Avogadro constant
The Avogadro constant, named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro, is the number of constituent particles, usually molecules, atoms or ions that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole. It is the proportionality factor that relates the molar mass of a substance to the mass of a sample, is designated with the symbol N_{A} or L,^{[1]} and is defined to have the value of exactly 6.02214076×10^{23} mol^{−1} in the International System of Units (SI).^{[2]}^{[3]}^{[4]}
Previous definitions of chemical quantity involved the Avogadro number, a historical term closely related to the Avogadro constant, but defined differently: the Avogadro number was initially defined by Jean Baptiste Perrin as the number of atoms in one gram-molecule of atomic hydrogen, meaning one gram of hydrogen. This number is also known as Loschmidt constant in German literature. The Avogadro number, and its definition, was deprecated in favor of the Avogadro constant and its definition. The constant was later redefined as the number of atoms in 12 grams of the isotope carbon-12 (^{12}C), and still later generalized to relate amounts of a substance to their molecular weight.^{[5]} For instance, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in one mole of any sample of ordinary matter is, to a first approximation, 6×10^{23} times its molecular weight.^{[6]} Similarly, 12 grams of ^{12}C, with the mass number 12 (6 protons, 6 neutrons), has a similar number of carbon atoms, 6.022×10^{23}. The Avogadro number is a dimensionless quantity, and has the same numerical value of the Avogadro constant when given in base units. In contrast, the Avogadro constant has the dimension of reciprocal amount of substance. The Avogadro constant can also be expressed as 0.6023... mL⋅mol^{−1}⋅Å^{−3}, which can be used to convert from volume per molecule in cubic ångströms to molar volume in millilitres per mole.
Value of N_{A} in various units |
---|
6.02214076×10^{23} mol^{−1} |
2.73159734(12)×10^{26} (lb-mol)^{−1} |
1.707248434(77)×10^{25} (oz-mol)^{−1} |
6.02214076(0)×10^{23} mol^{−1} (after May 2019) |
Contents
History[edit]
The Avogadro constant is named after the early 19th-century Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro, who, in 1811, first proposed that the volume of a gas (at a given pressure and temperature) is proportional to the number of atoms or molecules regardless of the nature of the gas.^{[7]} The French physicist Jean Perrin in 1909 proposed naming the constant in honor of Avogadro.^{[8]} Perrin won the 1926 Nobel Prize in Physics, largely for his work in determining the Avogadro constant by several different methods.^{[9]}
The value of the Avogadro constant was first indicated by Johann Josef Loschmidt, who in 1865 estimated the average diameter of the molecules in the air by a method that is equivalent to calculating the number of particles in a given volume of gas.^{[10]} This latter value, the number density n_{0} of particles in an ideal gas, is now called the Loschmidt constant in his honor, and is related to the Avogadro constant, N_{A}, by
where p_{0} is the pressure, R is the gas constant, and T_{0} is the absolute temperature. The connection with Loschmidt is the origin of the symbol L sometimes used for the Avogadro constant, and German-language literature may refer to both constants by the same name, distinguished only by the units of measurement.^{[11]}
Accurate determinations of the Avogadro constant require the measurement of a single quantity on both the atomic and macroscopic scales using the same unit of measurement. This became possible for the first time when American physicist Robert Millikan measured the charge on an electron in 1910. The electric charge per mole of electrons is a constant called the Faraday constant and had been known since 1834 when Michael Faraday published his works on electrolysis. By dividing the charge on a mole of electrons by the charge on a single electron the value of the Avogadro number is obtained.^{[12]} Since 1910, newer calculations have more accurately determined the values for the Faraday constant and the elementary charge (see § Measurement below).
Perrin originally proposed the name Avogadro's number (N) to refer to the number of molecules in one gram-molecule of oxygen (exactly 32g of oxygen, according to the definitions of the period),^{[8]} and this term is still widely used, especially in introductory works.^{[13]} The change in name to Avogadro constant (N_{A}) came with the introduction of the mole as a base unit in the International System of Units (SI) in 1971,^{[14]} which regarded amount of substance as an independent dimension of measurement.^{[15]} With this recognition, the Avogadro constant was no longer a pure number, but had a unit of measurement, the reciprocal mole (mol^{−1}).^{[15]}
While it is rare to use units of amount of substance other than the mole, the Avogadro constant can also be expressed by pound-mole and ounce-mole.
