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Clockwise from Top: Remains of Ahichchhatra, Bareilly Junction railway station, Ramganga Barrage, Skyline of Bareilly, Biabani Kothi, Dargah-e-Ala Hazrat and The FreeWill Baptist Church
Clockwise from Top: Remains of Ahichchhatra, Bareilly Junction railway station, Ramganga Barrage, Skyline of Bareilly, Biabani Kothi, Dargah-e-Ala Hazrat and The FreeWill Baptist Church
Nath Nagri
Location within Uttar Pradesh
Bareilly is located in Uttar Pradesh
Location within Uttar Pradesh
Bareilly is located in India
Bareilly (India)
Bareilly is located in Asia
Bareilly (Asia)
Coordinates: 28°21′50″N 79°24′54″E / 28.364°N 79.415°E / 28.364; 79.415Coordinates: 28°21′50″N 79°24′54″E / 28.364°N 79.415°E / 28.364; 79.415
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictBareilly District
 • MPSantosh Gangwar (Union Minister)
 • MLAArun Kumar (city)
Rajesh Agarwal (cantt) * Finance minister in U.P. government
 • MayorUmesh Gautam (Bharatiya Janta Party
 • Total235 km2 (91 sq mi)
268 m (879 ft)
 • Total903,668
 • Density3,800/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
 • Sex ratio
895 /1,000
 • OfficialHindi[2]
 • Additional officialUrdu[2]
Time zoneIST
PIN codes
Vehicle registrationUP-25

Bareilly (/bəˈrɛli/ (About this soundlisten)), is a city in Bareilly district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the capital of Bareilly division and the geographical region of Rohilkhand. The city is 252 kilometres (157 mi) north of the state capital, Lucknow, and 250 kilometres (155 mi) east of the national capital, New Delhi. It is the eighth largest metropolis in Uttar Pradesh, and the 50th-largest city in India.[3] Bareilly also figured amongst the PM Narendra Modi's ambitious 100 Smart City list in India.[4] It is located on the Ramganga River and is the site of the Ramganga Barrage built for canal irrigation.

The city is also known by the name Nath Nagri[5] (for the seven Shiva temples located in the Bareilly region – Dhopeshwar Nath, Madhi Nath, Alakha Nath, Tapeshwar Nath, Bankhandi Nath, Pashupati Nath and Trivati Nath) and historically as Sanjashya (where the Buddha descended from Tushita to earth).[6]

The city is a centre for furniture manufacturing and trade in cotton, cereal and sugar. Its status grew with its inclusion in the "counter magnets" list of the National Capital Region (NCR), a list also including Hissar, Patiala, Kota and Gwalior.[7] The city is also known as Bans-Bareilly. Although Bareilly is a production centre for cane (bans) furniture, "Bans Bareilly" is not derived from the bans market; it was named for two princes: Bansaldev and Baraldev, sons of Jagat Singh Katehriya, who founded the city in 1537.[8]

Map of Bareilly District


Multi-coloured political map
Ahichchhatra (or Ahi-Kshetra) was the ancient capital of Northern Panchala. The remains of this city have been discovered in Bareilly

According to the epic Mahābhārata, the Bareilly region (Panchala) is said to be the birthplace of Draupadi, who was also referred to as 'Panchali' (one from the kingdom of Panchāla) by Kṛṣṇā (Lord Krishna). When Yudhishthira becomes the king of Hastinapur at the end of the Mahābhārata, Draupadi becomes his queen. The folklore says that Gautama Buddha had once visited the ancient fortress city of Ahichchhatra in Bareilly.[9] The Jain Tirthankara Parshva is said to have attained Kaivalya at Ahichchhatra.[10]

In a Historic book (Sikar Ka Itihaas) written by Pt. Jhabarmall Sharma It is believed that the descendants of Lord Shriram's son Kusha went from Ayodhya to Rohtas, Narwar, Gwalior and Bareilly respectively their capital. In the 21st generation, Maharaja Nala, Soddevji made Gopachal (Gwalior) the capital. The time of going to Gwalior to Bareilly looks like Vikrama 933.

