Battle of Kozludzha
The Battle of Kozludzha (also known as the Battle of Kozluca), fought on 20 June (Old Style - June 9) 1774 near the village of Kozludzha (now Suvorovo, Bulgaria), was one of the final and decisive battles of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74). The Russians managed to rout the Ottoman army, scoring a major victory. This battle, alongside several others in this campaign, established the reputation of the Russian general Alexander Suvorov as a brilliant commander of his era.
The Ottoman forces are estimated at about 40,000. Russian numbers were much lower, 8,000 men in total. The Ottoman forces were demoralized due to previous defeats and had poor logistics (including a year of withheld back pay).
The Russian army under Generals Alexander Suvorov and Mikhail Kamensky encountered the Ottoman forces of General Abdul-Rezak Pasha. After scouts reported to Suvorov, he immediately ordered the attack. The Russian army, divided into four squares, attacked the Ottomans. Ottoman cavalry charges were repulsed by the Russians,  while a Russian cavalry attack from the rear resulted in the capture of all of the Ottoman artillery. Russian artillery fire is also said to have been highly devastating to the Ottoman forces. Casualties were 3,000 for the Ottomans and 209 for the Russians. The Russians captured the Ottoman camp with its supplies, while the Ottomans abandoned Kozludzha and retreated to Shumla, where they were soon blockaded, suffering from further defeats and attrition.
- Duffy C., Younghusband B. Eagles Over the Alps: Suvorov in Italy and Switzerland, 1799. Emperor's Press. 1999. P. 15
- Dowling T. C. Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond. ABC-CLIO. 2014. P. 436
- Dowling T. C. Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond. ABC-CLIO. 2014. P. 437
- Political History and Culture of Russia. Nova Science Publishers. 2003. p. 171. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Gregory Fremont-Barnes (June 2006). The encyclopedia of the French revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: a political, social, and military history. ABC-CLIO. p. 960. ISBN 978-1-85109-646-6. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Alexander Mikaberidze (19 January 2005). Russian Officer Corps of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Casemate Publishers. p. 387. ISBN 978-1-61121-002-6. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Mesut Uyar; Edward J. Erickson (2009). A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Atatürk. ABC-CLIO. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-275-98876-0. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Jadwiga Nadzieja (1988). Od Jakobina do księcia namiestnika. Wydawnictwo "Śląsk". p. 14. ISBN 978-83-216-0682-8.
- Tony Jaques (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 545. ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Wlodzimierz Onacewicz (1985). Empires by Conquest: Ninth century-1905. Hero Books. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-915979-04-2. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Jadwiga Nadzieja (1988). Od Jakobina do księcia namiestnika. Wydawnictwo "Śląsk". p. 15. ISBN 978-83-216-0682-8.
- Virginia H. Aksan (1 January 1995). An Ottoman Statesman in War and Peace: Ahmed Resmi Efendi, 1700-1783. BRILL. p. 165. ISBN 978-90-04-10116-6. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Gábor Ágoston; Bruce Alan Masters (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 493. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Anthony Pagden (25 March 2008). Worlds at War: The 2,500-Year Struggle Between East and West. Random House Publishing Group. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-58836-678-8. Retrieved 26 June 2013.