Anambra State

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Anambra
Anambra State
Anambra State
Nicknames: 
Location of Anambra in Nigeria
Location of Anambra in Nigeria
Coordinates: 6°20′N 7°00′E / 6.333°N 7.000°E / 6.333; 7.000Coordinates: 6°20′N 7°00′E / 6.333°N 7.000°E / 6.333; 7.000
Country Nigeria
Date created27 August 1991
CapitalAwka
Government
 • Governor[1]Willie Obiano (APGA)
 • Deputy GovernorNkem Okeke
 • LegislatureAnambra State House Of Assembly
Area
 • Total4,844 km2 (1,870 sq mi)
Area rank35 of 36
Population
 (2006 census)1
 • Total4,177,828
 • Rank10 of 36
 • Density860/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Ndi Anambra
GDP (PPP)
 • Year2007
 • Total$11.83 billion[2]
 • Per capita$1,615[2]
Time zoneUTC+01 (WAT)
ISO 3166 codeNG-AN
HDI (2016)0.471[3] · 17th of 36
Websiteanambrastate.gov.ng
^1 Preliminary results

Anambra is a state in southeastern Nigeria. Its name was inspired by one of its Northern and riverine clans Anam but merged with "branch". The colonialists who travelled from the present day Anambra region to present Northern Nigeria often described where they were coming from as "Anam branch". The term coupled with Omambala, the Igbo name of the Anambra River formed the name Anambra. The capital and seat of government is Awka. Onitsha, a historic port city from pre-colonial times, has developed as by far the largest urban area in the state. The state's theme is "Light of the nation". The largest town in Anambra State is Aguleri.

Location[edit]

Boundaries are formed by Delta State to the west, Imo State and Rivers State to the south, Enugu State to the east, and Kogi State to the north. The name was derived from the Anambra River (Omambala)m which flows through the area and is a tributary of the River Niger.

The indigenous ethnic groups in Anambra state are the Igbo (98% of population) and a small population of Igala (2% of the population), who live mainly in the north-western part of the state.[4]

Anambra is the eighth-most populated state in the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the second-most densely populated state in Nigeria after Lagos State. The stretch of more than 45 km between the towns of Oba and Amorka contains a cluster of numerous thickly populated villages and small towns, giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500–2,000 persons per square kilometre.

Natural resources[edit]

Anambra is rich in natural gas, crude oil, bauxite, and ceramic. It has an almost 100 percent arable soil.

Anambra state has many other resources in terms of agro-based activities such as fisheries and farming, as well as land cultivated for pasturing and animal husbandry.

It has the lowest poverty rate in Nigeria.

Oil and gas[edit]

In the year 2006, a foundation-laying ceremony for the first Nigerian private refinery, Orient Petroleum Refinery (OPR), was made at Aguleri area.[5] The Orient Petroleum Resource Ltd, (OPRL) owners of OPR, was licensed in June 2002, by the Federal Government to construct a private refinery with a capacity of 55,000 barrels per day (~7,500 t/d).

In 2012, following the efforts of Governor Peter Obi and other stakeholders of Orient Petroleum, Anambra State became an oil-producing state. The indigenous company struck oil in the Anambra River basin.[6]

On 2 August 2015, the management of Orient Petroleum Resources Plc said the company planned to increase its crude oil production to 3,000 barrels per day by September 2015, as it stepped up production activities in two new oil wells in its Aguleri oil fields. An indigenous company, Nails and Stanley Ltd, was to establish a gas plant at Umueje in Ayamelum Local Government Area to support economic activities in the oil and gas industry in the state.[7]

Urbanization and structural planning[edit]

Since the late 1990s, there has been a migration from rural to urban areas in the state, resulting in Anambra becoming a highly urbanized state: 62% of its population lives in urban areas. In October 2015, the APGA-led state government of Willie Obiano signed a memorandum of understanding with Galway modular housing company, Affordable Building Concepts International, for 10,000 housing units to be built in the state.[8]

Given decades of neglect of infrastructure and bad governance, the shift in human migration has posed problems for the state. Infrastructure improvements, both physical and social, have lagged behind the growth in population. There are problems in environmental sanitation, erosion control, and provision of social services. Major cities have become characterized by inadequate and deteriorated road networks and walkways, unregulated building patterns, poor sanitation, uncontrolled street trading, mountains of garbage, and chaotic transport systems, creating congestion, noise pollution, and overcrowding.