In the 12th century, the kingdom was under the rule by different clans of Kshatriya Rajputs. Then the region became part of the Muslim Turkic Delhi Sultanate for 325 years before getting absorbed in the emerging Mughal Empire. The foundation of the modern City of Bareilly foundation was laid by Mughal governor Mukrand Rai in 1657 during the rule of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

Later the region became the capital of Rohilkhand region before getting handed over to Nawab Vazir of Awadh and then to East India Company (transferred to the British India) and later becoming an integral part of India. The region has, also, acted as a mint for a major part of its history.

From archaeological point of view the district of Bareilly is very rich. The extensive remains of Ahichchhatra, the Capital town of Northern Panchala have been discovered near Ramnagar village of Aonla Tehsil in the district. It was during the first excavations at Ahichchhatra (1940–44) that the painted grey ware, associated with the advent of the Aryans in the Ganges–Yamuna Valley, was recognised for the first time in the earliest levels of the site. Nearly five thousand coins belonging to periods earlier than that of Guptas have been yielded from Ahichchhatra. It has also been one of the richest sites in India from the point of view of the total yield of terracotta. Some of the masterpieces of Indian terracotta art are from Ahichchhatra. In fact the classification made of the terracotta human figurines from Ahichchhatra on grounds of style and to some extent stratigraphy became a model for determining the stratigraphy of subsequent excavations at other sites in the Ganges Valley. On the basis of the existing material, the archaeology of the region helps us to get an idea of the cultural sequence from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC up to the 11th century AD. Some ancient mounds in the district have also been discovered by the Deptt. of Ancient History and culture, Rohilkhand University, at Tihar-Khera (Fatehganj West), Pachaumi, Rahtuia, Kadarganj and Sainthal.[10] Apart from this, artefacts of painted grey ware culture of the Iron Age have also been discovered near the city.[11]

Establishment [edit]

Bareilly was founded in 1537 by Basdeo, a Katehriya Rajput. The city was first mentioned by the historian Budayuni, who wrote that Husain Quli Khan was appointed the governor of "Bareilly and Sambhal" in 1568. The divisions and revenue of the district "being fixed by Todar Mal" were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596. The foundation of the modern city of Bareilly was laid by Mughal governor Mukrand Rai in 1657. In 1658, Bareilly became the headquarters of the province of Budaun.[12]

The Mughals encouraged the settlements of loyal Afghans (Pathans) in the Bareilly region to control the rebellious Katehriya Rajputs. After the death of Emperor Aurangzeb's death, the Afghans began to settle in the villages and assimilated with the local Muslims. These descendants of the these assimilated Afghans are known as Pathans.

Multi-coloured political map
Regions of Uttar Pradesh, including Rohilkhand (capital Bareilly)

After the fall of the Mughal Empire, created anarchy and many Pathans migrated from the Rohilkhand region. Bareilly (like other cities in Uttar Pradesh) experienced economic stagnation and poverty due to the breakdown of trade and security, leading to the migration of Rohilla Muslim Pathans to Suriname and Guyana as indentured labour.[13][14]

British East India Company[edit]

Under Barech at the 1761 Third Battle of Panipat, Rohilkhand blocked the expansion of the Maratha Empire into northern India. In 1772 it was invaded by the Marathas, repulsing the invasion with the aid of the Nawab of Awadh. After the war, Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula demanded payment for the nawabs' help from Barech. When his demand was refused, the nawab joined the British (under Governor Warren Hastings and his Commander-in-Chief, Alexander Champion) to invade Rohilkhand. The combined forces of Daula and the Company defeated Barech (who was killed in battle at Miranpur Katra, ending Rohilla rule) in 1774.

Rohilkhand was handed over to Daula, and from 1774 to 1800 the province was ruled by the Nawab of Awadh. By 1801, subsidies due under the treaties to support a British force had fallen into arrears. To pay the debt, Nawab Saadat Ali Khan surrendered Rohilkhand to the East India Company in a treaty signed on 10 November 1801. [15]

During the reign of Shah Alam II, Bareilly was the headquarters of Rohilla Sardar Hafiz Rehmat Khan and many coins were minted. The city was later in the possession of Awadh Nawab Asaf-ud-Daulah, and his coins had Bareilly, Bareilly Aasfabad and the Bareilly kite and fish as identification marks. Coins were then minted by the East India Company.[16]

Modern period[edit]

Physical-political map of northern India
A 1912 map of northern India, showing the principal centres of the 1857–1859 rebellion: Meerut, Delhi, Bareilly, (Kanpur), Lucknow, Jhansi and Gwalior

