by Justices Antonin Scalia, Clarence Thomas, and the two recent appointees, Samuel Alito and Chief Justice John Roberts.

State regulatory initiatives regarding abortion[edit]

The following states have or had initiatives regarding abortion. The fetal heartbeat bill legislative approach has picked up momentum in 2018 and 2019.

Alabama[edit]

House Bill 490 prohibiting abortions once a heartbeat is detected passed the Lower House (73-29) on 4 March 2014. Alabama was the first state to pass such a bill.[6] The bill later died in committee.[7] Then, House Bill 314 banning abortions at every stage of pregnancy and criminalizing the procedure for doctors (except in the case of medical emergency), was introduced into the Lower House on 2 Apr 2019. The bill passed the Lower House on 30 Apr (74-3),[8] the Senate on 14 May,[9] and was signed into law by Governor Kay Ivey on 16 May.[10]

Colorado[edit]

The initiative was proposed jointly by Kristine Burton and Michael Burton[14] of Colorado for Equal Rights.[15] Colorado Amendment 48 was a proposed initiative to amend the definition of a person to "any human being from the moment of fertilization." On November 4, 2008, the initiative was turned down by 73.2 percent of the voters.[16]

Georgia[edit]

Georgia has a six-week abortion ban slated to go into effect, which will make it illegal to obtain an abortion in the state once the fetus's heartbeat can be detected. The law makes no exception for cases of rape or incest and mandates a penalty in prison for doctors who perform the procedure, noted specifically that this is NOT referring to the women who get this procedure done. [17]

Kansas[edit]

Kansas lawmakers approved sweeping anti-abortion legislation (HB 2253) on April 6, 2013 that says life begins at fertilization, forbids abortion based on gender and bans Planned Parenthood from providing sex education in schools.[18]

In 2015 Kansas became the first state to ban the dilation and evacuation procedure, a common second-trimester abortion procedure.[19] But the new law was later struck down by the Kansas Court of Appeals in January 2016 without ever having gone into effect.[20] In April 2019, the Kansas Supreme Court affirmed the lower court's decision, and ruled that the right to abortion is inherent within the state's constitution and bill of rights, such that even if Roe v. Wade is overturned and the federal protection of abortion rights is withdrawn, the right would still be allowed within Kansas, barring a change in the state constitution.[21]

Louisiana[edit]

On June 19, 2006, Governor Kathleen Blanco signed into law a trigger ban on most forms of abortion (unless the life of the mother was in danger or her health would be permanently damaged) once it passed the state legislature. Although she felt exclusions for rape or incest would have "been reasonable," she felt she should not veto based on those reasons. The trigger law would only go into effect if the United States Supreme Court reversed Roe v. Wade. Louisiana's measure would allow the prosecution of any person who performed or aided in an abortion. The penalties include up to 10 years in prison and a maximum fine of $100,000.[22]

A second law, Act 620, passed in 2014, modeled after one passed earlier in Texas, required that any doctor performing abortions also have admittance privileges at a authorized hospital within a 30 mile radius of the abortion clinic, among other new requirements. At the time the law was passed, only one doctor had this privileges, effectively leaving only one legal abortion clinic in the state.[23] Ultimately, the model Texas law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in Whole Woman's Health v. Hellerstedt in 2016, as the additional admitting privileges required by Texas law interfered with a woman's right to an abortion per Roe v. Wade.[24] While the Texas law was being challenged, the Louisiana law was challenged by abortion clinics and doctors in the state in June Medical Services, LLC v. Gee; while the District Court ordered an injunction on the law, the Fifth Circuit Appeals Court reversed this decision, allowing the law to come in effect later in 2014. The plaintiffs petitioned the Supreme Court, who granted an emergency stay of the Fifth Circuit's order, pending the result of the pending Texas litigation in Whole Woman's Health. June Medical Services was remanded back to District Court, which found the law unconstitutional under Whole Woman's Health. The Fifth Circuit reversed the District's finding and prepared to allow the law to come back into effect by February 4, 2019, differentiating the case from the Texas one as they found the physician had not taken any steps to try to qualify for this allowance. The plaintiffs again petitioned the Supreme Court for an emergency stay of the Fifth Circuit's decision.[25] Justice Samuel Alito granted the stay of the law until February 7, 2019, stating that the Court needed more time to evaluate the request and had made no merits on the ruling of the case.[26] Subsequently, on February 7, 2019, the Supreme Court ruled 5–4, with Justice John Roberts joining the liberal Justices, in reversing the Firth Circuit's order, effectively preventing the law from going into effect.[27]