2019 redefinition[edit]
The current definition of the mole links it to the kilogram. The revised definition breaks that link by making a mole a specific number of entities of the substance in question.
- Previous definition: The mole is the amount of substance of a system that contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon-12. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles.
- 2019 definition^{[16]}: The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance. One mole contains exactly 6.02214076×10^{23} elementary entities. This number is the fixed numerical value of the Avogadro constant, N_{A}, when expressed in the unit mol^{−1} and is called the Avogadro number.
- The amount of substance, symbol n, of a system is a measure of the number of specified elementary entities. An elementary entity may be an atom, a molecule, an ion, an electron, any other particle or specified group of particles.
One consequence of this change is that the currently defined relationship between the mass of the ^{12}C atom, the dalton, the kilogram, and the Avogadro number will no longer be valid. One of the following must change:
- The mass of a ^{12}C atom is exactly 12 dalton.
- The number of dalton in a gram is exactly the numerical value of the Avogadro number: (i.e., g/Da = N_{A} ⋅ mol).
The wording of the ninth SI Brochure^{[17]}^{[18]} implies that the first statement remains valid, which means that the second is no longer true. The molar mass constant, while still with great accuracy remaining 1 g/mol, is no longer exactly equal to that. Draft Resolution A, which was voted on at the 26th CGPM, only stated that "the molar mass of carbon 12, M(^{12}C), is equal to 0.012 kg mol^{−1} within a relative standard uncertainty equal to that of the recommended value of N_{A}h at the time this Resolution was adopted, namely 4.5×10^{−10}, and that in the future its value will be determined experimentally", which makes no reference to the dalton and is consistent with either statement.
Bridge from macroscopic to microscopic physics[edit]
The Avogadro constant, N_{A}, is a scaling factor between macroscopic (amount of substance) and microscopic (particle number) physics. As such, it provides the relationship between other physical constants and properties. For example, based on CODATA values,^{[19]} it establishes the following relationship between the gas constant R and the Boltzmann constant k_{B},
and the Faraday constant F and the elementary charge e,
The Avogadro constant also enters into the definition of the unified atomic mass unit, u,
where M_{u} is the molar mass constant.
Measurement[edit]
Coulometry[edit]
The earliest accurate method to measure the value of the Avogadro constant was based on coulometry. The principle is to measure the Faraday constant, F, which is the electric charge carried by one mole of electrons, and to divide by the elementary charge, e, to obtain the Avogadro constant.
The classic experiment is that of Bower and Davis at NIST,^{[20]} and relies on dissolving silver metal away from the anode of an electrolysis cell, while passing a constant electric current I for a known time t. If m is the mass of silver lost from the anode and A_{r} the atomic weight of silver, then the Faraday constant is given by:
The NIST scientists devised a method to compensate for silver lost from the anode by mechanical causes, and conducted an isotope analysis of the silver used to determine its atomic weight. Their value for the conventional Faraday constant is F_{90} = 96485.39(13) C/mol, which corresponds to a value for the Avogadro constant of 6.0221449(78)×10^{23} mol^{−1}: both values have a relative standard uncertainty of 1.3×10^{−6}.
Electron mass measurement[edit]
The Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) publishes values for physical constants for international use. It determines the Avogadro constant^{[21]} from the ratio of the molar mass of the electron A_{r}(e)M_{u} to the rest mass of the electron m_{e}:
The relative atomic mass of the electron, A_{r}(e), is a directly measured quantity, and the molar mass constant, M_{u}, is a defined constant in the SI. The electron rest mass, however, is calculated from other measured constants:^{[21]}
As may be observed in the table below, the main limiting factor in the precision of the Avogadro constant is the uncertainty in the value of the Planck constant, as all the other constants that contribute to the calculation are known more precisely.
