Armorial of the United States
The coats of arms of the U.S. states are coats of arms, adopted by those states that have chosen, that are an official symbol of the state, alongside their seal. Eighteen states have officially adopted coats of arms. The former independent Republic of Texas and Kingdom of Hawaii each had a separate national coat of arms, which are no longer used.
Heraldic arms were worn (embroidered) on a coat which knights wore over their armor, hence coat of arms, a term which dates back roughly 1,000 years to jousting tournaments. A state coat of arms may exist independently of the seal, but the reverse is not generally the case. A seal contains a coat of arms or other devices whereas a state coat of arms constitutes the bulk of a seal, except for the wording identifying it as the "Great Seal of the State of..." A "seal" has been described as the design impressed on public or legislative official documents, whereas a coat of arms generally appears for illustrative purposes. Examples include flags and banners, and state militia uniform caps and buttons, as well as specifically-designed regimental coats of arms for U.S. Infantry Regiments, and National Guard units.
A coat of arms of a nation or state is usually the design or device of the obverse of its seal. It is an official emblem, mark of identification, and symbol of the authority of the government of a nation or state. A nation or state's coat of arms is oftentimes referred to as the national or state arms.
Origin and history
The coats of arms of the U.S. states date back to the admission of the first states to the Union. Despite the widely accepted practice of determining early statehood from the date of ratification of the United States Constitution, many of the original colonies referred to themselves as states shortly after the Declaration of Independence was signed on 4 July 1776. Committees of political leaders and intellectuals were established by state legislatures to research and propose a seal and coat of arms. Many of these members were signers of the Articles of Confederation, Declaration of Independence, and United States Constitution. Several of the earliest adopted state coats of arms and seals were similar or identical to their colonial counterparts.
State Arms of the Union, illustrated by Henry Mitchell and published by Louis Prang (known as the father of the lithographic industry), offers historically accurate renderings of the state's coats of arms as they existed in 1876. An accomplished engraver with the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for 40 years, Mitchell was responsible for engraving several coats of arms for official state use as well as arms for well-known educational and philanthropic organizations. The illustrations are presented alongside proof impressions from the engraved dies used to print the state arms on the first issue of United States National Bank Notes.
Published in 1876 by Louis Prang and illustrated by Henry Mitchell, State Arms of the Union contains a chromolithographed title page depicting the Great Seal of the United States and seven color plates with 45 state and territorial coats of arms. The book was likely published for the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition.
Louis Prang was born 12 March 1824 in Breslau. At the age of 13 he began apprenticing for his father and learned to dye and print calico, as well as wood and metal engraving. Prang emigrated to Boston in 1850 and became an illustrator for a number of local publications. Starting a business partnership in 1856 to manufacture copper and lithographic plates, Prang became sole proprietor in 1860 and named the company L. Prang & Co. He specialized in color printing, more specifically “chromolithography” Prang spent over four decades studying and creating a standard of colors and engraved and printed maps, prints of contemporary celebrities, and color reproductions of famous works of art. In 1875 Prang was responsible for introducing the Christmas card to America. He created an annual design competition for his Christmas cards (run between 1880 and 1884), and judges included John La Farge, Samuel Colman, Stanford White, and Louis Comfort Tiffany. Some of the notable winners included Elihu Vedder, Rosina Emmet Sherwood, Edwin Blashfield, Thomas Moran, and Will Hicok Low. Prang has become known as the "father of the American Christmas card", as well as the "father of the lithographic industry".
Henry Mitchell was born in New York in 1835 and went to school in Philadelphia. At the age of 10 he began working with his uncle to learn the trade of gem and steel engraving. By the age of 20 (1855), Mitchell had engraved the official seals for the Kingdom of Hawaii. In 1868 Mitchell joined the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and for 40 years engraved stamped envelopes. Through his BEP work, Mitchell was also responsible for engraving the seal of the Secretary of the Navy and the Internal Revenue Service. He also engraved the state seals for Massachusetts, New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin. Outside of state and federal government engraving, Mitchell engraved the seals and coats of arms for many well-known institutions which include Harvard University, Society of the Cincinnati, and Boston Public Library. He engraved the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition award medal (1876) which was struck in the Philadelphia Mint. In 1891, Mitchell was invited by the Secretary of the Treasury to join a committee to evaluate the artistic design proposals for a new issue of U.S. coins. The two other members were Charles E. Barber, Chief Engraver of the United States Mint, and Augustus Saint-Gaudens.