Mississippi[edit]

On February 27, 2006, Mississippi's House Public Health Committee voted to approve a ban on abortion, but that bill died after the House and Senate failed to agree on compromise legislation.[28]

On November 8, 2011, the Personhood amendment, to define personhood as beginning "at the moment of fertilization, cloning, or the functional equivalent thereof," was rejected by 55 percent of voters.[29]

On March 20, 2018, a federal district court in Mississippi enacted a temporary, 10-day ban of the enforcement of a new state law that prohibits the performance of an abortion once the gestational age of the fetus is greater than 15 weeks.[30][31][17]

North Dakota[edit]

North Dakota's HB 1572, otherwise known as the Personhood of Children Act, was a bill in the North Dakota Legislature which aims to "provide equality and rights to all human beings at every stage of biological development". This step could eventually eliminate all types of abortion for nearly any reason in the state of North Dakota.[32] It would allocate rights of "the pre-born, partially born." If it had passed, it would have likely been used to challenge Roe v. Wade.[33]

This legislation, sponsored by State Representative Dan Ruby, passed the North Dakota House of Representatives on February 17, 2009 by a vote of 51–41. On April 3, 2009 the North Dakota Senate rejected HB 1572 in a 29 to 16 vote.

Ohio[edit]

An Ohio state law passed in April 2019 will make abortion illegal after the fetus's heartbeat can be detected, usually between five or six weeks into the pregnancy. No exceptions for cases of rape or incest are made in the law, which is slated to go into effect in July.[17]

Oklahoma[edit]

In 2016, Oklahoma state legislators passed a bill to criminalize abortion for providers, potentially charging them with up to three years in prison.[34] On May 20, 2016, Governor Mary Fallin vetoed the bill before it could become law, citing its wording as too vague to withstand a legal challenge.[35]

South Dakota[edit]

In 2004, a bill outlawing abortion passed both houses of the legislature, but was vetoed by the Governor due to a technicality. The state's legislature subsequently passed five laws curtailing the legality of abortion in 2005.[36] The majority of a legislative "task force"[37] then issued a report recommending that the Legislature illegalize all abortions, which would lead to a challenge of the constitutionality of Roe v. Wade in the United States Supreme Court. A separate minority report criticizing the process and reaching different conclusions was also released.[38]

In February 2006, the Legislature passed the Women's Health and Human Life Protection Act, which was signed into law by Governor Mike Rounds on March 6, 2006. This law would have forbidden abortion under virtually every circumstance, including in cases of rape and incest. The law allowed "a medical procedure designed or intended to prevent the death of a pregnant mother." Physicians performing such procedures would have been required to "...make reasonable medical efforts under the circumstances to preserve both the life of the mother and the life of her unborn child."

The act had specifically defined pregnancy as beginning at the point of conception rather than at implantation into the uterine wall (see beginning of pregnancy controversy), which might have meant that WHHLPA applied to emergency contraception and possibly all forms of hormonal contraception.

Several members of the South Dakota legislative majority, as well as Governor Rounds, acknowledged that the overt goal of WHHLPA was to get the Supreme Court to overturn Roe[39] per the recommendation of the task force (the Supreme Court at that time was shifting in a conservative direction, one that might have been more amenable to overturning Roe).

A referendum to repeal the Women's Health and Human Life Protection Act was placed on ballot for the November 2006 statewide election due to a successful petition drive by the organization South Dakota Healthy Families. On May 30, over 38,000 petition signatures were filed, more than twice the 17,000 required to place a measure on the ballot. On November 7, WHHLPA was repealed by the South Dakota electorate; the vote was 56%-44% favoring repeal.[40]

Texas[edit]

Abortion access in Texas.

The Roe v. Wade case, tried in Texas, stands at the center of years of national debate about the issue of abortion.[41] Henry Wade was serving as District Attorney of Dallas County at the time.