Constant | Symbol | 2014 CODATA value | Relative standard uncertainty | Correlation coefficient with N_{A} |
---|---|---|---|---|
Proton–electron mass ratio | m_{p}/m_{e} | 1836.152 673 89(17) | 9.5×10^{–11} | −0.0003 |
Molar mass constant | M_{u} | 0.001 kg/mol = 1 g/mol | 0 (defined) | — |
Rydberg constant | R_{∞} | 10 973 731.568 508(65) m^{−1} | 5.9×10^{–12} | −0.0002 |
Planck constant | h | 6.626 070 040(81)×10^{–34} J s | 1.2×10^{–8} | −0.9993 |
Speed of light | c | 299 792 458 m/s | 0 (defined) | — |
Fine structure constant | α | 7.297 352 5664(17)×10^{–3} | 2.3×10^{–10} | 0.0193 |
Avogadro constant | N_{A} | 6.022 140 857(74)×10^{23} mol^{−1} | 1.2×10^{–8} | 1 |
X-ray crystal density (XRCD) methods[edit]
A modern method to determine the Avogadro constant is the use of X-ray crystallography. Silicon single crystals may be produced today in commercial facilities with extremely high purity and with few lattice defects. This method defines the Avogadro constant as the ratio of the molar volume, V_{m}, to the atomic volume V_{atom}:
- , where and n is the number of atoms per unit cell of volume V_{cell}.
The unit cell of silicon has a cubic packing arrangement of 8 atoms, and the unit cell volume may be measured by determining a single unit cell parameter, the length of one of the sides of the cube, a.^{[22]}
In practice, measurements are carried out on a distance known as d_{220}(Si), which is the distance between the planes denoted by the Miller indices {220}, and is equal to a/√8. The 2006 CODATA value for d_{220}(Si) is 192.0155762(50) pm, a relative standard uncertainty of 2.8×10^{−8}, corresponding to a unit cell volume of 1.60193304(13)×10^{−28} m^{3}.
The isotope proportional composition of the sample used must be measured and taken into account. Silicon occurs in three stable isotopes (^{28}Si, ^{29}Si, ^{30}Si), and the natural variation in their proportions is greater than other uncertainties in the measurements. The atomic weight A_{r} for the sample crystal can be calculated, as the standard atomic weights of the three nuclides are known with great accuracy. This, together with the measured density ρ of the sample, allows the molar volume V_{m} to be determined:
where M_{u} is the molar mass constant. The 2006 CODATA value for the molar volume of silicon is 12.0588349(11) cm^{3}⋅mol^{−1}, with a relative standard uncertainty of 9.1×10^{−8}.^{[23]}
As of the 2006 CODATA recommended values, the relative uncertainty in determinations of the Avogadro constant by the X-ray crystal density method is 1.2×10^{−7}, about two and a half times higher than that of the electron mass method.
International Avogadro Coordination[edit]
The International Avogadro Coordination (IAC), often simply called the "Avogadro project", is a collaboration begun in the early 1990s between various national metrology institutes to measure the Avogadro constant by the X-ray crystal density method to a relative uncertainty of 2×10^{−8} or less.^{[24]} The project is part of the efforts to redefine the kilogram in terms of a universal physical constant, rather than the International Prototype Kilogram, and complements the measurements of the Planck constant using Kibble balances.^{[25]}^{[26]} Under the current definitions of the International System of Units (SI), a measurement of the Avogadro constant is an indirect measurement of the Planck constant:
The measurements use highly polished spheres of silicon with a mass of one kilogram. Spheres are used to simplify the measurement of the size (and hence the density) and to minimize the effect of the oxide coating that inevitably forms on the surface. The first measurements used spheres of silicon with natural isotopic composition, and had a relative uncertainty of 3.1×10^{−7}.^{[27]}^{[28]}^{[29]} These first results were also inconsistent with values of the Planck constant derived from Kibble balance measurements, although the source of the discrepancy is now believed to be known.^{[26]}
The main residual uncertainty in the early measurements was in the measurement of the isotopic composition of the silicon to calculate the atomic weight, so in 2007 a 4.8 kg single crystal of isotopically-enriched silicon (99.94% ^{28}Si) was grown,^{[30]}^{[31]}^{[32]} and two one-kilogram spheres cut from it. Diameter measurements on the spheres are repeatable to within 0.3 nm, and the uncertainty in the mass is 3 µg. Full results from these determinations were expected in late 2010.^{[33]} Their paper, published in January 2011, summarized the result of the International Avogadro Coordination and presented a measurement of the Avogadro constant to be 6.02214078(18)×10^{23} mol^{−1}.^{[34]}
See also[edit]
References[edit]
- ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006–) "Avogadro constant". doi:10.1351/goldbook.A00543
- ^ "CODATA Value: Avogadro constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. US National Institute of Standards and Technology. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
2018 CODATA recommended values
- ^ International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances (CIAAW), P.; Peiser, H. S. (1992). "Atomic Weight: The Name, Its History, Definition and Units". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 64 (10): 1535–43. doi:10.1351/pac199264101535.
