Architecture of Uttar Pradesh

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Taj Mahal, one of the most famous tourist destinations in Uttar Pradesh and India.[1]

The Architecture of Uttar Pradesh is renowned for its variety of various religious monuments.

Ancient[edit]

Archaeological site at Sarnath (Dhamek stupa is visible in background)

Buddhist[edit]

Most of the ancient buildings and structures at Sarnath were damaged or destroyed by the Turks. However, amongst the ruins can be distinguished:

  • The Dhamek Stupa; it is an impressive 128 feet high and 93 feet in diameter.
  • The Dharmarajika Stupa is one of the few pre-Ashokan stupas remaining, although only the foundations remain.
  • The Ashoka Pillar erected here, originally surmounted by the "Lion Capital of Asoka" (presently on display at the Sarnath Museum), was broken during Turk invasions but the base still stands at the original location.
  • The Sarnath Archaeological Museum houses the famous Ashokan lion capital, which miraculously survived its 45-foot drop to the ground (from the top of the Ashokan Pillar), and became the National Emblem of India and national symbol on the Indian flag. The museum also houses a famous and refined Buddha-image of the Buddha in Dharmachakra-posture.

For Buddhists, Sarnath (or Isipatana) is one of four pilgrimage sites designated by Gautama Buddha, the other three being Kushinagar, Bodh Gaya, and Lumina.

Hindu monuments[edit]

Famous temples are the Dashavatara Temple in Deograh, Kashi Vishwanath Temple in Varanasi and Krishnajanmabhoomi in Mathura.

Indo-Islamic[edit]

Main and side pishtaq leading into the iwan of Atala Masjid.

Sultanates[edit]

Atala Masjid of Jaunpur shows a lot of influences of Hindu architecture. In fact, there is a clear resemblance of Hindu style of architecture, in the entire Masjid. The reason for such similarity is because the Atala Masjid is situated on the site of a temple of Atala Devi.[2] Hence the Atala Masjid, Jaunpur also gets its name from this Hindu Temple.

Mughal[edit]

Uttar Pradesh has three World Heritage Sites: Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and the nearby Fatehpur Sikri. Allahabad Fort stands on the banks of the Yamuna near the confluence with the river Ganges. It is the largest fort built by Akbar.[1][3][4]

Taj Mahal[edit]

The Taj Mahal in Agra, built between 1632 and 1643 during the reign of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan is considered to be one of the best examples of Mughal architecture, as well as Indo-Islamic architecture as a whole.[1][5] While earlier Mughal buildings were primarily constructed of red sandstone, Shah Jahan promoted the use of white marble inlaid with semi-precious stones. Buildings under his patronage reached new levels of refinement. It is surrounded by vast gardens on all four sides.

Oudh[edit]

Bara Imambara facade, Lucknow India

Lucknow, the capital of the state, has several beautiful historical monuments such as Bara Imambara and Chhota Imambara.[6][7] It has also preserved the damaged complex of the Oudh-period British Resident's quarters, which are being restored.

British Colonial period[edit]

European styles[edit]

The Allahabad Public Library built in the Scottish Baronial style, and All Saints Cathedral, Allahabad and Kanpur Memorial Church built in the gothic revival style are examples of European-styled buildings in Uttar Pradesh.

Indo-Saracenic Architecture[edit]

The Lucknow Charbagh railway station and Kanpur Central railway station were built in the Indo-Saracenic style.

Post-Independence[edit]

NOIDA is a planned city and IT hub.[citation needed]

Notable buildings[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Taj Mahal". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  2. ^ Advanced history of medieval India By S.R. Bakshi
  3. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Agra Fort". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  4. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Fatehpur Sikri". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  5. ^ "Taj Mahal - Official Website of Taj Mahal, Government of Uttar Pradesh (India)". www.tajmahal.gov.in. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  6. ^ "List of Monuments - Uttar Pradesh". Archaeological Survey of India. 8 July 2012.
  7. ^ "The historical monument called Bara Imambara of Lucknow that is also known as Asfi Imambara". Lucknow online news. Retrieved 8 July 2012.