Agrapha (αγραφον; Greek for "non written"; singular agraphon) are sayings of Jesus that are not found in the canonical Gospels. The term was used for the first time by J.G. Körner, a German Bible scholar in 1776.
Definition of agrapha
The Agrapha must satisfy three conditions:
- They must be Sayings, not discourses - Works like the "Didascalia" and the "Pistis Sophia", that tell about Jesus, but do not quote him, are not considered.
- They must be Sayings of Jesus - Therefore, Agrapha are not Sayings found in religious romances such as those found in apocryphal Gospels, the apocryphal Acts, or the Letter of Christ to Abgar, etc.
- They must not be in the canonical Gospels
So, mere additions to pre-existing Sayings are not Agrapha.
According to the Roman Catholic Church, for Agrapha to be genuine, they must be supported by external and internal evidence. This means that early writers, like Papias, Clement, Irenaeus, and Justin Martyr would have quoted them, and the message of the Agrapha must not conflict with the teachings of Jesus contained in the Canonical Gospels.
1 Cor 11:23–25: "The Lord Jesus, on the night he was betrayed, took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, 'This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me.' In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, 'This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me.'"
Apostolic Church Order, 26: "For he said to us before, when he was teaching: That which is weak shall be saved through that which is strong."
Acts of Philip 34: "For the Lord said to me: Except ye make the lower into the upper and the left into the right, ye shall not enter into my kingdom."
- Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho, 47: "Wherefore also our Lord Jesus Christ said, In whatsoever things I apprehend you, in those I shall judge you."
- Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, I, 24, 158: "For ask, he says for the great things, and the small shall be added to you."
- Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, I, 28, 177: "Rightly therefore the Scripture also in its desire to make us such dialecticians, exhorts us: Be approved moneychangers, disapproving some things, but holding fast that which is good."
- Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, V, 10, 64: "For not grudgingly, he saith, did the Lord declare in a certain gospel: My mystery is for me and for the sons of my house."
- Origen, Homily on Jeremiah, XX, 3: "But the Saviour himself saith: He who is near me is near the fire; he who is far from me, is far from the kingdom."
Second Logion: "Jesus saith, Except you fast to the world, you shall in no wise find the kingdom of God."
Third Logion: "Jesus saith, I stood in the midst of the world, and in the flesh was I seen of them, and I found all men drunken, and none found I athirst among them, and my soul grieved over the sons of men, because they are blind in their heart, and see not."
Fifth Logion: "Jesus saith, Wherever there are two, they are not without God; and wherever there is one alone, I say I am with him. Raise the stone and there thou shalt find me; cleave the wood, and there am I."
Sixth Logion: "Jesus saith, A prophet is not acceptable in his own country, neither doth a physician work cures upon them that know him."
Seventh Logion: "Jesus saith, A city built upon the top of a hill and stablished can neither fall nor be hid."
Eighth Logion: "Jesus saith, Thou hearest with one ear . . ."
- List of Gospels
- Q Gospel
- Gospel of the Saviour
- Gospel of Peter
- Gospel of Thomas
- Oxyrhynchus Gospels
- Egerton Gospel
- Fayyum Fragment
- Dialogue of the Saviour
- Gospel of the Ebionites
- Gospel of the Hebrews
- Gospel of the Nazoraeans
- Secret Gospel of Mark
- Gospel of Marcion
- Gospel of Judas
- Other endings of Mark
- "Where In O.T. Was Messiah To Be A Nazarene? - Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS)". wayback.archive-it.org. Archived from the original on 2009-09-27. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Agrapha: Sayings of Jesus that have come down to us outside the canonical Gospels
- List of agrapha at the Text excavation site
The Catholic Encyclopedia-"Agrapha" - 1907, therefore free of copyright