Bhangar I

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Bhangar I
Community development block
Bhangar I is located in West Bengal
Bhangar I
Bhangar I
Location in West Bengal
Bhangar I is located in India
Bhangar I
Bhangar I
Location in India
Coordinates: 22°30′45″N 88°36′35″E / 22.5126°N 88.6097°E / 22.5126; 88.6097Coordinates: 22°30′45″N 88°36′35″E / 22.5126°N 88.6097°E / 22.5126; 88.6097
Country India
StateWest Bengal
DistrictSouth 24 Parganas
SubdivisionBaruipur
Area
 • Total153.62 km2 (59.31 sq mi)
Elevation
9 m (30 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total249,170
 • Density1,600/km2 (4,200/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialBengali, English
Time zoneUTC+5.30 (IST)
PIN
743502
Telephone code+91 3218
Vehicle registrationWB-01 to WB-10, WB-19 to WB-22, WB-95 to WB-99
Lok Sabha constituencyJaynagar (SC), Jadavpur
Vidhan Sabha constituencyCanning Purba, Bhangar
Websitewww.s24pgs.gov.in

Bhangar I is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Baruipur subdivision of South 24 Parganas district in the Indian State of West Bengal.

History[edit]

Tebhaga Movement[edit]

During the Bengal Famine of 1943 the Communist Party of India provided relief to the peasantry of the Sundarbans area. In September 1946 Bangiya Pradeshik Kisan Sabha decided to launch the Tebhaga Movement. The peasant movement broke out in Kakdwip, Sonarpur, Bhangar and Canning. Kakdwip and Namkhana were the storm centres of the movement. The movement aimed at improving the share of the peasant engaged as sharecroppers. The prominent leaders of the movement were: Kansari Halder, Ashoke Bose and Rash Behari Ghosh. Peasant leaders like Gajen Malik, Manik Hazra, Jatin Maity, Bijoy Mondal and others rose to prominence. The movement continued till 1950, when the Bargadari Act was enacted. The Act recognised the right of the sharecropper to two-thirds of the produce when he provided the inputs.[1]

Land Reforms[edit]

During 1946-1950 the Tebhaga Movement in several parts of the 24 Parganas district led to the enactment of the Bargadari Act. Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of Bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. In 1967, West Bengal witnessed a peasant uprising, against non-implementation of land reforms legislation, starting from Kheadaha gram panchayat in Sonarpur CD block. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal under the Left Front government. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants. Subsequently, “Operation Barga” was aimed at securing tenancy rights for the peasants. In Bhangar I CD block 2,228.47 acres of land was acquired and vested. Out of this 1,292.81 acres or 58.14% of the vested land was distributed amongst the peasants. The total number of patta holders was 4,364.[2]

Geography[edit]

Bhangar I CD block is located at 22°30′45″N 88°36′35″E / 22.5126°N 88.6097°E / 22.5126; 88.6097. It has an average elevation of 9 metres (30 ft).

Bhangar I CD block is bounded by Bhangar II CD block in the north, Minakhan CD block in North 24 Parganas district in the east, Canning II CD block in the south and Sonarpur CD block in the west.[3][4]

South 24 Parganas district is divided into two distinct physiographic zones: the marine-riverine delta in the north and the marine delta zone in the south. As the sea receded southwards, in the sub-recent Geological Period, a large low-lying plain got exposed. Both Tidal inflows and the rivers have been depositing sediments in this plain. The periodical collapse of both the natural Levees and man-made embankments speed up the process of filling up of the depressions containing Brackish Water wetlands. The marine delta in the south is formed of interlacing tidal channels. As non-saline water for irrigation is scarce, agriculture is Monsoon dominated. Some parts of the wetlands are still preserved for raising fish.[5]

Bhangar I CD block has an area of 153.62 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 9 gram panchayats, 161 gram sansads (village councils), 83 mouzas and 80 inhabited villages, as per District Statistical Handbook South Twenty-four Parganas.Bhangar and Kolkata Leather Complex police station police stations serve this block.[6]Headquarters of this CD block is at PO Gobindapur.[7]

Gram Panchayats of Bhangar I CD block/Panchayat Samiti are: Bodra, Chandaneswar I, Chandaneswar II, Durgapur, Jagulgachhi, Narayanpur, Pranganj, Sanksahar and Tardah.[8]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per 2011 Census of India, Bhangar I CD block had a total population of 249,170, of which 228,528 were rural and 20,642 were urban. There were 127,702 (51%) males and 121,465 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 35,693. Scheduled Castes numbered 52,312 (20.99%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 3,133 (1.26%).[9]

