It is one of the three valleys located in the historic region of upper Béarn, along with the Ossau Valley to the east and Barétous Valley to the west. The valley of Aspe stretches for 25 miles along the river Gave d'Aspe, roughly going from the town of Escot to the Spanish border where it meets the Aragon Valley, named after the Spanish river.
Thirteen towns, or communes, are established in the valley. From the north to the south, these are: Escot, Lourdios-Ichère, Sarrance, Osse-en-Aspe, Aydius, Accous, Lées-Athas, Lescun, Cette-Eygun, Etsaut, Borce and Urdos.
The region has been invaded by many groups through its history: Moors, Romans, Germanic tribes, as well as kingdoms in Spain. In 1620, the sovereign state of Béarn, in which the valley was located, was annexed by the kingdom of France. During the Peninsular War in 1808, the troops of Napoleon passed through the valley while invading Spain.
- Cloutet, Philippe. "Vallée d'Aspe: Le Béarn entre nature et patrimoine" (in French). Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- "Événements marquants". Invitation au tourisme en Vallée d'Aspe (in French). Retrieved 25 April 2016.