A state coat of arms provided an opportunity to convey the natural and industrial resources available to its residents. Common themes depicted in state arms include farming, industry, transportation (e.g., boats, trains, and wagons), and nature (e.g., sunsets and mountains). The Ohio and Indiana state arms depict fairly substantial mountains in the distance. In reality, the highest points in Ohio and Indiana are Campbell Hill (1,550 feet (470 m)) and Hoosier Hill (1,257 feet (383 m)) respectively.
When State Arms of the Union was published in 1876, some existing arms were not included (e.g., Arizona and Washington Territory). At the time, Alaska was classified as the Department of Alaska (1867–84) and became the District of Alaska (1884–1912) before becoming the Territory of Alaska (1912–59). The Alaska territorial seal was designed in 1910 and adopted in 1913. On 3 January 1959 Alaska became the 49th U.S. State. The Oklahoma Territory (1890–1907) Organic Act was approved on 2 May 1890, and a territorial seal was adopted on 10 January 1893. Hawaii, formerly the Kingdom of Hawaii (1795–1893), Republic of Hawaii (1894–98), and then Territory of Hawaii (1898–1959) became the 50th U.S. State on 21 August 1959. None of the territories or states mentioned above had a coat of arms represented on national currency.
The design of a state coat of arms or seal has generally been authorized by a provision in the state constitution or a legislative act. In most instances a committee (more often than not consisting of three members) was appointed to study the issue, seek advice from qualified artists, historians, legal scholars, etc., and report back to the authorizing legislative body with a design for their approval. Historically, this committee has consisted of notable members of society and elected officials.
The first committee to design the Great Seal of the United States was appointed on 4 July 1776 by the Second Continental Congress and consisted of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson. Their design was rejected on 20 August 1776. The second committee (James Lovell, John Morin Scott, and William Churchill Houston) design met with the same fate. It was the third committee (Arthur Middleton, Elias Boudinot, John Rutledge, who consulted with William Barton) that submitted a design which was approved on 20 July 1782.
Individual states approached their coats of arms and seals in a similar manner (i.e., seeking direction from the statesmen and scholars of their community). A few of those involved in the design of state arms and seals include (but is not limited to): John Jay and Gouverneur Morris (New York); Francis Hopkinson (New Jersey); David Rittenhouse and George Clymer (Pennsylvania); and George Mason, Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin West, and Thomas Jefferson (Virginia).
An impression of the Great Seal of a state (or its coat of arms) has long been required on official documents ranging from deeds to legislative acts. It was the emblem that certified the authenticity of a given document or that the authority of the state was invested in said document. Judicial decisions upheld the need for a valid seal and/or coat of arms on notarized documents.[nb 19]
One of the more compelling legislative actions recognizing the legal importance/authority of the state seal and arms occurred in February 1873 when a joint session of the United States Congress refused to recognize Arkansas's electoral votes in the November 1872 presidential election. The official tally of the state's electoral votes was submitted with an invalid seal (bearing the coat of arms of the office of the Secretary of the State of Arkansas versus the seal of the state of Arkansas bearing the state arms).
Courts and state legislatures also opined on the inappropriate uses of state seals and arms. Most states barred their use for any kind of advertising.[nb 20] Reproduction for corporate use was similarly prohibited and such infractions were classified as offenses against public property. The 2003 Code of Federal Regulations pertaining to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives prohibits the use of state seals or coats of arms in product branding so as not to mislead the public into thinking that a commercial product has been endorsed by a government organization.
|District of Columbia||Organic Act – 21 February 1790
Arms – 3 August 1871
|Coat of arms of the District of Columbia (Wikimedia Commons category)|
|Puerto Rico||Coat of arms of the commonwealth of Puerto Rico|
- United States heraldry
- Historical coats of arms of the U.S. states from 1876
- List of U.S. state, district, and territorial insignia – a list of state flags, seals and coats of arms
- Seals of the U.S. states
- Seals of governors of the U.S. states
- Flags of governors of the U.S. states
- Armorial of Europe
- Armorial of Mexico
- The Kansas state coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Timothy House of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
- The Kentucky coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Alfred Jones of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
- The illustrated Louisiana coat of arms represents a small design change in 1864, but the concept and design elements were in place since 1813.
