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Backbone.js logo.svg
Developer(s)Jeremy Ashkenas
Initial releaseOctober 13, 2010; 9 years ago (2010-10-13)
Stable release
1.4.0 / February 19, 2019; 8 months ago (2019-02-19)[1]
RepositoryBackbone.js Repository
Written inJavaScript
Operating systemCross-platform
Size7.5 KB production
72 KB development
TypeJavaScript library

Backbone.js is a JavaScript library with a RESTful JSON interface and is based on the Model–view–presenter (MVP) application design paradigm. Backbone is known for being lightweight, as its only hard dependency is on one JavaScript library,[2] Underscore.js, plus jQuery for use of the full library.[3] It is designed for developing single-page web applications,[4] and for keeping various parts of web applications (e.g. multiple clients and the server) synchronized.[5] Backbone was created by Jeremy Ashkenas,[6] who is also known for CoffeeScript and Underscore.js.

When handling the DOM Backbone.js adopts an imperative programming style, in contrast with a declarative programming style (common in AngularJS using data-attributes).[7][8]

Trying to provide "the minimal set of data-structuring (models and collections) and user interface (views and URLs)",[9] leaves to the developer the choice of extensions for enhanced functionality. For example, one can use nested views with Backbone Layout Manager or model-view binding with ReSTbasis.


The following web applications are built with Backbone.js:[10]


  1. ^ "Backbone.js".
  2. ^ Alex MacCaw (18 August 2011). JavaScript Web Applications. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-4493-0351-8. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  3. ^ Dependencies, BackboneJS, October 14, 2015
  4. ^ "What SendHub Learned Building a Single-Page Backbone.js App", ReadWriteWeb
  5. ^ "Behind the rumours: how we built our Twitter riots interactive", The Guardian, London, 8 December 2011
  6. ^ Developer, Delhi (Apr 7, 2015). "Delhi Developer | Website Designing Company in Delhi". Delhi Developer. Delhi Developer. Retrieved Apr 7, 2015.
  7. ^ "Backbone.js". Retrieved 2017-06-01.
  8. ^ "Website Designing Help". Saturday, 16 February 2019
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Backbone.js".
  10. ^ "Companies and Websites using Backbone.js". Archived from the original on 2017-05-12. Retrieved 2019-06-01.
  11. ^ "Organizing Your Company to Embrace Microservices". InfoQ.
  12. ^ John Paul Titlow (22 July 2013). "Inside The Tech Stack Digg Used To Replace Google Reader". Co.Labs. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  13. ^ "Backbone.js and Underscore.js are bundled into Drupal 8".
  14. ^ Backbonification: migrating a large JavaScript project from DOM spaghetti to Backbone.js Archived 2013-01-20 at, Samuel Clay (NewsBlur) 13th November 2012
  15. ^ "Mobile UI Components". Retrieved 2014-03-22.
  16. ^ "A Shorter Letter". Retrieved 2014-03-22.

Further reading[edit]

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