The government of Peter Obi, with the assistance of the UN-HABITAT, produced 20-year structural plans (2009–2028) for three major cities in the State: Onitsha, Nnewi and Awka Capital Territory, to restore urban planning and guide their growth into the future.

The plans contain policies and proposals for land use, city beautification, road infrastructure, industrial development, housing, waste disposal, water supply and health and educational facilities to turn the cities into successful urban areas that can generate employment and wealth, and provide high living standards for their residents.[9]

Anambra became the first state in Nigeria to adopt Structural Plans for its cities. With effective implementation, it should systematically grow as a major economic center in Nigeria and West Africa.

The process of urbanization is fairly contributed by population growth, immigration, migration, and infrastructure initiatives like good road, water, power, and gardens, resulting in the growth of villages into towns, town into cities and cities into metros. To have ecologically feasible development, planning requires an understanding of the growth dynamics. There is a fear that if too many people leave the villages, only the aged men and women will be left to farm. This pattern has been seen in Amesi, Akpo, and Achina towns in Aguata local government area. They have been important in the production of yam, Cocoyam, and cassava through consistent agriculture, but such activities have suffered due to the out-migration of youth to the urban centres. There has been both food scarcity in the region and over-population in urban areas.

To upgrade the State capital and improve traffic, Awka, Governor Willie Obiano signed off on construction of three fly-overs between the Amawbia and Arroma end of the Enugu-Onitsha Expressway, a distance of about three kilometres within the city.[10]

Culture and tourism[edit]

Agulu Lake alt text
Agulu Lake
Abagana, Anambra State masquerade, Full

Agulu Crocodile Lake is located along Awka road in Agulu, Anaocha Local Government Area of the state. A potential tourist site, it is home to an estimated three hundred crocodiles and water turtles. Fishing is not allowed on the lake. As the crocodiles are considered sacred animals, they cannot be killed. Legend says that these crocodiles were instrumental in delivering the town from enemy soldiers during the Nigerian civil war. It is believed that these sacred crocodiles and turtles transformed themselves into beautiful ladies and lured the soldiers unawares into the lake, where they disappeared without trace. At noon the crocodiles and the turtles appear at the banks of the lake to take in sunlight.

Ogbunike Caves, listed by UNESCO[11] as a World Heritage Site, is one of the most visited tourist sites in Anambra State. It is classified as a Sandstone cave (Lateritic sandstones of Campanian-Miocene age).[12] It has very scenic vegetation with an attractive waterfall. It is situated in the Ogba hills Ogbunike, across the Ugwu-Aga Escarpment Umunya by the Enugu/Onitsha Expressway, and lies in the coordinates of N06 11 11 and E06 54 21.

Ornamental staff head in the form of a coiled snake, 9th-century bronze, Igbo-Ukwu, Anambra State

Igbo Ukwu Museum:[13] Igbo Ukwu is an ancient town known for its astonishing metalcrafts; it continues to attract tourists to see its bronze artifacts. First noticed in 1938, the bronzes were later excavated by Thurstan Shaw (an English archaeologist). They have been dated to the 9th century, and are of high value and historic relevance.

Uzu-Oka: Awka is historically known for the great metal foundry, Uzu Craftmanship. Imo-Awka is an annual festival celebrated by the natives.

Niger Bridge - Gateway into Anambra alt text
Niger Bridge - Gateway into Anambra

Other Anambra tourism potentials and cultural festivals include:

  • Imo-Awka Festival of Awka. the biggest tourist show in Anambra; this is held annually starting in June–July.
  • Ijele Masquerade- listed in the UNESCO Archives as an Intangible Cultural element.[14] The Ijele dance festival is home to the 'Olus' of the Omambala area: But actually originated from Umueri, other towns in includes Anaku, Omor, Nsugbe, Aguleri, Umueri, Awkuzu, Nteje, Ogbunike, Nkwelle-Ezunaka, Umunya, etc. But the origin of Ijele can be traced to Umueri community.