- The Louisiana coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Louis Delnoce of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
- The illustrated coat of arms of Maryland was the tenth version of the seal, and a restoration to the description offered by Lord Baltimore on 12 August 1648).
- The Maryland coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by W.W. Rice of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
- In 1861 Mississippi adopted a coat of arms and state flag. However, in 1865 the approval was rescinded leaving Mississippi without official state arms until 1894. On 6 February 1894 the proposed design for the state coat of arms was approved.
- The Missouri seal and arms were designed by Judge Robert William Wells.
- According to the State Constitution of Montana, in the event of a transition from a Territorial to State government, the Territorial Seal would remain effective until expressly changed by legislative action.
- The illustrated arms represent the change from the territorial to state arms. However, the BEP engraved arms were never updated.
- New Jersey coat of arms was designed by Pierre Eugene Du Simitiere.
- While the seal of Ohio had experienced several unauthorized varieties in use, in 1868 legislature reverted the official design to the initial seal from the state constitution of 1803.
- The Rhode Island state coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Timothy House of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
- The Tennessee state coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by Timothy House of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
- On 25 November 1862, Vermont legislature formally recognized the existing seal and coat of arms.
- The coat of arms was engraved in Paris and not ready until 4 September 1779.
- The Virginia coat of arms on the back of the 1882BB was engraved by James Bannister of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
- Drawings by Joseph H. Diss Debar.
- Tickner et al. v. Roberts, 11 La. 14 (Louisiana Supreme Court March 1837) ("...notarial instruments were required to be authenticated by a seal, containing the coat of arms of the territory, the name and surname of the notary, his official capacity, and the place in which he exercised his office...the protest in this case, lacking the seal, which the law of that State prescribed, it appears to us, ought not to be received in evidence in our courts."). .
- For example, see Commonwealth v. R.I. Sherman Manufacturing Company, 189 Mass. 76 (Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court 8 Sep 1905) ("The Massachusetts statute prohibiting the use of its arms or seal for advertising or commercial purposes is not in conflict with the clause of the Constitution of the United States investing Congress with power to regulate commerce among the several states"). .
- Pinnock, William (1840). A Catechism of Heraldry: Explaining the Nature and Use of Arms and Armoury. Whittaker and Co. p. 3.
- Clark, Hugh; Wormull, Thomas (1854). An Introduction to Heraldry. Henry Washbourne & Co. p. 1.
- Clark, Hugh; Wormull, Thomas (1854). An Introduction to Heraldry. Henry Washbourne & Co. p. 3.
- Nainfa, John A. (1909). Costume of Prelates of the Catholic Church: According to Roman Etiquette. John Murphy Company. p. 139.
- Crabb, George (1823). Universal Technological Dictionary or Familiar Explanations of the Terms Used in All Arts and Sciences. 2. Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy. p. 466.
- Tannehill, Joseph W. (1917). Ohio Interrogation Points. Vic Donahey (Auditor of the State). pp. 19–20.
- Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau (1985). State of Wisconsin Blue Book (1985-1986). Department of Administration (Wisconsin). pp. 958–960.
- Moore, Opha (1907). The Great Seal of Ohio. The Ohio Illustrated Magazine. 2. The Ohio Magazine Publishing Company. pp. 252–53.
- Crabb, George (1823). Universal Technological Dictionary or Familiar Explanations of the Terms Used in All Arts and Aciences. 2. Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy. p. 466.
- Harris, John T. (1916). West Virginia Legislative Handbook and Manual and Official Register. The Tribune Printing Co. pp. 350–51.
- Utah Military Department (1902). Regulations for the National Guard of Utah. p. 79.