On August 29, 2014 US District Judge Lee Yeakel struck down as unconstitutional two provisions of Texas' omnibus anti-abortion bill, House Bill 2 that was to come into effect on September 1. The regulation would have closed about a dozen abortion clinics, leaving only eight places in Texas to get a legal abortion, all located in major cities. Judge Lee Yeakel ruled that the state's regulation was unconstitutional and would have placed an undue burden on women, particularly on poor and rural women living in west Texas and the Rio Grande Valley.[42] The legal challenge to the law eventually reached the Supreme Court in Whole Woman's Health v. Hellerstedt (2016) which ruled that the law was unconstitutional, its burden of requiring abortion doctors to have admission privileges at a local hospital within 30 miles of the center to interfere with a woman's right to an abortion from Roe v. Wade.

State table[edit]

Bans of abortion[edit]

State Status before "Roe" Current status
Completely illegal Illegal with limits Trigger law on any abortion Trigger law on late term abortion
 Alabama Yes Yes* No Yes
 Alaska No No Yes Yes
 Arizona Yes Yes* Yes Yes
 Arkansas Yes Yes* No Yes
 California No Yes* No No
 Colorado No Yes* Yes No
 Connecticut Yes No No No
 Delaware No Yes No No
 Florida No Yes* No Yes
 Georgia No Yes* No No
 Hawaii No No No No
 Idaho Yes No No Yes
 Illinois Yes No No[43] No[43]
 Indiana Yes No No Yes
 Iowa Yes No No Yes
 Kansas Yes No No Yes
 Kentucky Yes No No Yes
 Louisiana Yes No Yes Yes
 Maine No No No No
 Maryland No Yes* No No
 Massachusetts No Yes* No No
 Michigan Yes No No Yes
 Minnesota Yes No No No
 Mississippi No Yes* No Yes
 Missouri Yes No Yes Yes
 Montana Yes No No No
 Nebraska Yes No No Yes
 Nevada Yes No No No
 New Hampshire Yes No No No
 New Jersey Yes No No Yes
 New Mexico No Yes* No No
 New York No No No No
 North Carolina No Yes* No No
  North Dakota Yes No No Yes
 Ohio Yes No Yes Yes
 Oklahoma Yes No Yes Yes
 Oregon No Yes* No No
 Pennsylvania Yes No No No
 Rhode Island Yes No No Yes
 South Carolina No Yes* No Yes
 South Dakota Yes No No Yes
 Tennessee Yes No No Yes
 Texas Yes No No No
 Utah Yes No Yes Yes
 Vermont Yes No No No
 Virginia No Yes* Yes Yes
 Washington No No No No
 West Virginia Yes No No Yes
 Wisconsin Yes No No Yes
 Wyoming Yes No No No

Limits on abortion[edit]

State Time limit without exceptions[44] Waiting period Mandatory ultrasound[45] Counseling % of counties without provider Parental Notification for Minors Parental Consent for Minors[46]
 Alabama^ Conception (effective 2020) Yes Yes Yes 59%[47] No One
 Alaska None None No Yes 37%[48] No No
 Arizona^ Viability Yes 24 hours Yes 19%[49] No One
 Arkansas^ 20 weeks Yes No Yes 77%[50] No One
 California^ Viability None No None 5%[51] No No
 Colorado^ None None No None 27%[52] Yes[53] No
 Connecticut Viability None No None 5%[54] No No
 Delaware Viability None No Yes 18%[55] Yes No
 Florida^ 24 weeks None Yes None 20%[56] Yes No
 Georgia^ 6 weeks (effective 2020) Yes No Yes 58%[57] Yes No
 Hawaii Viability None No None 5%[58] No No
 Idaho Viability Yes No Yes 68%[59] No One[60][59]
 Illinois Viability None No None 40%[61] Yes No
 Indiana 20 weeks Yes No Yes 66%[62] No One
 Iowa 20 weeks None No None 42%[63] Yes No
 Kansas 20 weeks Yes Yes Yes 56%[64] No One
 Kentucky 6 weeks (effective 2020) Yes Yes Yes 74%[65] No One
 Louisiana 20 weeks Yes 24 hours[66] Yes 63%[67] No One
 Maine Viability None No None 55%[68] No No
 Maryland^ Viability None No None 24%[69] Yes No
 Massachusetts^ 24 weeks None No Yes 14%[70] No One
 Michigan Viability Yes No Yes 40%[71] No One
 Minnesota Viability Yes No Yes 59%[72] Yes No
 Mississippi^ 6 weeks (effective 2020) Yes Yes Yes 91%[73] No Both
 Missouri Viability Yes No Yes 94%[74] No Both
 Montana Viability None No None 55%[75] No No
 Nebraska 20 weeks Yes No Yes 41%[76] No One
 Nevada 24 weeks None No None 9%[77] No No
 New Hampshire None None No None 30%[78] Yes No
 New Jersey None None No None 23%[79] No No
 New Mexico^ None None No None 48%[80] No No
 New York Viability or 24 weeks[81] None No None 10%[82] No No
 North Carolina^ 20 weeks None No None 53%[83] No One
  North Dakota 20 weeks Yes No Yes 73%[84] Yes Both
 Ohio 6 weeks (effective 2020) Yes No Yes 56%[85] No One
 Oklahoma 20 weeks Yes No Yes 54%[86] Yes One
 Oregon^ None None No None 30%[87] No No
 Pennsylvania 24 weeks Yes No Yes 48%[88] No One
 Rhode Island 24 weeks None No Yes 36%[89] No One
 South Carolina^ 20 weeks Yes No Yes 71%[90] No One
 South Dakota 20 weeks None No None 77%[91] Yes No
 Tennessee Viability None No None 63%[92] No One
 Texas 20 weeks Yes 24 hours Yes 43%[93] Yes One
 Utah Viability Yes No Yes 62%[94] Yes One
 Vermont None None No None 38%[95] No No
 Virginia^ 25 weeks Yes 24 hours Yes 78%[96] Yes One
 Washington Viability None No None 15%[97] No No
 West Virginia 20 weeks Yes No Yes 90%[98] Yes No
 Wisconsin 20 weeks Yes 24 hours[99] Yes 67%[100] No One
 Wyoming Viability None No None 96%[101] Yes One

