Anwar Shah Kashmiri
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Sayyid Muḥammad Anwar Shāh
|Title||Imam al-Asr, Khatam al-Muhaddithin|
|Born||16 November 1875|
|Died||28 May 1933(aged 57)|
|Resting place||Mazar-e-Anwari, Near Eidgah, Deoband|
|Children||Anzar Shah Kashmiri (son)|
|Alma mater||Darul Uloom Deoband|
Sayyid Muḥammad Anwar Shāh ibn Mu‘az̤z̤am Shāh Kashmīrī (Sayyid Muḥammad Anwar Shāh ibn Mu‘aẓẓam Shāh al-Kashmīrī al-Hindī; November 16, 1875 – May 28, 1933) was a sunni Kashmiri Islamic scholar from former British India. During his career, he taught at a number of prominent institutions, including the Darul Uloom Deoband which contains a gate named in his honor. He authored a number of books on Islam, which were published in Arabic and Persian.
Personal life and education
Anwar Shah Kashmiri was a native of Kashmir. He was born on 27th Shawwal, A. H. 1292/1875, in a Sayyid family. At the age of four and a half years he started reading the Quran under the instruction of his father, Maulana Syed Muazzam Ali Shah. He was fourteen years old when he left for Madrasah of Hazara.In 1311/1893 he came to Deoband. Then, in 1314/1896 he went to Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and besides obtaining a Sanad (certificate) of Hadith, he also acquired esoteric knowledge.
After graduating from Darul Uloom he taught for some time in Madrasah Aminia, Delhi. In 1320/1903 he went to Kashmir. There, in his district, he opened a Madrasah named Faiz-e A'am. In 1323/1905 he went to perform Hajj. In 1327/1909 he came back to Deoband. Till 1333, he went on teaching books of Hadith without taking any salary. He held the guardianship of Darul Uloom for nearly twelve years. He resigned from guardianship in 1346/1927 and went to the Madrasah of Dabhel in western India, where, till 1351/1932, he taught Hadith. He left his family in 1887 and moved into the Madrasah in India. In 1889, he relocated to Deoband, where he studied at the Darul uloom. In 1894, he began studying Hadith, work he continued after graduation from the Darul Uloom in Gangoh.
Later life and death
In 1908, Shah married a woman of Gangoh. The couple had three sons and two daughters. His Elder son Azhar Shah and younger son Anzar Shah Kashmiri became president of "Dar-ul-Uloom Deoband". In 1933, Shah became ill and traveled to Deoband for medical care. He continued addressing students there until the day he died, 28 May 1933.
He began his career teaching at Madrasah Aminiyah in Delhi in 1897 before returning to Kashmir upon the death of his mother in 1901. There, he taught at the Madrasah Fay'm for three years before embarking on his Hajj to Mecca and Medina. He visited his Deoband instructor Mahmood Hasan, who persuaded him to take a position teaching in Deoband. When Mahmood Hasan himself subsequently relocated to Medina in 1908, Shah was given his position teaching Hadith.  He retained the position until 1927, when he departed due to disagreement with management.
In 1929, the Majlis-i-Ὶlm educational academy was opened in Delhi primarily to publish Shah's writings on Islam. It remained operational until 1946. Among other topics, his books discussed Qur'an, metaphysics, the fundamental beliefs of Islam, Fiqh, zoology, politics. Shah also wrote poetry and often put his scholarly writings in that form. In addition to those works published in his lifetime and after, there were as of 2007 a number of articles and manuscripts which had not yet seen print.
Jamia Imam Muhammad Anwar Shah, is an Islamic school in Deoband named after Allama Kashmiri. Syrian scholar Shaykh Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda has written biography of Anwar Shah Kashmiri in Arabic. Yunoos Osman wrote his D.Phil thesis LIFE AND WORKS OF ALLAMAH MUHAMMAD ANWAR SHAH KASHMIRI from University of Durban-Westville
- Syed Muhammad Miyan Deobandi
- Shaykh Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda
- Maulana Syed Anzar Shah Kashmiri
- Jamia Imam Muhammad Anwar Shah, Deoband
- (Noor, Sikand & van Bruinessen 2008, p. 80)
- (Chishti 2007, p. 924)
- (Chishti 2007, p. 925)
- (Chishti 2007, p. 927)
- (Chishti 2007, p. 926)
- (Chishti 2007, pp. 924–925)
- (Chishti 2007, p. 923)
- (Chishti 2007, pp. 941–942)
- (Chishti 2007, p. 943)
- Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda. Arabic biography of Imam al-‘Asr Allamah Anwar Shah al-Kashmiri, Taken from Majmu’ah Rasa’il al-Kashmiri, Volume 1, 2nd Edition (Karachi: Idarat al-Qur’an wa ‘l-’Ulum al-Islamiyyah, 1424 AH/2004 CE) by al-Majlis al-’Ilmi (PDF) (in Arabic). Retrieved 16 May 2019.
- "LIFE AND WORKS OF ALLAMAH MUHAMMAD ANWAR SHAH KASHMIRI" (PDF). ResearchSpace.ukzn.ac.za. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
- Chishti, Aaliyah (2007). "Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri". In Hamid Naseem Rafiabadi (ed.). Challenges to religions and Islam: a study of Muslim movements, personalities, issues and trends. Sarup & Sons. pp. 922–944. ISBN 978-81-7625-732-9. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- Noor, Ahmad-Noor A.; Yoginder Sikand; Martin van Bruinessen (1 January 2008). The Madrasa in Asia: Political Activism and Transnational Linkages. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-90-5356-710-4.