- ^ International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Commission on Quantities and Units in Clinical Chemistry, H. P.; International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Committee on Quantities and Units (1996). "Glossary of Terms in Quantities and Units in Clinical Chemistry (IUPAC-IFCC Recommendations 1996)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 68 (4): 957–1000. doi:10.1351/pac199668040957.
- ^ International Bureau of Weights and Measures (2006), The International System of Units (SI) (PDF) (8th ed.), pp. 114–15, ISBN 92-822-2213-6, archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-14
- ^ Okun, Lev B.; Lee, A. G. (1985). Particle Physics: The Quest for the Substance of Substance. OPA Ltd. p. 86. ISBN 978-3-7186-0228-5.
- ^ Avogadro, Amedeo (1811). "Essai d'une maniere de determiner les masses relatives des molecules elementaires des corps, et les proportions selon lesquelles elles entrent dans ces combinaisons". Journal de Physique. 73: 58–76. English translation.
- ^ ^{a} ^{b} Perrin, Jean (1909). "Mouvement brownien et réalité moléculaire". Annales de Chimie et de Physique. 8^{e} Série. 18: 1–114. Extract in English, translation by Frederick Soddy.
- ^ Oseen, C.W. (December 10, 1926). Presentation Speech for the 1926 Nobel Prize in Physics.
- ^ Loschmidt, J. (1865). "Zur Grösse der Luftmoleküle". Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Wien. 52 (2): 395–413. English translation.
- ^ Virgo, S.E. (1933). "Loschmidt's Number". Science Progress. 27: 634–49. Archived from the original on 2005-04-04.
- ^ "Introduction to the constants for nonexperts 19001920".
- ^ Kotz, John C.; Treichel, Paul M.; Townsend, John R. (2008). Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity (7th ed.). Brooks/Cole. ISBN 978-0-495-38703-9. Archived from the original on 2008-10-16.
- ^ Resolution 3, 14th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM), 1971.
- ^ ^{a} ^{b} de Bièvre, Paul; Peiser, H. Steffen (1992). "'Atomic Weight' — The Name, Its History, Definition, and Units" (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 64 (10): 1535–43. doi:10.1351/pac199264101535.
- ^ "Proceedings of the 106th meeting" (PDF). 16-17 and 20 October 2017. Check date values in:
|date=
(help) - ^ Pavese, Franco (January 2018). "A possible draft of the CGPM Resolution for the revised SI, compared with the CCU last draft of the 9th SI Brochure". Measurement. 114: 478–483. doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2017.08.020. ISSN 0263-2241.
- ^ Lehmann, H. P.; Fuentes-Arderiu, X.; Bertello, L. F. (2016-02-29). "Unified Atomic Mass Unit". doi:10.1515/iupac.68.2930.
- ^ Mohr, Peter J.; Newell, David B.; Taylor, Barry N. (2015). "CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 2014". Zenodo. arXiv:1507.07956. doi:10.5281/zenodo.22826.
- ^ This account is based on the review in Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N. (1999). "CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 1998" (PDF). Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. 28 (6): 1713–1852. Bibcode:1999JPCRD..28.1713M. doi:10.1063/1.556049. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-01.
