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Apusomonas sp.
Scientific classification e
Phylum: Apusozoa
Order: Apusomonadida
Karpov & Mylnikov, 1989[1]

The Apusomonadida are a taxonomic group of protozan zooflagellates, that appear to be the sister group to the Opisthokonts. Together with the Breviatea, these form the Obazoa clade.[2][3][4]

It includes the genera Apusomonas, Amastigomonas, Manchomonas, Thecamonas, Podomonas and Multimonas. There is an effort to clarify the relationships between these genera.[5]



  1. ^ Karpov S. A. & Mylnikov A. P. 1989. Biology and ultrastructure of colourless flagellates Apusomonadida ord. n. Zoologischkei Zhurnal 58: 5-17. (in Russian)
  2. ^ Thomas Cavalier-Smith & Ema E. Chao (October 2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of Apusomonadida (Protozoa: Apusozoa): new genera and species". Protist. 161 (4): 549–576. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2010.04.002. PMID 20537943.
  3. ^ Brown, Matthew W.; Sharpe, Susan C.; Silberman, Jeffrey D.; Heiss, Aaron A.; Lang, B. Franz; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Roger, Andrew J. (2013-10-22). "Phylogenomics demonstrates that breviate flagellates are related to opisthokonts and apusomonads". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 280 (1769): 20131755. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1755. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 3768317. PMID 23986111.
  4. ^ Eme, Laura; Sharpe, Susan C.; Brown, Matthew W.; Roger, Andrew J. (2014-08-01). "On the Age of Eukaryotes: Evaluating Evidence from Fossils and Molecular Clocks". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6 (8): a016139. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016139. ISSN 1943-0264. PMC 4107988. PMID 25085908.
  5. ^ Torruella, Guifré; Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación (2017). "Phylogenetic and ecological diversity of apusomonads, a lineage of deep-branching eukaryotes". Environmental Microbiology Reports. 9 (2): 113–119. doi:10.1111/1758-2229.12507. PMC 5551962. PMID 27894159.
  6. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, Thomas (May 2013). "Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa". European Journal of Protistology. 49 (2): 115–178 Document online. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2012.06.001. ISSN 0932-4739. PMID 23085100.