Bayraktar Tactical UAS

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Bayraktar TB2 Runway.jpg
Role Medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle and Unmanned combat air vehicle
National origin Turkey
Manufacturer Kale-Baykar
Designer Baykar
First flight 2009
Introduction 2014
Status In service
Primary user Turkish Armed Forces

The Bayraktar Tactical UAS is a surveillance and reconnaissance system initially developed for the Turkish Armed Forces. Bayraktar currently holds the national endurance and altitude record for Turkish aviation.[1][2] Bayraktar set a record for autonomous flight endurance when it flew 24 hours and 34 minutes at 18,000 feet on 5 August 2014. Bayraktar furthermore holds the altitude record with 27,030 feet on its flight on 14 June 2014 with full payload weight.[3]

Bayraktar TB2 successfully demonstrated firing of ROKETSAN MAM-L Smart Micro Munition with 100% precision in December 2015.[4]

Bayraktar is developed by the Kale-Baykar joint venture between the Kale Group and Baykar Technologies. In 2007, the Turkish Defense Undersecretariat (SSM) initiated a development program[5] and invited two companies to compete for a prototype demonstration phase of Tactical UAS Program. Bayraktar demonstrated Block A,[6] with its dual redundant avionics system in 2009 with a fully autonomous takeoff and landing capability and was selected as the winner of the program.[7][8] Bayraktar Block B design commenced in early 2012 with the second phase of the program, which covers development and serial production.

Armed Bayraktar TB2

While the Turkish Armed Forces describes Bayraktar as "Tactical UAV Class" so as to prevent it from being a competitor to the TAI Anka UAV, international standards would classify it as a Medium Altitude Long-Endurance (MALE) UAV Class.[9][10] With its 650 kg MTOW and 12 meters wingspan platform powered by an internal combustion engine, Bayraktar can fly up to 22,500 feet and loiter for more than 24 hours.

System Configuration[edit]

Baykar UAV Team

Each Tactical UAS is configured with six aerial vehicle platforms, two Ground Control Stations (GCS), three Ground Data Terminals (GDT), two Remote Video Terminals (RVT) and Ground Support Equipment. Each Aerial Platform is equipped with a triply redundant avionics system. Its ground control system's cross redundant architecture allows for pilot, payload operator and mission commander to command, control and monitor the platform.[10]

Digital Flight Control System[edit]

Bayraktar has a triple-redundant flight control system with autonomous taxi, takeoff, cruise, landing and parking capability without any external sensor aid. The flight control system is the central main component which conducts sensor fusion algorithms running with the real-time sensor data. Mission specific controls such are handled through the mission control computer system. Aerial platform is guided through various redundant rotary and linear type servo actuators which are designed according to the dynamics of the aerial platform. All of the main airborne avionics equipment software and hardware are developed under the running program so as to achieve utmost performance. Electronic power unit powers the onboard systems supported with triple alternators and smartly balanced lithium ion battery units. A ruggedized heated type camera unit is placed at the tail section of the platform to monitor flight and all payload and telemetry data are recorded to the airborne data recorder. Redundancy architecture of the avionics support for autonomous emergency landings on different airfields if necessary. Sensor fusion algorithms allow for navigation and auto landing even in loss global positioning signals.[11]


Bayraktar GCS cutaway
Bayraktar Ground Control Station

Bayraktar Block B Platform has a blended wing body design with its inverse V-Tail structure. Blended wing body design supports the lifting performance of the overall platform. Thrust is generated through the internal combustion engine placed between the tail booms. Monocoque platform is modular with detachable main items such as wing, tail boom, and V-Tails. All of the fuselage items are mostly made of carbon fiber composite parts whereas precision CNC machined aluminum parts are used at the junction sections of the platform. Fuel is stored within bladder tanks and fuel consumption is automatically balanced with solenoid valves. Variable pitch two blade propeller allows for medium altitude efficient flying.

Ground Control Station is based on a NATO spec shelter unit which is equipped with cross redundant command and control systems. The mobile unit supports for three personnel pilot, payload operator and mission commander. GCS is equipped with redundant Air Conditioners and NBC filtering unit. All hardware inside the shelter is placed inside racked cabinets. Each operator has dual screens in front along with the Operator Interface Software used for real-time command, control and monitoring.[12]

Bayraktar TB2 UCAV[edit]

In June and August 2014 test flights, Bayraktar TB2 reached 27,000 feet altitude and stayed in air for 24 hours and 34 minutes. Bayraktar TB2 has wing span of 12 meters and max takeoff weight of 650 kg.