Many towns celebrate the New Yam Festival, held after yam cultivation each July.

  • Oke-ebo Umueri festival
  • Otite, Anam New Yam Festival.
  • Nzurani Anam Festival
  • Achukwu Masquerade of Ekwulobia.
  • Nwafor Festival at Ogidi and Ogbunike.
  • Ekwulobia New Yam Festival.
  • Omaba Yearly New-Yam Festival.
  • Aguluzigbo New-Yam Festival
  • Nnobi Afia oru festival
  • Ozubulu New-yam festival
  • Ihembosi New-yam festival
  • Ozoebunu masquerade of Ihembosi
  • Umueri New-yam festival
  • Ozoebunu masquerade of Ozubulu
  • Okija New-Yam Festival
  • Mmanwu Okija Masquerade Dance
  • Ihiala New -Yam Festival
  • Igu Aro festival at Mmanoma Umueri
  • Nanka New -Yam Festival.

There are a variety of other traditional festivals and masquerades:

  • Manwu Ihiala Masquerade Dance
  • Ajana-Ukwu and Igu aro festivals at Aguleri.
  • Akwuneche enyi masquerade of Omambala area: Anaku, Igbakwu, Aguleri, Umuleri, Awkuzu, Umunya, Owelle- Olumbanasa etc.
  • Izaga masquerade of Omambala area: Anaku, Igbakwu, Aguleri, Umuleri, Awkuzu, Umunya, etc.
  • Abele masquerade of Omambala area: Anaku, Igbakwu, Aguleri, Umueri, Awkuzu, Umunya, etc.
  • Obele Masquerade of Owelle -Olumbanasa.
  • Afia olu Festival in Nnewi.
  • Ufala mmuo festival at Oba
  • Ofala Eze of Owelle -Olumbanasa.
  • Amanwulu and ozo Festivals at Aguleri, Anaku.
  • Olili Obibia Eri (Eri Festival) in Enugwu Aguleri attracts thousands of visitors home and abroad annually.
  • Uzoiyi Festival Umuoji attracts thousands of visitors annually.
  • Ofala (Ovala) Festival commemorates the Kingship (Eze) and is celebrated by various towns. It was popularised by Onitsha town.
  • Igu-Aro is the major kingship festival among the Umueri, Anaku and Aguleri.
  • Nkpokiti Dance, Umunze is known for fantastic acrobatic performances.
  • Obo Ofor Festival in Uga, Aguata local government area.
  • Ayaka masquerade at Umuatuolu Umueri
  • Nkwor Festival in Uga, Aguata local government area.
  • Uku, an annual masquerade festival in Amanasaa Umuchu, Aguata local government area.
  • Mkpluede Festival Isuaniocha
  • ito-ogbo -80th birthday celebration by age grades [of obosi, idemili local government]
  • Egwu alusi Masqurade festival of Mgbakwu.
  • Igba-enyi music group of Mgbakwu
  • Isato dance of Otinaeze Mgbakwu

Other attractions include the following geographic landmarks and cultural institutions:

  • The River Niger at Onitsha and Asaba, with the famous Niger bridge, is the eastern gateway linking the South East with the Niger Delta and Western Nigeria.
  • Agbanagbo Ezu-na-Omambala (Confluence of Ezu and Omabala rivers) at Aguleri
  • Isi Ubi stone stream Umu-Opu, Umuatuolu Umueri
  • Obu Gad at Enugwu Aguleri.
  • Ini ERI (Eri Grave) at Aguleri
  • Ini Iguedo (Iguedo Grave) at Nando.
  • Odinani Museum at Nri.
  • Dabawu ancestral abode of Eri at Ugume Umueri
  • Agwuve Trinity Tree at Enugwu Aguleri
  • Rogeny Tourist Village at Oba (a stadium that is equipped with recreational activities including a swimming pool, zoo, shrine, soccer stadium, etc./