After the Rohilla War, the change in the power structure increased discontent throughout the district. Increased taxation from 1812[17] to 1814 increased resentment of the British: "Business stood still, shops were shut and multitudes assembled near the courthouse to petition for the abolition of the tax." The Magistrate Dembleton, already unpopular, ordered the assessment to be made by a Kotwal. A skirmish between rebels and the sepoys (under Captain Cunningham) cost 300–400 lives. In 1818, Robert Glyn was posted as Acting Judge and Magistrate of Bareilly and the Joint Magistrate of Bulundshahr.[18]

Robert Glyn asked Ghulam Yahya to write an account of "craftsmen, the names of tools of manufacture and production and their dress and manners". The most popular trades in and around Bareilly during the 1820s were manufacturing glass, jewellery, glass and lac bangles and gold and silver thread, crimping, bean drying, wire drawing, charpoy weaving, keeping a grocer's shop and selling kebabs.[12]

Rebellion of 1857 [edit]

Bareilly was a centre of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The rebellion began as a mutiny of native soldiers (sepoys), employed by the British East India Company's army, against race- and religion-based injustices and inequities on 10 May 1857 in Meerut. It expanded into other mutinies and civilian rebellions, primarily in the major north-central Indian river valleys; local episodes extended northwest to Peshawar (on the northwest frontier with Afghanistan) and southeast (beyond Delhi). There were riots in many parts of Uttar Pradesh, and Muslims in Bareilly, Bijnor and Moradabad called for the revival of a Muslim kingdom.[19]

Old, multi-coloured physical-political map
Bareilly was made part of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.

The Rohillas actively opposed the British, but were disarmed.[20] Khan Bahadur Khan Rohilla, grandson of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, formed his own government in Bareilly in 1857 and a widespread popular revolt in Awadh, Bundelkhand and Rohilkhand took place. In 1857, Khan Bhadur Khan issued silver coins from Bareilly as an independent ruler.[21] When the rebellion failed, Bareilly was subjugated. Khan Bahadur Khan was sentenced to death, and hanged in the police station on 24 February 1860.

Independence [edit]

Bareilly Central Jail housed a number of political prisoners during the British Raj, including Yashpal (who married while imprisoned on 7 August 1936 was the first such ceremony in an Indian jail). The rules were changed, preventing future prison marriages.[22]


Bareilly is in northern India, at 28°10′N 78°23′E / 28.167°N 78.383°E / 28.167; 78.383. On its east are Pilibhit and Shahjahanpur, Rampur on the west, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) to the north and Badaun to the south. The city is level and well-watered, sloping towards the south. Its soil is fertile, with groves of trees. A rain forest in the north, known as the tarai, contains tigers, bears, deer and wild pigs. The river Sarda (or Gogra) forms the eastern boundary and is the principal waterway.[20] The Ramganga receives most of the drainage from the Kumaon mountains, and the Deoha also receives many small streams. The Gomati (or Gumti) is also nearby.[20]


Bareilly has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) with hot summers and cool winters.[23] The average temperature for the year is 25 °C. June, with an average temperature of 32.8 °C is the warmest month, while the coolest month of the year is January, with an average temperature of 15 °C.[23] Bareilly receives 1038.9 mm precipitation for the year on average. The month with the most precipitation on average is July with 307.3 mm of precipitation, while November is the month with the least precipitation on average, with an average of 5.1 mm. There are an average of 37.7 days of precipitation, with the most precipitation occurring in August with 10.3 days and the least precipitation occurring in November with 0.5 days. The summer is noticeably wetter than the winter, although rain falls throughout the year.[23]

Climate data for Bareilly
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.4
Average high °C (°F) 21.6
Average low °C (°F) 8.3
Record low °C (°F) 0.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 22.9
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1901–2000)[24]
Source #2: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[25]


Bareilly is on the Ganges plain, with fertile alluvial soil; however, the lower plain is flood-prone. The city is on the Ramganga, with seven other rivers passing through the district. The lower Himalayas are 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of the river.


