|Sandaun Province, Papua New Guinea|
|Linguistic classification||Arai–Samaia or independent language family|
Amto–Musan was left unclassified by Ross (2005) (see Papuan languages#Ross classification) due to lack of data; Wurm (1975) had posited it as an independent family. The family has typological similarities with the Busa language isolate, but these do not appear to demonstrate a genetic relationship.
Foley (2018) classifies them separately as an independent language family. Foley also notes that due to heavy contact and trade with Left May languages, Amto-Musan languages have borrowed much cultural vocabulary from Left May.
Amto-Musan family cognates gloss Amto Musan ‘bad’ supuware pioware ‘bird’ ai ʔai ‘black’ towan tewane ‘breast’ ne ne ‘ear’ ye ʔe ‘eye’ mo mene ‘fire’ mari mari ‘leaf’ he sɛʔ ‘liver’ tei teʔ ‘louse’ nanu nanu ‘man’ kyu yɛnokono ‘mother’ ena inaʔ ‘nape’ tipiyari tibiare ‘older brother’ apɔ aboʔ ‘road’ mo mono ‘sago’ tɔ tawe ‘tongue’ həne hanɛ ‘tooth’ i ʔi ‘tree’ ami ameʔ ‘water’ wi wi Possible Amto-Musan family
and Left May family cognates
gloss Amto Musan Ama Nimo Owiniga ‘breast’ ne ne nano nɔ nano ‘arm’ næ naino ina ‘louse’ nani nanu ani eni ‘tooth’ i ʔi i i ‘water’ wi wi iwa wi bi
Possible loanwords reflecting the close trade relationship between Amto-Musan and Left May speakers:
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Amto–Musan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Foley, William A. (2018). "The Languages of the Sepik-Ramu Basin and Environs". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 197–432. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
- NewGuineaWorld, Arai and Samaia Rivers