On 17 December 2015, missile system of Bayraktar TB2 UCAV was successfully tested. In the tests, long-range anti-tank missile UMTAS (diameter: 160 mm; target range: min 500 m, max 8 km) developed by Roketsan was used. Two UMTAS missiles (with each one 37.5 kg) were mounted to the both wings of Bayraktar TB2 UCAV. The 2x2m target panel was (with 100% accuracy and precision) hit from 8 km away and 16000 feet (about 5000m) altitude with laser guided UMTAS missile by the operator pilot in ground station. Thus, Turkey became the 6th country in the world that produces UCAV (USA: Predator, Reaper; China: CH-3 with short-range AR-1 missile; Israel: Hermes; Iran: Shahed 129 with Sadid-1 missile, Pakistan Burraq Ucav with Burq Missile).[13] On 18 December 2015, a video was published for the missile test of Bayraktar TB2.[14][15] On 8 September 2016 the Bayraktar TB2 recorded its first kill, during an operation against the PKK.[16][17]

On 15 August 2018, Turkish Land Forces successfully used Bayraktar TB2 in a joint cross-border operation of the Turkish Armed Forces and the National Intelligence Organization of Turkey to kill the senior Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) leader and board member of the Kurdistan Communities Union (KCK) İsmail Özden in Sinjar District, northwestern Iraq.[18]


  • Prototype development Phase 1 started in 2007.[19]
  • Bayraktar Block A with its 450 kg MTOW and 9 meter wing span made its maiden autonomous flight on 8 June 2009 at Kesan Airport, Turkey.[20]
  • Bayraktar Block A completed Phase 1 with day and night flight demonstrations successfully at Sinop Airport, Turkey in October 2009.[21][22]
  • Bayraktar Block A was chosen and officially declared as the winner of the competition against Vestel for the ongoing Tactical UAS Program by Defense Executive Committee of Turkey. Meeting was held on 6 January 2010.[23][24][25]
  • Phase 2 Development and Serial Production contract signed between SSM and Kale-Baykar Joint Venture in December 2011.
  • Phase 2 Development and Serial Production of Bayraktar Block B Program began in January 2012.
  • Bayraktar Block B made its first maiden flight at Kesan Airport, Turkey on 29 April 2014.[26]
  • Bayraktar Block B achieved national altitude record of 27,030 feet on 14 June 2014 on its test flight.[27][28]
  • Bayraktar Block B autonomously took off on 5 August 2014 15:36 and landed on 6 August 2014 16:10 with a total flight of 24 hours 34 minutes and achieved endurance record in Turkish Aviation on its test flight.[29][30][31]
  • Bayraktar Block B successfully completed first acceptance tests held on 17–22 November 2014.[32][33][34]
  • Bayraktar Block B accomplished its first flight with ADS-B System integrated on board.[35]
  • Bayraktar Block B was on live NTV TV Channel[36]
  • Bayraktar Block B 2nd system acceptance tests successfully completed on June 18, 2015 .[37][38][39]
  • Turkish Police orders 11 Bayraktar Block B platforms.[40]
  • Bayraktar TB2 completes 1000 cumulative flight hours on 9 December 2015.
  • Bayraktar TB2 successfully demonstrates firing of 22.5 kg Roketsan MAM-L Smart Munition with 100% precision.[41][42][43][44]
  • On 8 September 2016 the Bayraktar TB2 recorded its first kill, during an operation against the PKK.[16][17]
  • Turkish drone ‘Bayraktar’ guides Turkish security forces to kill six PKK terrorists[45]
  • Turkish drone 'Bayraktar' guides warplanes to destroy Daesh terrorist targets in north Syria operation[46]
  • Turkey's domestically-made armed drone starts patrolling the skies[47][48]
  • The 'Bayraktar TB2' completed 60,000 flight hours in September 2018, reaching the average monthly usage rate of 4,500 hours.[49]

Operational history[edit]


On February 12, 2018 The (SDF) Syrian Democratic Forces allegedly shot down a Turkish Bayraktar Tactical UAS that crashed near Quda, a small town in the Rajo district of Afrin near the Syria-Turkey border.[50]

Specifications (Block B)[edit]

Sunrise over the Gulf of Saros area in Turkey, as seen from Bayraktar's tail camera at 18,000 feet.

General Characteristics[edit]

  • Length: 21.3 ft (6.5 m)
  • Wing Span: 39.3 ft (12 m)
  • Max Take Off Weight: 1433 lbs (650 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 x Rotax 912 Internal Combustion Engine with Injection, 100 Hp


  • Maximum Speed: 120 knots (222 km/hr)
  • Cruise Speed: 70 knots (129.64 km/hr)
  • Communication Range: 150 km
  • Service Ceiling: 27,000 Feet (about 8,200 m)
  • Endurance: 24 hours
  • Payload: 55 kg


  • Reconnaissance and Surveillance Centre (RSC) signed a contract for the procurement of six Bayraktar unmanned aerial vehicles.[56]
  • Ukraine defense department confirmed that Ukraine has acquired Bayraktar unmanned combat aerial vehicles. The signing of the agreement was attended by Minister of Defense of Ukraine Stepan Poltorak, deputy secretary of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine Oleg Gladkovsky and chairman of the Ukroboronprom, Pavlo Bukin.[57] In January 2019, President of Ukraine, Petro Poroshenko, confirmed that Ukraine has signed a deal for 12 Bayraktar TB2 UAVs, worth $69 million, 6 of which will be delivered in a year together with 3 ground control station systems and equipment.[58][59] Ukraine received the first batch of UAVs in March 2019.[60]

 Libya Government of National Accord

  • 2019: Despite the UN embargo on Libya's ongoing civil war, it is suspected that at-least 3 Bayraktar TB2 UCAV are being used over Tripoli by UN recognized government.

