Ancient Egyptian philosophy
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Almost nothing is known of Ancient Egyptian philosophy and there is some debate about its true scope and nature.
One of the few ancient Egyptian figures who could be considered an early philosopher was Ptahhotep. He served as vizier to the pharaoh in the late 25th, early 24th century BC. Ptahhotep is known for his comprehensive work on ethical behavior and moral philosophy, called The Maxims of Ptahhotep. The work, which is believed to have been compiled by his grandson Ptahhotep Tshefi, is a series of 37 letters or maxims addressed to his son, Akhethotep, speaking on such topics as daily behavior and ethical practices.
Notes and references
- Juan José Castillos, Ancient Egyptian Philosophy, RSUE 31, 2014, 29-37.
- Fontaine, Carole R. "A Modern Look at Ancient Wisdom: The Instruction of Ptahhotep Revisited." The Biblical Archaeologist 44, no. 3 (1981): 155-60. doi:10.2307/3209606.
- Browder, Anthony (1988). Nile Valley Contributions to Civilization. Karmaic Institute.
- Simpson, W. K., ed. The Maxims of Ptahhotep. Las Vegas, Nevada: Evan Blythin, 1986.
- James Henry Breasted (1972). Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt. Pennsylvania University Press.
...the Greek tradition of the origin of their philosophy in Egypt undoubtedly contains more of the truth than has in recent years been conceded.
- Bleiberg, Edward (2005). "Ancient Egypt 2675-332 B.C.E.: Philosophy". In Bleiberg, Edward; et al. (eds.). Arts and Humanities Through the Eras. Vol. 1: Ancient Egypt 2675-332 B.C.E. Detroit: Gale. pp. 182–197.
- Lefkowitz, M. (2008). Not Out Of Africa: How"" Afrocentrism"" Became An Excuse To Teach Myth As History. Basic Books.