Aryabhata (satellite)

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Aryabhata Satellite.jpg
File photo of Aryabhata, India's first indigenously built satellite.
Mission typeAstrophysics
COSPAR ID1965-033A
SATCAT no.7752
Mission duration4 days achieved
Spacecraft properties
Launch mass360 kg (794 lb)[1]
Power46 watts
Start of mission
Launch date19 April 1975, 07:30 (1975-04-19UTC07:30Z) UTC[2]
Launch siteKapustin Yar 107/2
End of mission
Last contact24 April 1975 (1975-04-25)
Decay date10 February 1992
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee568 kilometres (353 mi)
Apogee611 kilometres (380 mi)
Inclination50.6 degrees
Period96.46 minutes
Epoch19 May 1975[3]

Aryabhatta (Hindi: आर्यभट) was India's first satellite,[1] named after the famous Indian astronomer of the same name.[4]


It was launched by India on 19 April 1975[1] from Kapustin Yar, a Russian rocket launch and development site in Astrakhan Oblast using a Kosmos-3M launch vehicle. It was built by the Indian Space Research Organisation.The launch came from an agreement between India and the Soviet Union directed by UR Rao and signed in 1972. It allowed the USSR to use Indian ports for tracking ships and launching vessels in return for launching Indian satellites.[5] Aryabhatta is the first man made (artificial) Indian satellite.

On 19 April 1975, the satellite's 96.46-minute orbit had an apogee of 611 kilometres (380 mi) and a perigee of 568 kilometres (353 mi), at an inclination of 50.6 degrees.[3] It was built to conduct experiments in X-ray astronomy, aeronomics, and solar physics. The spacecraft was a 26-sided polyhedron 1.4 metres (4.6 ft) in diameter. All faces (except the top and bottom) were covered with solar cells. A power failure halted experiments after four days and 60 orbits with all signals from the spacecraft lost after five days of the operation. According to Soviet media reports, the satellite continued to function and transmit information for some time. The satellite returned to the Earth's atmosphere on 11 February 1992.


1984 USSR stamp featuring Bhaskara-I, Bhaskara-II and Aryabhata satellites
  • Aryabhatt
  • it was named after the 5th century astronomer and mathematician from India by the same name.[6]
  • The satellite's image appeared on the reverse of Indian 2 rupee banknotes between 1976 and 1997 (Pick catalog) and one rupee note number.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Aryabhata" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 611.
  2. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  3. ^ a b McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  4. ^ "Aryabhata - The first indigenously built satellite".
  5. ^ Harvey, Brian (2000). The Japanese and Indian space programmes : two roads into space. London [u.a.]: Springer [u.a.] p. 133. ISBN 1-85233-199-2.
  6. ^ Harvey, Brian (2000). The Japanese and Indian Space Programmes: Two Roads into Space. London: Springer. p. 134. ISBN 1-85233-199-2.

External links[edit]