Liebehenschel in SS uniform
|Died||24 January 1948 (aged 46)|
|Criminal charge||Crimes against humanity at the Auschwitz Trial|
|Commands held||Auschwitz, 1 December 1943 – 8 May 1944 Majdanek, 19 May – 22 July 1944|
Arthur Liebehenschel (listen (help·info); 25 November 1901 – 24 January 1948) was a commandant at the Auschwitz and Majdanek concentration camps during World War II. He was convicted of war crimes by the Polish government following the war and executed in 1948.
Liebehenschel was born in Posen (now Poznań). He studied economics and public administration. Too young to serve in World War I, in 1919 he was in the Freikorps "Grenzschutz Ost"; he served as a sergeant major in the German Reichswehr afterwards. In 1932, he joined the Nazi Party, and in 1934 joined the SS, where he served in the Totenkopfverbände. Liebehenschel became the adjutant in the Lichtenburg concentration camp, and two years later was transferred to the inspectorate of the concentration camps in Berlin. In 1942, when the SS Main Economic and Administrative Office was founded, Liebehenschel was assigned to the new Amtsgruppe D (Concentration Camps) as head of Office D I (Central Office).
On 1 December 1943 Liebehenschel was appointed commandant of Auschwitz I concentration camp, succeeding Rudolf Höß, and adjutant Robert Mulka. While continuing mass executions, he made also minor "improvements" including removing the standing cells and halting the selections to gas chambers among regular prisoners. According to Hermann Langbein, a prisoner at Auschwitz infirmary, "in general one could establish that even those SS members who were very bloodthirsty before became a bit more reserved because they realized that their fanaticism would not necessarily be tolerated anymore."
When Höß returned to Auschwitz, Liebehenschel was replaced as commandant on 8 May 1944, and appointed commandant of the already emptied Majdanek camp on 19 May 1944, succeeding Martin Gottfried Weiss. The camp was evacuated because of the Soviet advance into German-occupied Poland. Liebehenschel relocated to Trieste, Italy to the office of Odilo Globocnik, Höhere SS- und Polizeiführer (HSSPF) for Operational Zone Adriatic Coast (OZAK). Liebehenschel became head of the SS Manpower Office there.
At the war's end, Liebehenschel was arrested by the U.S. Army and was extradited to Poland. After being convicted of crimes against humanity at the Auschwitz Trial in Kraków, he was sentenced to death and subsequently executed by hanging on 24 January 1948.
In 2009, Cherish published her book My Father, the Auschwitz Commandant, in which she outlined actions by Liebehenschel that improved the prisoners' lives, but also discussed his participation in a genocidal system. Together with another daughter, Antje, she was interviewed in 2002 in ZDF about living with their father's guilt. Liebehenschel had a son by his second wife, Anneliese. Liebehenschel's first wife, whom he left during the war, suffered from mental health issues after the war and committed suicide in a hospital for the mentally ill in 1966.
- David Bankier; Dan Mikhman (2008). Holocaust Historiography in Context: Emergence, Challenges, Polemics and Achievements. Berghahn Books. pp. 560–. ISBN 978-965-308-326-4. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- Hermann Langbein (2013). "Auschwitz Trials (Cracow)". Auschwitz-Birkenau. Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. Bibliography: Naumann, Auschwitz (Eng., 1966); H. Langbein, Der Auschwitz-Prozess: eine Documentation, 2 vols. (1965); Brand, in: Yad Vashem Bulletin, 15 (1964), 43–117.
- Moorhead, Joanna (20 June 2009). "My father, the Auschwitz commandant". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
- Dreykluft, Friederike (5 November 2002). "Die Schuld des Vaters getragen". History. ZDF. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
- Cacciottolo, Mario (16 November 2009). "The child of Auschwitz's Kommandant". BBC News. Archived from the original on 16 November 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
SS-Obersturmbannführer Rudolf Höss
| Commandant of Auschwitz
December 1943 – 8 May 1944
SS-Obersturmbannführer Rudolf Höss
SS-Obersturmbannführer Martin Gottfried Weiss
| Commandant of Majdanek concentration camp
19 May 1944 – 22 July 1944