Amar Sonar Bangla
|English: My Golden Bengal|
|Amar Sonar Bangla|
National anthem of Bangladesh
|Lyrics||Rabindranath Tagore, 1905|
|Music||Gagan Harkara, 1889 (arranged by Samar Das, 1972)|
|Adopted||March 3, 1971|
"Amar Shonar Bangla" (instrumental)
"Amar Sonar Bangla" (Bengali: আমার সোনার বাংলা, pronounced [amar ʃonar baŋla] English: "My Golden Bengal") is the national anthem of Bangladesh. An Ode to Mother Bengal, it was written by Bengali polymath Rabindranath Tagore in 1905. The melody of the hymn derived from the Baul singer Gagan Harkara's song "Ami Kothay Pabo Tare" (আমি কোথায় পাবো তারে) set to Dadra Tala.
The word sonar literally means "belonging to gold", with "sona" meaning gold, and "ar" showing possession. It is used as a term of endearment meaning "beloved", but in the song the words sonar Bangla may be interpreted to either express the preciousness of Bengal or refer to the color of paddy fields before harvest.
The song was written in 1905 during the first partition of Bengal, when the ruling British Empire had an undivided province of Bengal Presidency split into two parts; the decision was announced on 19 July by the then-Viceroy of India Lord Curzon, taking effect on 16 October. This divide of Bengal, being along communal lines–East Bengal and Assam having a majority of Muslims and West Bengal having a majority of Hindus–is claimed to have undermined India's national movement against the UK's imperialism and to have been politically motivated. Along with a host of others, songs such as this were meant to rekindle the unified spirit of Bengal, to raise public consciousness against the communal political divide. The lyrics first appeared in the September issues of "Bongodorshon" and "Baul" simultaneously, in 1905. The song along with the musical notation (referred to as swaralipi in Bengali), first appeared in the periodical musical journal Shongeet Biggnan Probeshika in the same month and year. Indira Devi, Tagore's niece, Satyendranath Tagore's daughter, jotted down the musical notation hearing it from Tagore himself (this was the common norm, Tagore singing the song, and someone formally jotting down the musical notations).
The following provides the lyrics of the "Amar Sonar Bangla" as written by Rabindranath Tagore. Only the first ten (10) lines of this song currently constitute Bangladesh's national anthem and are in boldface.
|Bengali text||Phonetic transcription (Wiki scheme)||English translation|
|আমার সোনার বাংলা|
Amar Shonar Bangla
Amar shonar Bangla, ami tomay bhalobashi/
My golden Bengal, I love thee.
The first ten (10) lines of this song constitute Bangladesh's national anthem, adopted in 1971 during its liberation war. Only those lines are given in the following section. The instrumental orchestra rendition was composed by Samar Das.
Notable performances and covers
The Ministry of Cultural Affairs planned to stage an event on Bangladesh's 44th independence day, in a bid to have the world record of the most people singing a national anthem simultaneously. Consequently, on 2 March, the ministry launched a program titled "Lakho Konthe Sonar Bangla" whose main objective was to hold an event with the cooperation of Bangladesh Armed Forces where approximately 300,000 people would sing the national anthem. Several popular Bangladeshi musicians and cultural groups later joined the program.
The record was broken at 11:20 on 26 March 2014 by 254,537 participants at Dhaka's National Parade Ground. The event was attended by the Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Speaker of the Jatiya Sangsad, and all the members of the cabinet. After receiving the required evidence, the Guinness Book of World Records approved the record on 9 April 2014. The record was broken by India on 21 January 2017.
- Notuner Gaan, the national march of Bangladesh, written by Kazi Nazrul Islam.
- Ekusher Gaan, a song in the memory of the martyrs of the Bengali language movement
- National anthem of India
- "The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh - 4. National anthem, flag and emblem". Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs.
- "Bangladesh: Amar Shonar Bangla". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- Folk singer, Swapan Basu, demonstrates the similarity in a live recitation (0:43/8:46 to 1:21/8:46)
- Chakrabarti, Santosh (2004). Studies in Tagore: Critical Essays. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 108. ISBN 9788126903405.
- Komol, Khalid Hasan (2012). "Das, Samar". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- "Logo of 'Lakho Konthe Sonar Bangla' unveiled". The Independent. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Bangladesh prepares for another record". New Age. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Bangladesh sets world record singing nat'l anthem". New Age. Archived from the original on 7 June 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Guinness accepts national anthem record". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- Works related to My Golden Bengal at Wikisource