Accodign to 2011 Indian Census, Bareilly had a population of 903,668, of which 476,927 were males and 426,741 were females. The sex ratio was 895. Population within the age group of 0 to 6 years was 107,323. The total number of literates in Bareilly was 543,515, which constituted 60.1% of the population, of which male literacy is 66.5% and female literacy is 55.7%. The effective literacy rate of 7+ population of Bareilly was 68.3%, of which male literacy rate was 72.7% and female literacy rate was 63.2%. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes had a population of 71,215 and 2,771 respectively. In 2011, Bareilly had a total of 166222 households.[1]


The official languages are Hindi and Urdu.[2]


The 16th Lok Sabha Election for the Bareilly MP was won by Santosh Gangwar of the Bharatiya Janta Party. He defeated Praveen Singh Aron by huge margin to retain his stronghold. Bareilly has been a traditional battleground between the INC and the saffron parties. Regional parties such as the Samajwadi Party, led by Veerpal Singh Yadav, and the Bahujan Samaj Party have a limited influence.

Bareilly was a stronghold of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) for 20 years (1989–2009), when both the Member of Parliament (MP) and the Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) was from the BJP. The city saw the emergence of Hindu nationalism during the last two decades, accompanied by the growth of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, Vishva Hindu Parishad and Bajrang Dal in the region.

Santosh Gangwar was a Member of Parliament for Bareilly for 20 years (1989–2009). He was a former Minister of State for Petroleum and Natural Gas, with an additional charge of Parliament Affairs in the 13th Lok Sabha. Before this, Gangwar was Minister of State of Science and Technology with an additional charge of Parliamentary Affairs from October to November 1999 and chief whip of the BJP in the 14th Lok Sabha. He was narrowly defeated in the 15th Lok Sabha elections in 2009.


A Shopping Complex in the city

Since India began liberalising its economy, Bareilly has experienced rapid growth. Commerce has diversified with mall culture, although the area's rural economy remains agrarian, handicraft (zari-zardosi embroidery work on cloth material), bamboo and cane furniture. The city is equidistant from New Delhi (national capital) and Lucknow, the capital of Uttar Pradesh. This makes Bareilly a nodal point between two major cities of India.



Bareilly has very productive land (Tarai) for growing Sugarcane, Rice, pulses & wheat.[26] Hindustan Unilever has begun growing rice in Bareilly and the Punjab, but the company desires legal reforms and facility construction.[27]


In 2009, Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited (UPPCL) awarded pilot contracts to supply power to nine cities to companies who will collect revenue for the state government. Bareilly, Agra, Kanpur, Moradabad and Gorakhpur will be part of the first phase.[28]

Indian Fuel[edit]

The Indian government initiated a 10-percent-ethanol-blending programme on a pilot basis in Bareilly and Belgaum in Karnataka. The city also has CNG and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) outlets. Bareilly district was the first to implement India's bio-fuel standard.[29]*I

Transport [edit]

Roads [edit]

New renumbered National Highway[edit]

Highway map of road from New Delhi to Lucknow, passing through Bareilly
Renumbered National Highways map of India

Bareilly lies on the National Highway 30 (New renumbered National Highway system) (NH 30) (according to the new National Highway system in India). The newly numbered highway connects Sitarganj in Udham Singh Nagar district, Uttarakhand with Ibrahimpatnam in Andhra Pradesh. The 2040 km (1267.5 mi) highway starts at the junction of NH 9 at Sitarganj passes through Pilibhit, Bareilly, Shahjahanpur, Sitapur, Lucknow, Raebareli, Allahabad, Rewa, Jabalpur, Raipur, Dhamtari, Keskal, Jagdalpur, Konta, Nellipaka, Bhadrachalam, Kothagudem, Tiruvuru and ends at the junction of NH 65 in Ibrahimpatnam.

City Street Alignment[edit]

Highway map of road from New Delhi to Lucknow, passing through Bareilly
Old National Highway 24
Highway map of road from Rishikesh to Bareilly
Old National Highway 74 (Pilibhit By-pass Road)

The street system in Bareilly is traditional, with most roads oriented towards different cities. The city centre is the intersection of Nainital Road and Bada Bazaar–Shyam Ganj Road at a street known as Kutubkhana. It is a congested street, and the entry of cars or heavy vehicles is prohibited during the day. The Patel Chowk Choraha–Chaupla and Chowki Chauraha–Chaupla Roads run from Lucknow Road to Delhi Road (Old National Highway 24). Government of Uttar Pradesh has proposed 200 km six lane expressway from Faridpur near Bareilly to Pariyar in Unnao district (near Bithoor) to connect Bareilly with Kanpur and reduce distance between both cities from 10 hours to 3 hours. Nainital Road (including the old National Highway 74 or Pilibhit By-pass Road) and Badaun Road began at Kutubkhana. Heavy traffic is allowed on these roads only from Koharapeer Sabji-Mandi and Chaupla Crossroads.