- Adjutant General's Office (1901). Rules and Regulations Governing the Kansas National Guard. W.Y. Morgan, State Printer. p. 108.
- Swinton, William (1870). History of the Seventh Regiment, National Guard, State of New York. Fields, Osgood, & Co. p. 3.
- "The Texas State Seal". Texas Secretary of State. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Official Symbols and Emblems of Alabama". State Government. Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Zieber, 1895, p. 112.
- Shankle, 1941, p. 183.
- Shankle, 1941, p. 184.
- Zieber, 1895, p. 118.
- "The Amoral Bearings". State Government. Official State Website. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- An Act to Authorize... the Great Seal... Laws of the State of Delaware. 10. S. Kimmey (Printer). 1847. p. 106.
- "Civic Heraldry of the United States (Delaware)". State Government. Heraldry of the World. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Shankle, 1941, p. 190.
- Zieber, 1895, p. 127.
- Leeson, Michael A. (1885). History of Montana. Warner, Beers & Company. pp. 235–37.
- The Coat of Arms of Idaho. Journal of the Fourth Session of the Council of Idaho Territory. Idaho "Statesman" Publishing Company Printers. 1867. pp. 175–76.
- Shankle, 1941, p. 192.
- Zieber, 1895, p. 129.
- The Great Seals of Iowa. The Annals of Iowa. 11. Historical Department of Iowa. 1915. p. 576.
- Shankle, 1941, p. 194.
- Hessler, 1993, p. 175.
- Zieber, 1895, p. 131.
- Hessler, 1993, p. 180.
- Society, Louisiana Historical (1898). "The State Seal". Publications of the Louisiana Historical Society. 2: 20.
- Hessler, 1993, p. 99.
- Shankle, 1941, p. 196.
- Zieber, 1895, p. 133.
- "Civic Heraldry of the United States (Maine)". State Government. Heraldry of the World. Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Bateman, Wilfred (1902). The Great Seal of Maryland. Maryland Manual. Wm. J. C. Dulany Co. p. 100.
- Hessler, 1993, p. 250.
- Willson, 1864, p. 99.
- Zieber, 1895, p. 144.
- "Coat of Arms". State Government. Secretary of State. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- The State Seal of Minnesota. The Legislative Manual of the State of Minnesota. Minnesota Secretary of State. 1907. pp. 9–10.
- Stone, J.M. (1894). Eighteenth Day. Mississippi Legislature (House). Clarion-Ledger Publishing Company. pp. 194–195.
- Stone, J.M. (1894). Thirty-First Day. Mississippi Legislature (House). Clarion-Ledger Publishing Company. p. 351.
- "State Symbols". State Government. Mississippi.Gov. Archived from the original on August 14, 2008. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Stevens, Walter B. (1921). Missouri's "Armorial Achievement". Centennial History of Missouri. The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company. p. 195.
- "The Great Seal of Missouri". Missouri Secretary of State Website. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "The Missouri State Flag". State of Missouri. Netstates.com. Retrieved 2011-09-21.
- Council Journal of the First Legislative Assembly of Montana Territory. D.W. Tilton & Co. 1864. p. 294.
- Judson, Katharine B. (1912). Montana: "the Land of Shining Mountains". A.C. McClurg & Co. p. 235.
- The Statutes of Nebraska. Culver, Page & Hoyne. 1867. pp. 863–864.
- Shankle, 1941, p. 201.
- Hammond, Otis G. (1916). History of the Seal and Flag of the State of New Hampshire. State of New Hampshire. p. 31.
- Barlow, Catherine B. State Arms of New Jersey. Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine. 46/47.
- Organic Acts for the Territories of the United States. Government Printing Office. 1900. p. 3.
- Seal – Territory. Acts of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of New Mexico. 27. J.A. Carruth, Printer, Binder and Blank Book Manufacturers. 1887. p. 229.
- An Act… Authorizing the making [of] a new Great Seal... Laws of the State of New York. 5. Websters and Skinner. 1809. p. 504.
- The Great Seal. North Carolina Journal. Edwards & Broughton Printing Company. 1921. p. 230.