Education[edit]

Awka, the state capital, is also the center of Nigeria's metalwork and carving industries. Educationally, Anambra is a centre of excellence. There are the Nnamdi Azikiwe University (UNIZIK), Awka, and a federal university with a College of Medicine situated at Nnewi. The UNIZIK Nnewi runs a modern teaching hospital, with facilities also at Umunya and Ukpo. UNIZIK also has faculty of pharmaceutical sciences at Agulu, a School of Preliminary studies at Mbaukwu, and a College of Agriculture.

The Anambra State University, formerly known as Anambra State University of Science and Technology (ASUTECH), has two campuses, one in Uli, and another at Igbariam; the Federal Polytechnic, Oko; Nwafor Orizu University of Education (formerly known as the Nwafor Orizu College of Education), Nsugbe. Private universities include The Tansian University, Umunya; Madonna University, Okija; and St Paul's University, Awka.

Literacy rate in the state is comparatively high compared to other states.[specify] Primary and secondary school enrollment in the state is one of the highest in the country.[citation needed] Consequently, Anambra state has the highest number of JAMB candidates going after the limited number of spaces in Nigeria's tertiary colleges. Since 2011/2012 till date (2014), its students have had the best results in both WAEC and NECO-conducted senior secondary school examinations.

Politics[edit]

Anambra's political history can be described as varied. Until the early 21st century, it was marked by considerable unrest. Having a long list of "firsts" in Nigerian history, it has been known by the sobriquet as "The Light of The Nation". On 29 May 1999, Chinwoke Mbadinuju was sworn in as civilian governor of Anambra state, after many years of military rule. His administration was marred by deep problems: the most notable was withholding of teachers' salaries in the school. The teachers finally conducted a ten-month strike in all the government secondary schools in the state.

Before Mbadinuju's rule, secondary education had been free of charge. But his administration imposed a tuition fee of 3,000 Naira per term for all secondary schools, which led to an unprecedented massive demonstration by secondary school students from all over the state. Many people attribute Mbadinuju's failure to political godfathers; his successor also struggled. On 26 May 2003, Chris Ngige was sworn in as the new governor of the state, but he was removed in March 2006 after Peter Obi of APGA filed charges against him of electoral malpractice. The Court of Appeal in Enugu asserted that Ngige's apparent victory in the 2003 election was fraudulent and ordered him to leave the seat.[15]

Obi was ousted by a faction of the Anambra State House of Assembly on 2 November 2006 and replaced by Virginia Etiaba, his deputy.[16] On 9 February 2007, Mrs. Etiaba handed power back to Obi after the Court of Appeal had nullified Obi's removal.[17]

On 14 April 2007, Andy Uba of PDP was "elected" as the new governor of the state and, on 29 May, was sworn in. Reported to be massively rigged, the election was widely criticised. On 14 June 2007 the Supreme Court of Nigeria ruled that Peter Obi's tenure had not ended; therefore there was no vacancy in the governorship. It removed Andy Uba from office and replaced him with his predecessor Obi.[18]

On 6 February 2010, Peter Obi was re-elected governor for a second term of four years, after a hot contest with Chris Ngige, a former governor of the state; Prof. Charles Soludo, a former governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria; and Andy Uba, who was a strong voice in the state's politics. Other contenders included Mrs Uche Ekwunife, Prince Nicholas Ukachukwu, and many others. Twenty-five contestants ran for the office. Obi was affirmed as the winner of the election, having more than 30% votes above the immediate runner-up. Chief Willie Obiano was sworn in on 17 March 2014 after winning 16 November 2013 election. Governor Willie Obiano of All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA) was sworn in for a second term in office on 17 March 2018 after the victory at 18 November 2017 elections.

Cities and administrative divisions[edit]

With an annual population growth rate of 2.21 percent per annum, Anambra State has over 60% of its people living in urban areas. It is one of the most urbanized states in Nigeria.