Arterial streets include:

  • Stadium Road (connecting Pilibhit Road (D.D. Puram) to the ShyamGanj crossroad)
  • Macnair Road (connecting Nainital Road to Stadium Road)
  • Pilibhit By-pass Road, connecting Pilibhit Road to Lucknow Road (Old National Highway 24 or Delhi-Lucknow Highway)
  • SH-33 Bareilly to Mathura via Subhash Nagar & ( Vishwanathpuram ), Budaun and Kasganj
  • Mini By-Pass, connecting Delhi Road (Old National Highway 24 or Delhi-Lucknow Highway) to Nainital Road
  • Shyam Ganj– Patel Chowk Choraha–Chaupla–Quila–C.B. Ganj Road (Old National Highway 24 or Delhi-Lucknow Highway)
  • Shyam Ganj–Bareilly Cantt–Chowki Chauraha–Chaupla Road
  • I.V.R.I. Road (connecting Nainital Road to Pilibhit Road)
  • Civil Lines Road
  • Highway connecting Delhi to Lucknow four lane via Bareilly is a 29-kilometre-long (18 mi) highway which bypasses the city crowd of Bareilly, ensuring the smooth running of local traffic.

The inter-city satellite bus stand is just outside the city, at the intersection of Old National Highway 24 (Delhi-Lucknow Highway) and the Pilibhit By-pass Road. The old bus stand in Civil Lines still well-used by state-owned buses to Delhi.

Improvements [edit]

As part of the expansion of Old National Highway 24 (connecting Lucknow to New Delhi via Shahjahanpur, Bareilly, Rampur, Moradabad and Ghaziabad) to four lanes, two contracts were awarded on a Design, Build, Finance, Operate and Transfer (DBFOT) basis for the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). Bareilly Ring Road (Bypass) provides an excellent platform for setting up of industries, MNCs, residential townships, shopping malls, school and colleges, hospitals, airport, railways, etc.

Rail [edit]

Old map of India, with rail lines
Indian Railways network in 1909

Bareilly has been connected to the rest of India by rail since the 19th century, and a 1909 map shows that Bareilly was a railway junction during the early 20th century. Six rail lines intersect in the city. In 1890 the Bengal and North Western Railway leased the Tirhoot State Railway to increase the latter's revenue, and the Lucknow-Sitapur-Seramow Provincial State Railway merged with the Bareilly-Pilibheet Provincial State Railway to form the Lucknow-Bareilly Railway on 1 January 1891. The Lucknow-Bareilly Railway was owned by the Government of India, and operated by the Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway.

The Oudh and Tirhut Railway was formed on 1 January 1943 by the merger of the Bengal and North Western Railway, the Tirhut Railway (BNW operated), the Mashrak-Thawe Extension Railway (BNW operated), the Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway and the Lucknow-Bareilly Railway (R&K operated). The Oudh and Tirhut Railway was later renamed the Oudh Tirhut Railway; it merged with the Assam Railway and the Kanpur-Achnera section of the Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway to form North Eastern Railway (headquartered in Gorakhpur, with a divisional headquarters in Izzatnagar), one of the 16 zones of the Indian Railways.[30][31][32][33]

Low building, with motor vehicles outside
Bareilly Junction station

Six railway stations serve the city:

Bareilly is on the Moradabad-Lucknow route. Trains from the north (including Jammu Tawi and Amritsar) and Delhi running east and northeast (to Gorakhpur, Barauni, Howrah, Guwahati and Dibrugarh) pass through Bareilly, and the city is also on the route from Uttarakhand to Agra and Mathura via Budaun. Many trains to railway stations in Uttarakhand pass through Bareilly.