- "Ohio". State of Ohio. gwav.tripod.com. Retrieved 2011-09-21.
- General Repealing Acts. The Organic and Other General Laws of Oregon. Henry L. Pittock, State Printer. 1866. p. 946.
- Report of the Commissioners to Correct the Coat of Arms of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Miscellaneous Documents Read in the Legislature of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 3. B.F. Meyers, State Printer. 1875. p. 1113.
- Shankle, 1941, p. 210.
- "State Symbols". State Government. RI.Gov. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- The Seals of South Carolina. South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine. 7. South Carolina Historical Society. 1906. p. 225.
- Constitution of the State of South Dakota. Statutes of the State of South Dakota. 1. H.B. Parsons. 1901. p. 49.
- Garrett, W.R.; Bass, John M. (1901). The Great Seal of the State of Tennessee. The American Historical Magazine. 6. Peabody Normal College. p. 210.
- Shankle, 1941, p. 213.
- "The Texas State Seal". State Government. Secretary of State. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Zieber, 1895, p. 183.
- Shankle, 1941, p. 215.
- An Act Establishing the State Arms, Seal and Flag. The Acts and Resolves Passed by the General Assembly of the State of Vermont. 1862. pp. 30–31.
- Zieber, 1895, p. 191.
- Hessler, 1993, p. 42.
- Zieber, 1895, p. 193.
- The Second Great Seal. Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin at its Fifty-Fifth Annual Meeting. Wisconsin Historical Society. 1907. pp. 300–301.
- "Wisconsin State Symbols" (PDF). State of Wisconsin. legis.wisconsin.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-09-27. Retrieved 2011-09-21.
- Statutes of the Territory of Washington. Geo. B. Goudy, Public Printer. 1855. p. 379.
- Farrand, Max (1896). The Legislation of Congress for the Government of the Organized Territories of the United States. Wm. A. Baker. p. 80.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Mount Logan
- Galbreath, Charles Burleigh (1902). "Seals and Ohio flag". Monthly Bulletins of the Ohio State Library. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Board of Library Commissioners. 2 (4): 1–5 – via Google Books.
- "State Arms of the Union". Antiquarian Booksellers Association. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
- "Louis Prang, Father of the American Christmas Card". New York Historical Society Museum & Library. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- "Louis Prang Paper (1848 – 1932)". Archives of American Art/Smithsonian. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- "Printer Louis Prang issued 'Checks'". Bank Note Reporter. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Louis Prang Dead. The American Stationer. 65. Lockwood Trade Journal Company. 1909. p. 3.
- Proceedings of the One Hundred and Fiftieth Annual Meeting. Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association. C.M. Barrows Company. 1910. p. 53.
- Proceedings of the One Hundred and Fiftieth Annual Meeting. Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association. C.M. Barrows Company. 1910. p. 54.
- Death of Henry Mitchell. Geyer's Stationer. 48. 1909. p. 4.
- Proceedings of the One Hundred and Fiftieth Annual Meeting. Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association. C.M. Barrows Company. 1910. p. 55.
- Obituary – Henry Mitchell, Engraver. The Numismatist. 22. American Numismatic Association. 1909. p. 310.
- Making the Government's Stamped Envelopes. Harper's Weekly. 51. Harper & Brothers. 1907. p. 249.
- Dammann, Theodore (1929). The Great Seal and Coat of Arms of Wisconsin. The Wisconsin Blue Book. The State Printing Board. p. 876.
- Giberti, Bruno (2002). Designing the Centennial. The University Press of Kentucky. p. 161. ISBN 0813122317.
- Annual Report of the Director of the Mint. Government Printing Office. 1891. p. 70.
- "New Designs for our Silver Coins". The Times (Philadelphia). 30 May 1891. p. 2. Retrieved 9 August 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Current News of the Fine Arts". The New York Times. 19 August 1894. p. 19. Retrieved 9 August 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- Huntoon & Shiva, 2013, p. 12.
- Ferriter, Robert M. (2009). "United States Interstate Mapping System" (1 ed.). Robert M. Ferriter Publications: 205. ISBN 9781434371133.