Protections of abortion[edit]

State Freedom Act[102] State constitutional protection[103]
 Alabama No No
 Alaska No Yes
 Arizona No Yes
 Arkansas No No
 California Yes Yes
 Colorado No No
 Connecticut Yes Yes
 Delaware Yes No
 Florida No Yes
 Georgia No No
 Hawaii Yes No
 Idaho No No
 Illinois No Yes
 Indiana No Yes
 Iowa No No
 Kansas No Yes
 Kentucky No No
 Louisiana No No
 Maine Yes No
 Maryland Yes No
 Massachusetts No Yes
 Michigan No No
 Minnesota No Yes
 Mississippi No No
 Missouri No No
 Montana No Yes
 Nebraska No No
 Nevada Yes No
 New Hampshire No No
 New Jersey No Yes
 New Mexico No Yes
 New York Yes[104][105] No
 North Carolina No No
  North Dakota No No
 Ohio No No
 Oklahoma No No
 Oregon No Yes
 Pennsylvania No No
 Rhode Island No No
 South Carolina No No
 South Dakota No No
 Tennessee No No[106]
 Texas No No
 Utah No No
 Vermont No Yes
 Virginia No No
 Washington Yes No
 West Virginia No No
 Wisconsin No No
 Wyoming No No

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Politics (2017-02-10). "Here's how many abortion clinics are in each state". Business Insider. Retrieved 2017-07-21.
  3. ^ What if Roe Fell?, Center for Reproductive Rights (February 21, 2019).
  4. ^ a b Abortion Policy in the Absence of Roe, Guttmacher Institute (May 1, 2019).
  5. ^ Abortion would automatically be illegal in these states if Roe v. Wade is overturned, CBS News (April 22, 2018).
  6. ^ Casey, 505 US at 877.
  7. ^ Interactive maps comparing US abortion restrictions by state, LawServer
  8. ^ "The Constitution of the United States of America: As Amended" (PDF). 2007-07-25. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
  9. ^ Report, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, on Senate Joint Resolution 3, 98th Congress", 98–149, June 7, 1983, p. 6.
  10. ^ "Most-premature baby allowed home". BBC News. 2007-02-21. Retrieved 2007-05-05.
  11. ^ Denmark
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  14. ^ Statement of Sufficiency (pdf). Secretary of State. State of Colorado. May 29, 2008.
  15. ^ Personhood Initiative '08. Colorado for Equal Rights.
  16. ^ Election result 2008
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  18. ^ http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/04/06/17623840-kansas-lawmakers-pass-sweeping-anti-abortion-legislation?lite
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  20. ^ Alter, Charlotte. "Kansas Court Strikes Down Second-Trimester Abortion Ban". TIME.com. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
  21. ^ Margolies, Dan; Llopis-Jepsen, Celia (April 26, 2019). "Kansas Supreme Court Rules State Constitution Protects Right To Abortion". NPR. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
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  28. ^ MacIntyre, Krystal. "Mississippi abortion ban bill fails as legislators miss deadline for compromise", Jurist News Archive (2006-03-28). Retrieved 2007-01-23.
  29. ^ Curry, Tom. MSNBC.com ""Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-09. Retrieved 2011-11-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)". Retrieved 2011-11-9.
  30. ^ Shimabukuro, Jon O. (April 10, 2018). Mississippi Court Halts Enforcement of New Abortion Law (PDF). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  31. ^ CNN, Laura Ly,. "Judge temporarily blocks 15-week abortion ban in Mississippi". CNN. Retrieved 2018-06-30.
  32. ^ North Dakota Personhood Bill Passes, First in US History - Standard Newswire
  33. ^ "US state's 'personhood' law would hit birth control: opponents" 2009-02-18 AFP
  34. ^ "Oklahoma lawmakers approve bill to revoke licenses of abortion doctors". Reuters. 2016-04-29. Retrieved 2016-05-19.
  35. ^ "Gov. Fallin vetoes bill that would make performing an abortion a felony". KFOR.com. 2016-05-20. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
  36. ^ S.D. Makes Abortion Rare Through Laws And Stigma - washingtonpost.com
  37. ^ HB 1233 establish a task force to study abortion and to
