Battle Hymn (film)
|Directed by||Douglas Sirk|
|Produced by||Ross Hunter|
|Based on||Battle Hymn|
by Dean Hess
|Music by||Frank Skinner|
|Cinematography||Russell Metty[Note 1]|
|Edited by||Russell F. Schoengarth|
|Distributed by||Universal Pictures|
|Box office||$3.9 million (US)|
Battle Hymn (aka By Faith I Fly) is a 1957 Technicolor war film starring Rock Hudson as Colonel Dean E. Hess, a real-life United States Air Force fighter pilot in the Korean War. Hess's autobiography of the same name was published concurrently with the release of the film. He donated his profits from the film and the book to a network of orphanages he helped to establish. The film was directed by Douglas Sirk and produced by Ross Hunter and filmed in CinemaScope.
In the summer of 1950, one month after the invasion of South Korea, Dean Hess (Rock Hudson) has been a minister in Ohio for two years. He has been suffering a crisis of conscience, however. He realizes he cannot continue as a priest, due to the overwhelming guilt he still feels from accidentally dropping a bomb on an orphanage and killing 37 children, when he was a fighter pilot in Germany during World War II. Hess volunteers to return to the cockpit, leaving his wife behind in Ohio. He promises her he won't see combat, he will be the senior USAF advisor/Instructor Pilot to the Republic of Korea Air Force, only serving as a teacher and flying F-51D Mustangs.
As Hess and his cadre of USAF instructors train the South Korean pilots, young orphaned Korean refugees begin to gather at the base - first a few, but soon dozens. Hess takes pity on the children and orders them to be fed. Soon, he solicits the aid of two Korean adults, En Soon Yang (Anna Kashfi) and Lun Wa (Philip Ahn), and establishes a shelter for the orphans in an abandoned Buddhist temple, which soon has over 400 children. En Soon Yang falls in love with Hess, but does not tell him directly. Instead, she tells him of a Korean tradition that the pine tree represents eternity, because it does not change with the seasons. She tells him of two pine trees planted on her native island of Cheju, honoring two lovers who could not be together in this life. Later, she listens, heartbroken, as he tells her his wife back home is pregnant. Sgt. Herman (Dan Duryea) chooses to engage an enemy convoy while on a training mission, even though they have been forbidden to do so, because it could risk their planes, which are needed for training. Hess punishes Herman on his return, and Herman wonders aloud what has become of the fierce warrior he knew in WWII. Hess's identity as a priest back home (which he has kept a secret) is finally revealed by a letter addressed to "Reverend Dean Hess." When North Korean forces near the training facility, Hess must go into combat again, with his men, and finds himself forced to kill another human being, when he must shoot down a North Korean plane that is about to down one of his men. Herman is killed in the battle, but as he dies in Hess's arms, Hess is able to speak words that give Herman comfort, restoring Hess's faith in his ability to be a minister.
Hess receives transfer orders and says his farewells to En Soon Yang, but once back in Seoul he learns that the North Koreans have begun an offensive, and the area around the orphanage has been abandoned to them. He hurries back and helps En Soon Yang evacuate the four hundred orphans on foot, struggling unsuccessfully to find planes or ships that can rescue them all. As they shelter at an abandoned airfield, a North Korean jet strafes the refugees, and En Soon Yang is shot as she throws herself in front of a young girl. Mortally wounded, she dies in Hess's arms. Soon after they bury her, when all hope seems nearly lost, an airlift of USAF cargo aircraft suddenly shows up, sent by Hess's commanding officer, to evacuate them all to Cheju island, where En Soon Yang described an abandoned building that could be used as an orphanage. Some time later, when peace has been restored, Hess and his wife return to Cheju to visit the orphanage, which has been dedicated to En Soon Yang and sits next to the two pine trees she spoke of earlier.
- Rock Hudson as Col. Dean Hess
- Anna Kashfi as En Soon Yang
- Dan Duryea as Sgt. Herman
- Don DeFore as Capt. Dan Skidmore
- Martha Hyer as Mary Hess
- Jock Mahoney as Maj. Moore
- Alan Hale Jr. as Mess Sergeant
- James Edwards as Lt. Maples
- Carl Benton Reid as Deacon Edwards
- Richard Loo as Gen. Kim
- Philip Ahn as Lun-Wa
- Bartlett Robinson as Gen. Timberidge
- Simon Scott as Lt. Hollis
- Teru Shimada as Korean Official
- Carleton Young as Maj. Harrison
Lt. Col. Hess was a technical advisor to Universal to ensure that the final production did not stray far from his original biography. Nonetheless, the inevitable "Hollywood" screenplay prevailed. Hess had a hand in vetoing the studio's first choice to play him: Robert Mitchum, having reservations about the actor's character. Unable to film in Korea, locations shifted to Nogales, Arizona that provided at least a modicum of similar landscape. On Soon Whang, Director of the Orphans Home of Korea arrived in the U.S. along with 25 orphans who would reprise their own lives on film.
In order to replicate the ROK unit, the 12 F-51D Mustangs of 182nd Fighter Squadron, 149th Fighter Group of the Texas Air National Guard were enlisted by the USAF to provide the necessary authentic aircraft of the period. During filming, an additional surplus F-51 was acquired from USAF stocks to be used in an accident scene where it would be deliberately destroyed.
The gold flying helmet with the United Nations emblem that Rock Hudson wears in the movie was Dean Hess's actual helmet. It was a Navy-issue helmet that Hess scrounged from a Navy pilot who crash-landed at their airfield in Korea (since the Navy pilot was going to be issued a new helmet as a result of the crash-landing). The helmet is now on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio.
In the film, there was an incident where a pilot named Lieutenant Maples (played by James Edwards) accidentally strafes a truckload of civilian refugees that happened to be near a convoy of North Korean troop trucks. In the real-life incident, it was a fishing junk full of civilian refugees that happened to be near an amphibious assault by North Korean landing craft.
Bosley Crowther wrote about the film in The New York Times, saying, "Perhaps the most candid comment to be made about Universal's 'Battle Hymn' is also the most propitious, so far as its box-office chances are concerned. That is to say, it is conventional. It follows religiously the line of mingled piety and pugnacity laid down for standard idealistic service films. What's more, it has Rock Hudson playing the big hero role. And it is in CinemaScope and color. Wrap them up and what have you got? The popular thing."
- "Original print information: Battle Hymn." Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: February 7, 2014.
- Farmer 1986, pp. 68–69.
- Tomkies 1972, p. 135.
- Farmer 1986, p. 69.
- Farmer 1986, p. 70.
- Crowther, Bosley. "Battle Hymn (1956): Screen: All the cliches; 'Battle Hymn' is usual film about service." The New York Times, February 16, 1957.
- Dolan, Edward F. Jr. Hollywood Goes to War. London: Bison Books, 1985. ISBN 0-86124-229-7.
- Farmer, James H. "By Faith I Fly: The Remarkable Story of Fighter Pilot and Minister Dean Hess and the Making of his 1956 Film Biography: Battle Hymn." Air Classics Vol. 22, No. 6, June 1986.
- Hardwick, Jack and Ed Schnepf. "A Viewer's Guide to Aviation Movies". The Making of the Great Aviation Films, General Aviation Series, Volume 2, 1989.
- Tomkies, Mike. The Robert Mitchum Story: "It Sure Beats Working". New York: Ballantine Books, 1972. ISBN 978-0-49100-962-1.
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