- ^ ^{a} ^{b} Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N. (2005). "CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 2002" (PDF). Reviews of Modern Physics. 77 (1): 1–107. Bibcode:2005RvMP...77....1M. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.77.1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-01.
- ^ Mineralogy Database (2000–2005). "Unit Cell Formula". Retrieved 2007-12-09.
- ^ Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N.; Newell, David B. (2008). "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (PDF). Reviews of Modern Physics. 80 (2): 633–730. arXiv:0801.0028. Bibcode:2008RvMP...80..633M. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.80.633. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-01.
- ^ "Avogadro Project". National Physical Laboratory. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
- ^ Leonard, B. P. (2007). "On the role of the Avogadro constant in redefining SI units for mass and amount of substance". Metrologia. 44 (1): 82–86. Bibcode:2007Metro..44...82L. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/44/1/012.
- ^ ^{a} ^{b} Jabbour, Zeina J. (2009). "Getting Closer to Redefining The Kilogram". Weighing & Measurement Magazine (October): 24–26.
- ^ Becker, Peter (2003). "Tracing the definition of the kilogram to the Avogadro constant using a silicon single crystal". Metrologia. 40 (6): 366–75. Bibcode:2003Metro..40..366B. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/40/6/008.
- ^ Fujii, K.; et al. (2005). "Present State of the Avogadro Constant Determination From Silicon Crystals With Natural Isotopic Compositions". IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54 (2): 854–59. doi:10.1109/TIM.2004.843101.
- ^ Williams, E. R. (2007). IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56 (2): 646–50. doi:10.1109/TIM.2007.890591. Text "Toward the SI System Based on Fundamental Constants: Weighing the Electron " ignored (help); Missing or empty
|title=
(help) - ^ Becker, P.; et al. (2006). "Large-scale production of highly enriched 28Si for the precise determination of the Avogadro constant" (PDF). Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 (7): 1854–60. Bibcode:2006MeScT..17.1854B. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1026.3626. doi:10.1088/0957-0233/17/7/025.
- ^ Devyatykh, G. G.; et al. (2008). "High purity single crystal mono-isotopic silicon-28 for improved determination of the Avogadro number". Doklady Akademii Nauk. 421 (1): 61–64.
- ^ Devyatykh, G. G.; Bulanov, A. D.; Gusev, A. V.; Kovalev, I. D.; Krylov, V. A.; Potapov, A. M.; Sennikov, P. G.; Adamchik, S. A.; Gavva, V. A.; Kotkov, A. P.; Churbanov, M. F.; Dianov, E. M.; Kaliteevskii, A. K.; Godisov, O. N.; Pohl, H. -J.; Becker, P.; Riemann, H.; Abrosimov, N. V. (23 July 2008). "High-purity single-crystal monoisotopic silicon-28 for precise determination of Avogadro's number". Doklady Chemistry. 421 (1): 157–160. doi:10.1134/S001250080807001X.
- ^ "Report of the 11th meeting of the Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM)". International Bureau of Weights and Measures. 2008. p. 17.
- ^ Andreas, B.; et al. (2011). "An accurate determination of the Avogadro constant by counting the atoms in a ^{28}Si crystal". Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 (3): 030801 (4 pages). arXiv:1010.2317. Bibcode:2011PhRvL.106c0801A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.030801. PMID 21405263.
External links[edit]
- 1996 definition of the Avogadro constant from the IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology ("Gold Book")
- Some Notes on Avogadro's Number, 6.022×10^{23} (historical notes)
- An Exact Value for Avogadro's Number – American Scientist
- Avogadro and molar Planck constants for the redefinition of the kilogram
- Poliakoff, Martyn. "Avogadro's Number – N_{A} = 6.02214×10^{23}". Numberphile. Brady Haran.
- Murrell, J. 2001 Avogadro and his Constant, Helvitica Chemica Acta, 84, 6, p.1314-1327
- Scanned version of "Two hypothesis of Avogadro", 1811 Avogadro's article, on BibNum