Implying that a turkish command and control task force was sent to back the GNA Islamist militias. The LNA militia under Warlord Haftar, have confirmed to have destroyed one UAV in Mitiga airport. Video evidence shows at-least one Bayraktar TB2 UCAV flying over Tripoli[61] about to land at Mitiga's Military section, under control of GNA-allied forces.

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ "Bayraktar Taktik İHA Record Flight". 8 August 2014.
  3. ^ "Bayraktar breaks tactical UAV endurance record". 8 July 2014. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014.
  4. ^ "Turkey tests its first armed unmanned aerial vehicle". UPI. Retrieved 2016-01-19.
  5. ^ "Undersecretariat for Defence Industries Tactical UAV Development Project". SSM. 3 April 2014.
  6. ^ "IDEF 2011: Bayraktar tactical UAV nears production". 13 May 2014.
  7. ^ "Turkish aircraft to replace Herons in intelligence gathering". 14 June 2010.
  8. ^ "From a Hobby to the Peaks of Technology / The Turkish Perspective January-February 2011 Issue 2" (PDF). 1 January 2011.
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  10. ^ a b "Turkey's unmanned ambitions shift up gear". 6 March 2014.
  11. ^ "Bayraktar Taktik İHA". 8 June 2014.
  12. ^ "Military Science Intelligence Magazine. Turkey. Issue 107". 1 June 2014. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  13. ^ Haber7 18 December 2015
  14. ^ Youtube May I present to you eventually, 100% Turkish manufactured armed UAV: BAYRAKTAR TB2
  15. ^ Official video footage of Turkish UCAV tests
  16. ^ a b "Yerli IHA ilk harekatinda 5 teroristi vurdu". 2016-09-08.
  17. ^ a b "Bayraktar ilk silahlı operasyonunu PKK'ya yaptı". Kokpit.Aero. 2016-09-12.
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  20. ^ "Bayraktar Block A Maiden Flight 08 June 2009". 6 July 2009.
  21. ^ "'Heron'a karşı 'Çaldıran', Hurriyet". 10 January 2009.
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  23. ^ "İşte Heron'un Türk rakibi / Vatan Gazetesi". 28 June 2010.
  24. ^ "Defense Executive Committee Decision". 1 June 2010.
  25. ^ "Türk Heron'lar Gabar'da doğdu". 7 March 2010.
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  36. ^ Bayraktar TB2 Denizkurdu Tatbikatinda NTV Ana Haber, retrieved 2015-07-22
  37. ^ "Kara Kuvvetleri'ne Bayraktar İHA teslimatları tamamlandı". Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  38. ^ 2011, Anadolu Ajansı (c). "Milli İHA'ların 2. paketi de teslim edildi". Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  39. ^ "12 yerli İHA, TSK envanterinde! | GAZETE VATAN". Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  40. ^ "BUSINESS - Turkish police ramping up drone purchases in fight against terror". Retrieved 2015-08-22.
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  43. ^ "Turkish UMTAS Missile Dropped From a Bayraktar Tactical Drone | Defense Update:". Retrieved 2015-12-21.
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  45. ^ "Turkish drone 'Bayraktar' guides Turkish security forces to kill six PKK terrorists". 2016-09-22.
  46. ^ "Turkish drone 'Bayraktar' guides warplanes to destroy Daesh terrorist targets in north Syria operation". 2016-09-07.
  47. ^ "Turkey's domestically-made armed drone starts patrolling the skies". 2016-09-04.
  48. ^ "Turkey's first domestically produced armed drone takes off". 2016-09-05.
  49. ^ "BAYRAKTAR TB2'nin Deniz Kuvvetlerine de Teslimatı için Gün Sayan Baykar, AKINCI ile Oyunun Kurallarını Bir Kez Daha Değiştirmeye Hazırlanıyor". Military Science & Intelligence. 2018-09-13. Retrieved 2018-09-27.
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  54. ^
  55. ^ "6 adet SİHA 7 ay erken TSK'ya teslim edildidrones". Airporthaber. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
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  61. ^ "Libya: Turkish-made Bayraktar TB2 UAV seen at the GNA-held airbase". Military Africa. Military Africa. 11 June 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.

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