|Africa, from Nigeria eastwards and southwards|
The Benue–Congo languages shown within the Niger–Congo language family. Non-Benue–Congo languages are greyscale.
- the Central Nigerian (or Platoid) languages, spoken mostly in Nigeria
- the Bantoid–Cross languages, spoken in Nigeria, Cameroon and most of Sub-Saharan Africa, since they contain the Bantu languages (through the Southern Bantoid branch).
Bantoid is only a collective term for every subfamily of Bantoid–Cross except Cross River, and this is no longer seen as forming a valid branch, however one of the subfamilies, Southern Bantoid, is still considered valid. It is Southern Bantoid which contains the Bantu languages, which are spoken across most of Sub-Saharan Africa. This makes Benue–Congo one of the largest subdivisions of the Niger–Congo language family, both in number of languages, of which Ethnologue counts 976 (2017), and in speakers, numbering perhaps 350 million. Benue–Congo also includes a few minor isolates in the Nigeria–Cameroon region, but their exact relationship is uncertain.
The neighbouring Volta–Niger branch of Nigeria and Benin is sometimes called "West Benue–Congo", but it does not form a united branch with Benue–Congo. When Benue–Congo was first proposed by Joseph Greenberg (1963), it included Volta–Niger (as West Benue–Congo); the boundary between Volta–Niger and Kwa has been repeatedly debated. Blench (2012) states that if Benue–Congo is taken to be "the noun-class languages east and north of the Niger", it is likely to be a valid group, though no demonstration of this has been made in print.
The branches of the Benue–Congo family are thought to be as follows:
- Bantoid–Cross languages
- Central Nigerian languages, also known as Platoid
Ukaan is also related to Benue–Congo; Roger Blench suspects it might be either the most divergent (East) Benue–Congo language or the closest relative to Benue–Congo.
Branches and locations (Nigeria)
Below is a list of major Benue–Congo branches and their primary locations (centres of diversity) within Nigeria based on Blench (2019).
|Cross River||Cross River, Akwa Ibom, and Rivers States|
|Bendi||Obudu and Ogoja LGAs, Cross River State|
|Mambiloid||Sardauna LGA, Taraba State; Cameroon|
|Dakoid||Mayo Belwa LGA, Taraba State and adjacent areas|
|Yukubenic||Takum LGA, Taraba State|
|Kainji||Kauru LGA, Kaduna State and Bassa LGA, Plateau State; Kainji Lake area|
|Plateau||Plateau, Kaduna, and Nasarawa States|
|Tivoid||Obudu LGA, Cross River State and Sardauna LGA, Taraba State; Cameroon|
|Beboid||Takum LGA, Taraba State; Cameroon|
|Ekoid||Ikom and Ogoja LGAs, Cross River State; Cameroon|
|Grassfields||Sardauna LGA, Taraba State; Cameroon|
|Jarawan||Bauchi, Plateau, Adamawa, and Taraba States|
- List of Proto-Benue-Congo reconstructions (Wiktionary)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Benue–Congo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Roger Blench, Niger-Congo: an alternative view
- Watters, John R, eds. (2018). East Benue-Congo: Nouns, pronouns, and verbs (pdf). Berlin: Language Science Press. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1314306. ISBN 978-3-96110-100-9.
- Blench, Roger (2019). An Atlas of Nigerian Languages (4th ed.). Cambridge: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
- Wolf, Paul Polydoor de (1971) The Noun Class System of Proto-Benue–Congo (Thesis, Leiden University). The Hague/Paris: Mouton.
- Williamson, Kay (1989) 'Benue–Congo Overview', pp. 248–274 in Bendor-Samuel, John & Rhonda L. Hartell (eds.) The Niger–Congo Languages – A classification and description of Africa's largest language family. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America.