The major urban centres of Anambra state are Onitsha, including Okpoko; Nnewi, and Awka, the state capital. Awka and Onitsha developed as pre-colonial urban centres: Awka was the craft industrial centre of the Nri hegemony. Onitsha is a city state on the Niger, having developed as a river port and commercial centre.

Onitsha is a fast-growing commercial city, and has developed to become a huge conurbation extending to Idemili, Oyi and Anambra East LGAs, with one of the largest markets in West Africa.

Nnewi (sometimes called the Taiwan of Nigeria) is a rapidly developing industrial and commercial centre. Designated as the state capital, Awka has regained its precolonial administrative eminence.

Other main towns of Anambra state are: Abagana, Abba, Abacha, Umueri, Abatete, Achalla, Achina, Adazi Ani, Adazi-Enu, Adazi-Nnukwu, Agukwu, Aguleri, Agulu, Aguluezechukwu, Aguluzigbo, Ajalli, Akpo, Akpu, Akwaeze, Akwaukwu, Alor, Amaetiti, Amansea, Amanuke, Amaokpala, Amawbia, Amesi, Amichi, Amorka, Anaku, Atani, Awa, Otuocha Umueri, Awba-Ofemili, Awgbu, Awka-Etiti, Awkuzu, Azia, Azigbo, Ebenator, Ebenebe, Ekwulobia, Ekwulumili, Enugwu-Agidi, Enugwu Aguleri, Enugwu Ukwu, Ezinifite, Ezinihite, Eziowelle, Ezira, Ichi, Ichida, Ideani, Ifitedunu, Ifite-Ogwari, Igbakwu, Igbariam, Igbedor, Igbo-Ukwu, Ihembosi, Ihiala, Ikenga, Inoma, Iseke, Isuaniocha, Isulo, Isuofia, Lilu, Mbosi, Mgbakwu, Mmiata Anam, Nando, Nanka, Nawfia, Nawfija, Nawgu, Ndikelionwu, Ndi-okpaleke, Ndiukwuenu, Nibo, Nimo, Nise, Nkpologwu, Nkpor, Nkwelle-Ezunaka, Nneni, Nnobi, Nnokwa, Nnokwa, Nsugbe, Nteje, Nzam, Oba, Obeledu, Obosi, Ogbunike, Ogbunka, Ogidi, Ojoto, Okija, Oko, Okpeze, Omasi, Omogho, Omor, Ora-Eri, Oraifite, Oraukwu, Orsumoghu, Osumenyi, Owellezukala, Owelle-Olumbanasa, Ozubulu, Ubuluisiuzor, Ufuma, Uga, Ugbenne, Ugbenu, Uke, Ukpo, Ukpor, Ukwalla-Olumbanasa, Ukwulu, Uli, Umuanaga, Umuawulu, Umuchu, Umudioka, Umueje, Umuerum, Umueze Anam, Umuoba Anam, Umumbo, Umunnachi, Umunya, Umunze, Umuoji, Umuomaku,Umuona Unubi, Utuh et al.

History[edit]

Anambra's history stretches to the 9th century AD, as revealed by archaeological excavations at Igbo-Ukwu and Ezira. It has great works of art in iron, bronze, copper, and pottery works belonging to the ancient Kingdom of Nri. These have revealed a sophisticated divine Kingship administrative system, which held sway in the area of Anambra from c. 948 AD to 1911. In some towns, such as Ogidi and others, local families had hereditary rights to kingship for centuries.

Great Britain recognised some of these traditional kings and leaders in their system of indirect rule of the Protectorate of South Nigeria. Beginning in the 19th century, they appointed some noble leaders as Warrant Chiefs, authorizing them to collect taxes, among other duties.

