Baron Walpole

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Armorial of Walpole: Or, on a fesse between two chevrons sable three crosses crosslet of the field[1]

Baron Walpole, of Walpole in the County of Norfolk, is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain.

Since 1797 holders also hold the title of Baron Walpole of Wolterton. Past holders have also held the titles Baron Walpole, of Houghton in the County of Norfolk, Viscount Walpole and Earl of Orford (second creation) (1745 to 1797), its third creation from 1806 to 1931. One holder held the title of Baron Clinton from 1781 to 1791.

History[edit]

Robert Walpole,
1st Earl of Orford

Grants[edit]

The title of Baron Walpole of Walpole in the County of Norfolk, was created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1723 for Robert Walpole, son of Sir Robert Walpole in honour of and during the lifetime of his father, the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain, with special remainder, failing male issue, to his brothers Edward Walpole and Horace Walpole, in default of this then to the heirs male of his father, and in default of this then to the heirs male of his grandfather Sir Thomas Walpole.

On Sir Robert Walpole's retirement from the House of Commons in 1742, he received the titles, Baron Walpole of Houghton in the County of Norfolk, Viscount Walpole and Earl of Orford, with standard remainder.[n 1]

The title of Baron Walpole of Wolterton in the County of Norfolk, was created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1756 for Horatio Walpole envoy to Paris and later The Hague and younger brother of Sir Robert Walpole.

Early holders[edit]

When Robert, 1st Earl of Orford, effectively Britain's first Prime Minister, died in 1745 he was succeeded by his eldest son. Robert, 2nd Earl of Orford had married in 1724 a Devonshire heiress Margaret Rolle (1709–1781). She by survival, in 1751, became one of the co-heirs to the ancient Barony of Clinton in abeyance. In 1760 that abeyance was terminated in her favour, and she became the 15th Baroness Clinton.

The 2nd Earl of Orford was succeeded by his eldest son, the 3rd Earl. He notably served as Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk from 1757 to 1797. In 1781 he also succeeded his mother as 16th Baron Clinton. Lord Orford never married and on his death the Barony of Clinton became dormant (see the Baron Clinton for later history of this peerage), while the other titles were inherited by his uncle, the 4th Earl, at birth known as Horace Walpole, who was a politician and early expounder of the Neo-Gothic in architecture and the Gothic novel. He never married either and so on his death in 1797 three of his titles of different ranks became extinct while he was succeeded as Baron Walpole of Walpole according to the special remainder by his cousin Horatio Walpole (known as the younger), who had already inherited his own fathers title Baron Walpole of Wolterton.

Horatio Walpole the younger[edit]

As said, Horatio Walpole (the younger) succeeded his father as Baron Walpole of Wolterton in 1757 and eventually as Baron Walpole of Walpole in 1797. He had earlier represented King's Lynn in Parliament. In favour with those in power, in 1806 the earldom of Orford was recreated for him.

Later holders[edit]

Horatio the younger's son sat as Member of Parliament for Wigan and King's Lynn before coming into his earldom. His grandson, the 4th Earl, briefly represented Wigan in the House of Commons; on the death of his nephew the 5th Earl, the earldom of Orford became extinct.

The Baronies of Walpole of Walpole, and Walpole of Wolterton survived, and were inherited by the late Earl's distant Walpole cousin. He was a male-line descendant of Hon. Thomas Walpole, second son of the 1st Baron Walpole, of Wolterton. As of 2017 the two remaining peerages are held by the 9th/7th Baron's son, the 10th/8th Baron Walpole. He was one of the ninety hereditary peers who remained in the House of Lords after the passing of the House of Lords Act of 1999, and sat as a cross-bencher, until his retirement on 13 June 2017.

The family seat is Mannington Hall, near Itteringham, Norfolk.

Earls of Orford (1742) and Barons Walpole of Houghton (1742) and Barons Walpole of Walpole (1723)[edit]

Barons Walpole, of Wolterton (1756)[edit]

  • Horatio Walpole, 1st Baron Walpole of Wolterton (1678–1757)
  • Horatio Walpole, 2nd Baron Walpole of Wolterton (1723–1809) (succeeded as Baron Walpole of Walpole in 1797 and created Earl of Orford in 1806)

Earls of Orford (1806), Barons Walpole of Walpole and Barons Walpole of Wolterton[edit]

Barons Walpole of Walpole and Barons Walpole of Wolterton following reversion[edit]

The heir apparent is the present holder's son, the Hon. Jonathan Robert Hugh Walpole (b. 1967)
The heir apparent's heir presumptive is his brother, the Hon. Benedict Thomas Orford Walpole (b. 1969)
The heir apparent's heir presumptive's heir apparent is his elder son, Thomas Walpole (b. 2003)

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ The standard remainder in Peerages of the United Kingdom and of England is to the heirs male of the grantee's body.

References

  1. ^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, Baron Walpole, p.1128

References[edit]