  38. ^ April 17, 2006 | The Nation
  39. ^ South Dakota has banned abortion - is your state next? : Indybay
  40. ^ South Dakota Nixes Abortion Ban; Michigan Voters OK Anti-Affirmative Action Initiative - Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party | Political Spectrum - F...
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  58. ^ "Hawaii :: NARAL Pro-Choice America".
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  60. ^ "Idaho Gov. Signs Parental Consent Notification Law for Minors Seeking Abortion". Archived from the original on 2013-12-21.
  61. ^ "Illinois :: NARAL Pro-Choice America".
  62. ^ Indiana :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  63. ^ Iowa :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  64. ^ Kansas :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  65. ^ Kentucky :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  66. ^ "Requirements for Ultrasound" (PDF).
  67. ^ "Louisiana :: NARAL Pro-Choice America".
  68. ^ Maine :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  69. ^ Maryland :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  70. ^ Massachusetts :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  71. ^ Michigan :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  72. ^ Minnesota :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  73. ^ Mississippi :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  74. ^ Missouri :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  75. ^ Montana :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  76. ^ Nebraska :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  77. ^ Nevada :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  78. ^ New Hampshire :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  79. ^ New Jersey :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  80. ^ New Mexico :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  81. ^ https://www.nationalreview.com/corner/new-york-state-senate-passes-expansive-abortion-bill/
  82. ^ New York :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  83. ^ North Carolina :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  84. ^ North Dakota :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  85. ^ Ohio :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  86. ^ Oklahoma :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  87. ^ Oregon :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  88. ^ Pennsylvania :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  89. ^ Rhode Island :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  90. ^ South Carolina :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  91. ^ South Dakota :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  92. ^ Tennessee :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  93. ^ Texas :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  94. ^ Utah :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  95. ^ Vermont :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  96. ^ Virginia :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  97. ^ Washington :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  98. ^ West Virginia :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  99. ^ Reilly, Mollie (June 14, 2013). "Wisconsin Mandatory Ultrasound Bill Passes State Assembly, Heads To Scott Walker's Desk". Huffington Post.
  100. ^ Wisconsin :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  101. ^ Wyoming :: NARAL Pro-Choice America
  102. ^ "Map :: NARAL Pro-Choice America".
  103. ^ "Map :: NARAL Pro-Choice America".
  104. ^ http://nymag.com/intelligencer/2019/01/new-york-has-finally-updated-its-archaic-abortion-law.html
  105. ^ https://newyork.cbslocal.com/2019/01/22/reproductive-health-act-new-york-legislature-gov-andrew-cuomo-roe-v-wade/
  106. ^ Wadhwani, Anita. "Appeals court upholds vote count on Tennessee abortion measure Amendment 1". Retrieved 9 Jan 2018.

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