Anambra is in the Igbo-dominated area that seceded as part of an independent Biafra in 1967, following rising tensions with Northern Nigeria. During the Nigerian/Biafran war (1967-1970), Biafran engineers constructed a relief airstrip in the town of Uli/Amorka (code named "Annabelle"). Extremely dangerous relief flights took off from Sao Tome and other sites loaded with tons of food and medicine for the distressed Biafran population. Uli/Amorka airstrip was the site where American pilots such as Alex Nicoll, and scores of others, delivered tons of relief supplies to the Biafran population.[19] Disgusted by the suffering and mounting death toll in Biafra from starvation, as well as the continuous harassment of the relief planes by the Nigerian Airforce, Carl Gustaf von Rosen resigned as a Red Cross relief pilot. He helped Biafra to form an airforce of five Minicoin planes Malmö MFI-9 stationed at the Uga airstrip. He named his tiny but effective airforce "Babies of Biafra" in honour of the babies who died from starvation inside Biafra.

Old Anambra State was created in 1976 from part of East Central State, and its capital was Enugu. In 1991 a re-organisation divided Anambra into two states, Anambra and Enugu. The capital of Anambra is Awka.

Local government areas[edit]

Anambra State LGA Map alt text
Anambra State LGA Map

Anambra State consists of twenty-one (21) Local Government Areas. They are:

Notable people[edit]

Chinua Achebe alt text
Chinua Achebe
Chuba Okadigbo
  • Nnamdi Azikiwe Owelle of Onitsha – the first President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and historically, the only man whose name appeared in the Constitution of his country (Nigeria's Republican Constitution of 1963).
  • Dr. Alex Ifeanyichukwu Ekwueme, hails from Okoh town, is a frontline Politician, Architect and the first executive Vice-President of Nigeria, serving 1979 – 1983.
  • Nwafor Orizu – hails from Nnewi, the first Senate President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
  • Dim Emeka Ojukwu – a native of Nnewi, the leader of the secessionist Biafra Republic;
  • Dr. senator Chuba Wilberforce Okadigbo (17 December 1941 – 25 September 2003) – a native of Ogbunike, was President of the Senate of Nigeria.
  • Professor Chinua Achebe – a native of Ogidi and best known for the classic, Things Fall Apart was the first African writer whose books are standard curricula in schools and universities across the world.
  • Blessed Cyprian Michael Iwene Tansi (born in Aguleri, Anambra State, in September 1903 – died in Leicester, England, 24 January 1964) was an Igbo from Aguleri in Anambra East. He was ordained a Roman Catholic priest of the Archdiocese of Onitsha, Nigeria on 19 December 1937. He worked in the parishes of Nnewi, Dunukofia, Akpu/Ajalli and Aguleri and was later a Cistercian monk at Mount Saint Bernard Monastery in England. Pope John Paul II beatified him on 22 March 1998, saying "Blessed Cyprian Michael Tansi is a prime example of the fruits of holiness which have grown and matured in the Church in Nigeria since the Gospel was first preached in this land."
  • Emeka Offor – Chairman of Chrome Group
  • Emeka Anyaoku – the first black Secretary-General of the Commonwealth and recipient of South Africa's Order of the Companions of Oliver Reginald Tambo for his role in initiating talks between the apartheid state and the African National Congress (ANC).
  • Professor Uche Okeke – a native of Nimo and one of the foremost Nigerian fine artists, founder of the Uli movement.
  • Lieutenant-General Chikadibia Isaac Obiakor, appointed in 2008 by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon as Military Advisor on UN Peacekeeping Operations. Previously served as Commander of the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) Artillery Brigade in Liberia in 1996 and 1997, and as ECOMOG Chief Coordinator of the Liberian elections in July 1997.[20]
  • Professor Humphrey Nwobu Nwosu. A Professor of Political Science. Former NEC Chairman. Conducted the freest, fairest and most credible election so far in Nigeria.
  • Chinyelu Onwurah, a British Labour Party politician, who was elected at the 2010 general election as the Member of Parliament for Newcastle-upon-Tyne Central, becoming the first female British MP of African origin.
  • Chuka Umunna, a British Labour Party Member of Parliament for Streatham constituency.
  • Professor Kenneth Dike – a pre-eminent scholar of African History and native of Awka, was the first indigenous Vice-Chancellor of the University of Ibadan and founder of the National Archives.
  • Professor Ben Enwonwu – a native of Onitsha was the first Nigerian sculptor of international repute with artwork gracing the United Nations headquarters.[21]
  • Pius Okigbo, CON[22] – a world-renowned economist, was the first economic advisor to the Federal government of Nigeria (1960–1962), first Nigerian Ambassador to the European Community and renowned for bringing to light over $12 billion missing in oil windfall receipts from the Central Bank of Nigeria during the first Gulf War.
  • Professor Samuel Okoye – was black Africa's first PhD in Radio Astronomy who along with Antony Hewish of the University of Cambridge discovered the radio source of Crab Nebula neutron star.
  • Chief Jerome Udoji – from Ozubulu,[23] a social reformer was the first African to be made a 'D.O' (District Officer) by the Colonial Administration.

