Banner (country subdivision)
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Banner is a type of administrative division, and may more specifically refer to:
- A Banner (Inner Mongolia) is an administrative division of a Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China, equivalent to a Chinese county (縣|县[xiàn]) in the rest of China. Qosighuns or qoshuns ('banners'), sometimes transcribed by hoshuns or khoshuns, were the battalion level of administrative/military subdivision in the Mongol army.
- Qosighuns or khoshuns, former division of Outer Mongolia grouped in aimag (league).
- An Autonomous banner is an area associated with one or more ethnic minorities designated as autonomous within the People's Republic of China.
- The Eight Banners are former administrative divisions of China into which all Manchu households were placed, primarily for military purposes.
- Kozhuun, subdivisions of former Tannu Uriankhai and now Russian Tuva.
- A Bandon (Byzantine Empire) was the lowest Byzantine administrative-cum-military unit. "Bandon" means "banner".
- Sanjak, literally "a banner, flag", was the original first level subdivision of the Ottoman Empire.
- Liwa, an Arabic term meaning "banner" as a type of administrative division.
Notes and references
- Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 530. ISBN 978-0-8135-0627-2.
- Elliott, Mark C. (2001). The Manchu way: the eight banners and ethnic identity in late imperial China. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-4684-7.
- Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). "Bandon". The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.