- Ferriter, Robert M. (2009). United States Interstate Mapping System (1 ed.). Robert M. Ferriter Publications. p. 202. ISBN 9781434371133.
- Kimura, Greg W. (2009). Alaska at 50 – The Past, Present, and Next Fifty Year of Alaska Statehood. University of Alaska Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-60223-081-1.
- Johnson, Joyce (2002). Alaska (Hello U.S.A.). Lerner Publications. p. 71.
- "A Brief History of Alaska" (PDF). Alaska Statehood Celebration Commission Website. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Grand Seal of the Territory of Oklahoma" (PDF). Oklahoma State University. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- "Hawaii Statehood, August 21, 1959". The National Archives. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- Hunt, Gaillard (1911). The History of the Department of State. The American Journal of International Law. 5. Baker, Voorhis & Company. pp. 415–32.
- Preble, George H. (1917). Origin and History of the American Flag. 2. Nicholas L. Brown. p. 616.
- Grimes, J. Bryan (1907). The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina. R.D.W. Connor, Secretary. p. 26.
- Pilcher, James E. (1902). The Seal and Arms of Pennsylvania. W.I. Stanley Ray (State Printer). p. 6.
- The Encyclopedia Americana. The Encyclopedia Americana Corporation. 1919. p. 362.
- Journal of the Thirteenth Senate of the State of New Jersey. Morris R. Hamilton. 1857. p. 45.
- Evans, 1910, p. 31.
- "Use of the Great Seal of Utah". Utah Department of Administrative Services. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Counting Electoral Votes: Proceedings and Debates of Congress Relating to Counting the Electoral Votes. Government Printing Office. 1876. p. 407.
- Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970. 2. Bureau of the Census. 1975. p. 1069.
- Hinds, Asher C. (1907). Hinds' Precedents of the House of Representatives of the United States. 3. Government Printing Office. p. 272.
- Use of Seal and Coat of Arms by Corporations. The Corporation Journal. The Corporation Trust Company System. 1915. p. 53. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
- Offenses Against Public Property. Laws of the State of Delaware. 28. Chas. L. Story. 1915. p. 687.
- Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms. Code of Federal Regulations. Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration. 2003.
- Shankle, 1941, p. 189.
- Evans, Edward S. (1910). The Seals of Virginia. Report of the Virginia State Library. 7. Davis Bottom.
- Friedberg, Arthur L.; Friedberg, Ira S. (2013). Paper Money of the United States: A Complete Illustrated Guide With Valuations (20th ed.). Coin & Currency Institute. ISBN 978-0-87184-520-7.
- Hessler, Gene (1993). The Engraver's Line – An Encyclopedia of Paper Money & Postage Stamp Art. BNR Press. ISBN 0-931960-36-3.
- Huntoon, Peter W. (1995). United States Large Size National Bank Notes. Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc. ISBN 0-9648774-1-4.
- Huntoon, Peter; Shiva, Andrew (2013). "Seal Varieties on Series 1882 National Bank Note Backs". Paper Money. spmc.org. 52 (1): 10–20.
- Newman, Eric P. (2008). The Early Paper Money of America (5 ed.). Krause Publications.
- Shankle, George E. (1941). State Names, Flags, Seals, Songs, Birds, Flowers, and Other Symbols (Revised ed.). H.W. Wilson Company.
- Willson, Marcius (1864). American History... Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman & Co.
- Zieber, Eugene (1895). Heraldry in America. The Bailey, Banks & Biddle Company.
- Huntoon, Peter; Shiva, Andrew (2013c). "Philatelist was Catalyst for Revisions". Paper Money. spmc.org. 52 (5): 331–338.
- Prather, Dewitt G. (1986). "United States National Banknotes and Their Seals". Dewitt G. Prather. ISBN 0-9616836-0-0.
- Shiva, Andrew; Huntoon, Peter (2013). "Wyoming & Idaho State Seals & Utah Territorials". Paper Money. spmc.org. 52 (3): 182–195.
- Stauffer, David M. (1907). American Engravers Upon Copper and Steel. The Grolier Club of the City of New York.