As per 2001 Census of India, Bhangar I CD block had a total population of 204,326, out of which 104,670 were males and 99,656 were females. Bhangar I CD block registered a population growth of 24.50 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for South 24 Parganas district was 20.89 per cent. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent. Scheduled Castes at 47,822 formed around one-fourth the population. Scheduled Tribes numbered 7,138.[10][11][12]

Census Towns in Bhangar I CD block (2011 census figures in brackets): Maricha (4,842), Bhangar Raghunathpur (6,037) and Gobindapur (9,763).[9]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Bhangar I CD block (2011 census figures in brackets): Kharamba (4,591), Tardaha Kapasati (11,869), Ghunimeghi (4,151), Narayanpur (9,107), Madhabpur (4,369), Dari Madhabpur (6,556), Chak Barali (5,978), Dhara (5,231), Ghatak Pukur (5,048), Kalikapur (4,591), Rani Gachhi (4,265), Satberia (5,019), Kashinathpur (4,688), Chandaneswar (4,980), Khar Gachhi (4,673), Naora (4,572), Bodra (5,324) and Badi (4,173).[9]

Other villages in Bhangar I block include (2011 census figures in brackets): Jagulgachhi (2,926), Durgapur (2,650) and Shaksahar (3,698).[9]

Literacy[edit]

As per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in Bhangar I CD block was 153,835 (72.06% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 84,390 (77.03% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 69,445 (66.83% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 10.20%.[9]


As per 2011 Census of India, literacy in South 24 Parganas district was 77.51[13] Literacy in West Bengal was 77.08% in 2011.[14] Literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%.[14]

As per 2001 Census of India, Bhangar I CD block had a total literacy of 60.55 per cent for the 6+ age group. While male literacy was 69.57 per cent female literacy was 51.05 per cent. South 24 Parganas district had a total literacy of 69.45 per cent, male literacy being 79.19 per cent and female literacy being 59.01 per cent.[10]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language and religion[edit]

In the 2001 census, Bengali was the mother tongue for 97.9% of the population of the district, followed by Hindi with 1.5%, Urdu 0.3%, Odia and Telugu (0.1% each).[15]

The West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill, 2012, included Hindi, Santhali, Odiya and Punjabi as official languages if it is spoken by a population exceeding 10 per cent of the whole in a particular block or sub-division or a district. Subsequently, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali were also included in the list of minority languages by the West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Bill, 2018.[16][17]However, as of 2019, there is no official / other reliable information about the areas covered.

Religion in Bhangar I CD block
Muslim
67.38%
Hindu
32.38%
Others
0.24%

In the 2011 Census of India, Muslims numbered 167,892 and formed 67.38% of the population in Bhangar I CD block. Hindus numbered 80,669 and formed 32.38% of the population. Others numbered 609 and formed 0.24% of the population.[18]

The proportion of Hindus in South Twenty-four Parganas district has declined from 76.0% in 1961 to 63.2% in 2011. The proportion of Muslims in South Twenty-four Parganas district has increased from 23.4% to 35.6% during the same period. Christians formed 0.8% in 2011.[19]

Rural poverty[edit]

As per the Human Development Report for South 24 Parganas district, published in 2009, in Bhangar I CD block the percentage of households below poverty line was 28.22%, a moderate level of poverty. In the north-east and mid central portion of the district, all CD blocks, with the exception of Kulpi CD block, had poverty rates below 30%. As per rural household survey in 2005, the proportion of households in South 24 Parganas with poverty rates below poverty line was 34.11%, way above the state and national poverty ratios. The poverty rates were very high in the Sundarban region with all thirteen CD blocks registering poverty ratios above 30% and eight CD blocks had more than 40% of the population in the BPL category.[20]

Economy[edit]

Livelihood[edit]

Livelihood
in Bhangar I CD block

  Cultivators (20.21%)
  Agricultural labourers (29.62%)
  Household industries (4.91%)
  Other Workers (45.25%)

In Bhangar I CD block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators numbered 16,498 and formed 20.21%, agricultural labourers numbered 24,173 and formed 29.62%, household industry workers numbered 4,011 and formed 4.91% and other workers numbered 36,934 and formed 45.25%.[21]Total workers numbered 81,616 and formed 32.76% of the total population, and non-workers numbered 167,554 and formed 67.24% of the population.[22]