Others include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See List of Governors of Anambra State for a list of prior governors
  2. ^ a b "C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)". Canback Dangel. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
  3. ^ "National Human Development Report 2018" (PDF).
  4. ^ "Anambra State". Igbofocus.co.uk. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  5. ^ [1], All Africa, 2006
  6. ^ vanguardngr.com, Nigeria (24 March 2012). "Excitement as Orient Petroleum strikes oil in Anambra". vanguardngr.com. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  7. ^ Thisday Live, Nigeria (August 3, 2015). "Anambra Refinery Targets 3,000 Barrels of Oil Per Day". thisdaylive.com. Archived from the original on September 26, 2015. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  8. ^ "Affordable Building Concepts International to build houses in Nigeria". The Irish Times. 30 October 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  9. ^ ". Nigeria | Activities | Structure Plans for Three Urban Areas in Anambra State". Un-Habitat. 13 August 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  10. ^ "ANAMBRA TODAY: Obiano builds 3-Arms Zone, begins moves to relocate Govt House". The Sun, Nigeria. June 26, 2014. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  11. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre (27 June 2013). "Ogbunike Caves - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  12. ^ Jochen Duckeck <http://www.JochenDuckeck.de/>. "Show Caves of Nigeria: Ogba Ogbunike". Showcaves.com. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  13. ^ "Nigeria - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. 1 October 1960. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  14. ^ "Ijele masquerade | Intangible heritage - UNESCO Multimedia Archives". Unesco.org. 11 June 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  15. ^ "Ngige out, Obi in as Anambra gov". Guardiannewsngr.com. The Guardian (Lagos). 16 March 2006. Archived from the original on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2007.
  16. ^ "Anambra: How Etiaba Became Governor". Thisdayonline.com. Thisday (Lagos), 4 November 2006. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  17. ^ "Obi Floors Lawmakers - Take Over From Etiaba". tribune.com.ng. Nigerian Tribune (Lagos), Saturday, 10 February 2007. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  18. ^ "Reuters.com | Africa". Reuters. 9 February 2009. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  19. ^ [2] Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "Secretary-General Appoints Lieutenant General Chikadibia Isaac Obiakor Of Nigeria As Military Adviser For Peacekeeping Operations". Un.org. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  21. ^ http://secint50.un.org/av/photo/detail/0126482.html?browse=all.html[permanent dead link]
  22. ^ "Nigerian National Merit Award" (PDF). www.nnma.gov.ng.
  23. ^ [3] Archived 21 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ "ICTP Prize Winner 1985 — ICTP Portal". Prizes.ictp.it. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  25. ^ "Chike Obi and Fermat's Last Theorem". Math.buffalo.edu. 7 April 1921. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  26. ^ Queen's Jubilee portrait unveiled, BBC News, 12 March 2002.
  27. ^ Online, Saatchi (19 August 2013). "Sell Artwork, Buy Original Paintings, Art Prints, Discover New Artists | Saatchi Online". Saatchi-gallery.co.uk. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  28. ^ "The Cambridge Union Society | Promoting free speech and the art of debating since 1815". Cambridge-union.org. 16 June 2011. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]