The Indian Air Force has a base at Izzatnagar, on the outskirts of Bareilly on the Nainital Road. The civil enclave has been made on the Pilibhit Bye-Pass Road near Mayur Van Chetna Kendra. Bareilly Airport was inaugurated by state civil aviation minister Nand Gopal Nandi and Union minister Santosh Gangwar on 10 March 2019 at the civil enclave of Trishul Air Base. Bareilly will be connected to Lucknow and Delhi under the UDAN scheme of central government. Flights from Bareilly to Delhi or Bareilly to Lucknow will start on 15 April 2019. On the directives of AAI and DGCA, the airport will be operating 72-seater flights with ATR aircraft.[34][35]

Defence installations[edit]

Cannons put for public display in a park at Kargil Chowk in Bareilly Cantt

In addition to the air-force base, Bareilly is the regimental centre and a major settlement of the Jat Regiment (one of the longest-serving and most-decorated infantry regiments of the Indian Army.[36] The regiment won 19 battle honours from 1839 to 1947,[37] and five battle honours, eight Mahavir Chakra, eight Kirti Chakra, 32 Shaurya Chakras, 39 Vir Chakras and 170 Sena Medals since independence.[36]

Places of interest[edit]

Hindu temples[edit]


Bareilly has three sports stadiums and one cricket academy:

  • Dori Lal Agarawal Sports Stadium (city area)
  • Major Dhyan Chand Sports Stadium (cantonment area)
  • Dr. Chandrakanta Memorial Sports Stadium (Bisalpur Road, Bhuta)
  • SRMS Cricket Stadium (Bareilly-Nainital Road, Bhojipura)


Biabani Kothi, situated in Civil Lines, Bareilly.

The city has a combined amusement and water park named Fun City.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Census of India: Bareilly". Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  2. ^ a b c "52nd REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  3. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 November 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Shailvee Sharda (21 November 2012). "Maitreya project: UP's loss is advantage Bihar". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  7. ^ "Bulandshahr roads lead to Delhi". The Times of India. 7 February 2010. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  8. ^ MSKathayat (10 February 2011). "Mahesh Singh Kathayat: Katheria Rajput and Kathayat's History". Archived from the original on 27 November 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 July 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ a b history Archived 26 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Artefacts of painted grey ware culture found in Bareilly village
  12. ^ a b "Introduction". Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  13. ^ HISTORY OF MY PEOPLE: The Afghan Muslims of Guyana Archived 12 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "The Afghan Muslims of Guyana and Suriname". Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  15. ^ "Collect Britain has moved". 30 November 2003. Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  16. ^ "When Bareilly was in currency". The Times of India. 22 June 2003. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  17. ^ Conybeare, p. 677
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ R. C. Majumdar: Sepoy Mutiny and Revolt of 1857, Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, 1963, pp. 2303–31
  20. ^ a b c Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bareilly" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 397.
  21. ^ "When Bareilly was in currency". The Times of India. 22 June 2003. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  22. ^ Friend, Corinne (Fall 1977). "Yashpal: Fighter for Freedom – Writer for Justice". Journal of South Asian Literature. 13 (1): 65–90. JSTOR 40873491. (subscription required)
  23. ^ a b c "Bareilly, India Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Archived from the original on 30 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  24. ^ "Climate of Bareilly" (PDF). India meteorological department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  25. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  26. ^ "Traders may not benefit from wheat export". The Times of India. 18 July 2011. Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  27. ^ "HLL initiates contract farming for basmati rice". The Times of India. 17 December 2002. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  28. ^ "UPPCL invites bids for franchisee system". The Times of India. 4 February 2009. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  29. ^ "Govt launches ethanol blending on pilot basis". Business Standard. 5 February 2009. Archived from the original on 14 January 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  30. ^ Rao 1988, pp. 42–3
  31. ^ "Northeastern Railway" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
  32. ^ Rao 1988, p. 37
  33. ^ "Chapter 1 – Evolution of Indian Railways-Historical Background". Ministry of Railways website. Archived from the original on 1 June 2009.
  34. ^ "SP govt not promoting civil aviation in state: Ajit Singh – The Times of India". The Times of India. 22 December 2012. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  35. ^ "Bareilly airport inaugurated! Flight operations to start soon. Check details". Times Now. 11 March 2019. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  36. ^ a b Army's Jat Regiment Best Marching Contingent in Republic Day 2007 Parade Archived 2 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. India Defence. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  37. ^ "BHARAT RAKSHAK MONITOR: Volume 3(4)". Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  • Husain, Iqbal (1994). The Rise and Decline of the Ruhela Chieftaincies in 18th Century India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  • Rao, M.A. (1988). Indian Railways. New Delhi: National Book Trust. ISBN 8123725892.

External links[edit]