The District Human Development Report points out that in the blocks of region situated in the close proximity of the Kolkata metropolis, overwhelming majority are involved in the non-agricultural sector for their livelihood. On the other hand, in the Sundarban region, overwhelming majority are dependent on agriculture. In the intermediate region, there is again predominance of the non-agricultural sector. Though the region is not very close to Kolkata, many places are well connected and some industrial/ economic development has taken place.[23]

Note: In the census records a person is considered a cultivator, if the person is engaged in cultivation/ supervision of land owned by self/government/institution. When a person who works on another person's land for wages in cash or kind or share, is regarded as an agricultural labourer. Household industry is defined as an industry conducted by one or more members of the family within the household or village, and one that does not qualify for registration as a factory under the Factories Act. Other workers are persons engaged in some economic activity other than cultivators, agricultural labourers and household workers. It includes factory, mining, plantation, transport and office workers, those engaged in business and commerce, teachers, entertainment artistes and so on.[24]

Infrastructure[edit]

There are 80 inhabited villages in Bhangar I CD block, as per District Census Handbook, South Twenty-four Parganas, 2011. 100% villages have power supply. 80 villages (100%) have drinking water supply. 13 villages (16.25%) have post offices. 67 villages (83.75%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 33 villages (41.25%) have pucca (paved) approach roads and 29 villages (36.25%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 6 villages (7.50%) has agricultural credit societies and 13 villages (16.25%) have banks.[25]

Agriculture[edit]

According to the District Human Development Report, agriculture is an important source of livelihood in South Twentyfour Parganas district. The amount of cultivable land per agricultural worker is only 0.41 hectare in the district. Moreover, the irrigation facilities have not been extended to a satisfactory scale. Agriculture mostly remains a mono-cropped activity.[26]

As per the District Census Handbook, the saline soil of the district is unfit for cultivation, but the non-salty lands are very fertile. While rice is the main food crop, jute is the main cash crop.[27]

In 2013-14, there were 72 fertiliser depots, 10 seed stores and 41 fair price shops in Bhangar I CD block.[28]

In 2013–14, Bhangar I CD block produced 87,619 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop, from 32,784 hectares, 2,042 tonnes of Aus paddy (summer crop) from 597 hectares, 6,247 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 2300 hectares, 765 tonnes of wheat from 394 hectares, 12,523 tonnes of jute from 554 hectares and 7,773 tonnes of potatoes from 348 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds.[28]

Irrigation[edit]

In Bhangar I CD block, in 2013-14, 389.82 hectares were irrigated by river lift irrigation and 8.17 hectares by deep tube wells.[28]

Poor irrigation and high soil salinity results in the mono-cropping pattern of cultivation in a major portion of the South 24 Parganas district. As a result of its closeness to the Bay of Bengal, the river waters are mostly saline and are unsuitable for irrigation. Added to the rather gloomy irrigation scenario is the problem of frequent floods.[29]

Pisciculture[edit]

In Bhangar I CD block, in 2013-14, net area under effective pisciculture was 808 hectares, engaging 6,880 persons in the profession, and with an approximate annual production of 107,980 quintals.[28]

Pisciculture is an important source of employment in South 24 Parganas district. As of 2001, more than 4.5 lakh people were engaged in Pisciculture. Out of this 2.57 lakhs were from the 13 blocks in the Sundarbans.[30]

Banking[edit]

In 2013-14, Bhangar I CD block had offices of 11 commercial banks and 2 gramin banks.[28]

Backward Regions Grant Fund[edit]

South 24 Parganas district is listed as a backward region and receives financial support from the Backward Regions Grant Fund. The fund, created by the Government of India, is designed to redress regional imbalances in development. As of 2012, 272 districts across the country were listed under this scheme. The list includes 11 districts of West Bengal.[31][32]

Transport[edit]

Bhangar I CD block has 14 originating/ terminating bus routes. The nearest railway station is 24 km from the block headquarters.[28]

Education[edit]

In 2013-14, Bhangar I CD block had 99 primary schools with 14,098 students, 15 middle schools with 1,502 students, 3 high schools with 3,165 students and 14 higher secondary schools with 15,054 students. Bhangar I CD block had 1 general degree college with 5,121 students, 1 technical/ professional institution with 970 students and 357 institutions for special and non-formal education with 24,291 students.[28]

See also – Education in India

As per the 2011 census, in Bhangar I CD block, amongst the 80 inhabited villages, 2 villages did not have a school, 35 villages had two or more primary schools, 31 villages had at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 14 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[33]

Healthcare[edit]

Certain areas of South 24 Parganas district have been identified where ground water is affected by Arsenic Contamination.[34] High levels of arsenic in ground water were found in twelve CD blocks of the district. Water samples collected from tubewells in the affected places contained arsenic above the normal level (10 micrograms per litre as specified by the World Health Organization). The affected CD blocks are Baruipur, Bhangar I, Bhangar II, Bishnupur I, Bishnupur II, Basanti, Budge Budge II, Canning I, Canning II, Sonarpur, Magrahat II and Jaynagar I.[35]

In 2014, Bhangar I CD block had 1 rural hospital, 1 primary health centre and 5 private nursing homes with total 76 beds and 12 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 28 family welfare subcentres. 5,292 patients were treated indoor and 90,894 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD block.[28]

As per 2011 census, in Bhangar I CD block, 2 villages had community health centres, 2 villages had primary health centres, 39 villages had primary health subcentres, 3 villages had maternity and child welfare centres, 1 village had veterinary hospitals, 16 villages had medicine shops and out of the 80 inhabited villages 18 villages had no medical facilities.[36]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  2. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  3. ^ "District Census Handbook: South 24 Parganas, Series 20, Part XII B" (PDF). Map of South 24 Parganas with CD block HQs and Police Stations (on the fourth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  4. ^ "South Twenty-four Parganas". CD block/ tehsil map. Maps of India. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  5. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Chapter 1 South 24 Parganas: An Overview, p 9-12. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  6. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 South 24 Parganas". Table No. 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  7. ^ "BDO Offices under South 24 Parganas District". West Bengal Public Library Network, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  8. ^ "Blocks and Gram Panchayats in South 24 Parganas". South 24 Parganas District Administration. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  9. ^ a b c d e "CD block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  10. ^ a b "District Statistical Handbook – 2010-11 – South 24 Parganas". South 24 Parganas at a glance, Tables 2.2, 2.4 (b), 4.5. Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  11. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001 – South 24 Parganas. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  12. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  13. ^ "District Census 2011". Population Census 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  14. ^ a b "Provisional population tables and annexures" (PDF). Census 2011:Table 2(3) Literates and Literacy rates by sex. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
  15. ^ "Census of India 2011, West Bengal, District Census Handbook, South Twentyfour Parganas, Series – 20, Part XII-A, Village and Town Directory" (PDF). Page 53, Table 11: Population by Mother-tongue in South 24 Parganas district 1961-2001. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  16. ^ "Multilingual Bengal". The Telegraph, 11 December 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  17. ^ "Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi make it to the list of official languages in Bengal". Outlook, 28 February 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  18. ^ "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
  19. ^ "District Census Handbook South Twentfour Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 52-53: Religion. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  20. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Pages 42-43, Chapter 3.8: Poverty Scenario in South 24 Parganas. Department of Planning and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  21. ^ "District Census Handbook South Twentyfour Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 33: Distribution of Workers by Sex in Four Categories of Economic Activity in Sub-district 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  22. ^ "District Census Handbook South Twentyfour Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 30: Number and percentage of Main workers, Marginal workers and Non workers by Sex, in Sub-districts, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  23. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Page 69 , Chapter 4.3: Occupational Diversification. Department of Planning and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  24. ^ "District Census Handbook South Twentyfour Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census Concepts and Definitions, Page 31. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  25. ^ "District Census Handbook, South Twentyfour Parganas, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 111, Table 36: Distribution of villages according to availability of different amenities, 2011. Directorate of Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  26. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Pages 28-30 , Chapter 3.2: Sectoral Composition of Output. Department of Planning and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  27. ^ "District Census Handbook, South Twentyfour Parganas, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 21: Agriculture. Directorate of Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h "District Statistical Handbook 2014 South 24 Parganas". Table No. 16.1, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  29. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Page 62 , Chapter 4.3.1: Occupational Diversification, The District Level. Department of Planning and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  30. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Pages 76 , Chapter 4.5.2: Non-agriculture, (i) Pisciculture. Department of Planning and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  31. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Funds: Programme Guidelines" (PDF). Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  32. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Fund". Press Release, 14 June 2012. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  33. ^ "District Census Handbook, South 24 Parganas, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 931-932, Appendix I A: Villages by number of Primary Schools and Appendix I B: Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  34. ^ "Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (19 years study)". Groundwater arsenic contamination status of North 24-Parganas district, one of the nine arsenic affected districts of West Bengal-India. SOES. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  35. ^ "High arsenic levels in South". The Statesman, 24 June 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  36. ^ "District Census Handbook, South Twentyfour Parganas, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 927-929, Appendix I: Summary showing total number of villages having Educational, Medical and other amenities – CD block level. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 4 October 2019.