Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited

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Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
State owned organization
Founded1 October 2000; 19 years ago (2000-10-01)
Area served
Key people
Pravin Kumar Purwar
(Chairman & MD)[1]
RevenueIncrease 19,308 crore (US$2.8 billion) (2019)[2]
Decrease -14,000.00 crore (US$−2.0 billion) (2019) [2]
Increase 3,879.92 crore (US$560 million) (2016)[2]
Total assetsIncrease 70,746.75 crore (US$10 billion) (2016)[2]
OwnerGovernment of India
Members115.95 million
(July 2019)[3]
Number of employees
174,216 (2018)[2]
DivisionsBSNL Mobile
BSNL Broadband
BSNL Headquarters, New Delhi

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (abbreviated BSNL) is an Indian state-owned telecommunications company headquartered in New Delhi. It was incorporated on 1 October 2000 and assumed the business of providing telecom services and network management from the erstwhile Central Government Departments of Telecom Services (DTS) and Telecom Operations (DTO) as of 1 October 2000 on a going-concern basis. It is the largest provider of fixed telephony with more than 49% market share, and is the fourth largest mobile telephony provider in India. BSNL is India's oldest communication service provider and its history can be traced back to the British era. During the British era, the first telegraph line, was established between Calcutta and Diamond Harbour. The British East India Company started using the telegraph in 1851 and till 1854 telegraph lines were laid across the country. In 1854, the telegraph service was opened to the public and the first telegram was sent from Mumbai to Pune. In 1885, the Indian Telegraph Act was passed by the British Imperial Legislative Counsel. After the bifurcation of post and Telegraph department in 1980s, the creation of Department of Telecom by 1990s eventually led to the emergence of the State owned telegraph and telephone company BSNL. BSNL then continued the telegraph services in India until it shut down telegraph services completely on 15 July 2013.


BSNL Mobile is a major provider of GSM cellular mobile services under the brand name Cellone. BSNL is providing 4G service in Bihar.

BSNL provides a complete telecom services solution to enterprise customers including MPLS, P2P and Internet leased lines. It provides fixedline services and landline using CDMA technology and its own extensive optical fiber network. BSNL provides Internet access services through dial-up connections as prepaid, NetOne as Postpaid and DataOne as BSNL Broadband.[4][5]

BSNL offers value-added services such as Free Phone Service (FPH), India Telephone Card (Prepaid card), Account Card Calling (ACC), Virtual Private Network (VPN), Tele-voting, Premium Rate Service (PRM) india. BSNL also offers the IPTV which enables customers to watch television through the Internet and Voice and Video Over Internet Protocol (VVoIP).[6] In 2007, BSNL announced plans to provide 5 million broadband connections and secured 80% of the INR 25 billion rural telephony project of the Government of India.[7] On 20 March 2009, BSNL launched blackberry services across India. BSNL paid Rs. 101.87 billion for 3G spectrum in 2010.[8] As of 2011, BSNL offered coverage in over 800 cities across India.[9] BSNL launched in 2012 a 3G wireless pocket-sized router called Winknet Mf50.[10][11] BSNL 3G provides HSPA+ service with a top speed of 21.1 Mbit/s downlink and 5.76 Mbit/s uplink.

After providing it for 160 years, BSNL discontinued its telegraph service on 15 July 2013. It began delivering telegrams to the public in February 1855; this service was upgraded to a web-based messaging system in 2010 and had been offered through 182 telegraph offices across India.[12][13]

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, a Public Sector Enterprise, also provides fiber plans for the home, which are generally known as BSNL FTTH broadband service. This is the fastest broadband service provided by BSNL, offering speeds up to 100Mbit/s to home-based Internet users.[14]

According to a Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Report dated 19 February 2016, at the end of 2015, BSNL's 14.54% share of the broadband market placed it 4th in market share. As a wireless provider, it ranked 6th with an 8.16% share of that market.[15]

BSNL launched linguistic email[16] service using the DATAMAIL app in eight Indian languages. On 8 June 2017 BSNL signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) to have 25,000 Wi-Fi hotspots in rural exchanges within the next six months.

In September 2018, The Department of Telecommunication (DoT) approved BSNL's proposal[17] to launch nation-wide 4G LTE services via the allocation of the 2100Mhz band. This meant the state run company would soon launch pan-India 4G services except for Mumbai and Delhi circles. BSNL launched 4G services first from Kerala circle on 9th February 2018 at Udumbanchola, Idukki district.Now BSNL has around 800 live state of art 4G BTS's in corporation with Nokia in Kerala circle. BSNL started Commercial 4G services at Idukki, Kottayam,Malapuram, Thrissur, Ernakulam districts of Kerala and All district headquarters of Bihar by shutting down of 3G services. BSNL is first in providing FTTH connections and has longest fibre network. BSNL also has 4G services in Andhra Pradesh and Bihar Jharkhand circle.

Administrative units[edit]


BSNL is primarily divided into three Verticals

BSNL- CFA : Consumer Fixed access . Catering to Wire line and Broadband business

BSNL - CM : Consumer mobility . Catering to Wireless business . Primarily 3G GSM services. WLL services which were widely deployed are being phased out.

BSNL Enterprise Business: Catering to requirements of Enterprise customers on turnkey basis .

Other than these three verticals, there are Electrical wings and Civil wings which takes care of real estate monetization also.


Horizantally, BSNL is divided into a number of administrative units, variously known as: telecom circles, metro districts, project circles and specialized units. It has 24 telecom circles, two metro districts, six project circles, four maintenance regions, five telecom factories, three training institutions and four specialized telecom units.[18]

BSNL cyber attack[edit]

In July 2017, BSNL had a cyber attack which affected south India, especially Karnataka, when a malware affected Telco’s broadband network using a modem having default passwords.[19] This virus reportedly affected 60,000 modems and blocked internet connectivity. Later BSNL issued an advisory notice to its broadband customers, urging them to change their default router username and passwords.

BSNL Wing Service[edit]

Recently BSNL launched their wings service in india.

Capping of FUP[edit]

BSNL w.e.f. 1 July 2019 capped the daily FUP limits in all their ADSL Broadband plans, while other telecom companies are offering higher speeds with unlimited limits to lure in and retain their customers.[20] [21][22]

Merger with MTNL[edit]

On the 24th of October 2019, the Government of India approved the merger of BSNL with MTNL and a 70,000 crore revival package for the combined entity.[23]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "mtnl-chairman-purwar-to-assume-additional-charge-as-bsnl-cmd". livemint. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Annual Report 2018-19". Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited. 31 March 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  3. ^ "Press Release on Telecom Subscription Data as on 31 May, 2019" (PDF). Telecom Regulatory Authority of India. 19 July 2019.
  4. ^ BSNL Broadband Archived 24 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ NetOne Archived 3 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ (9) Comments. "BSNL Launches VVoIP". Archived from the original on 13 December 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  7. ^ "BSNL bags 80% of Rs 2,500-crore rural mobile telephony project". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 28 March 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  8. ^ Pahwa, Nikhil (29 May 2010). "India's 3G Auction Ends; Operator And Circle-Wise Results". MediaNama. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  9. ^ "BSNL 3G Services Now In 826 Cities In India". 15 July 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  10. ^ "BSNL releases 3G wireless pocket router".
  11. ^ "BSNL Latest Broadband Services". now available for netizens 9 January 2019.
  12. ^ "BSNL decides to discontinue 160-year-old telegram service". The Times of India. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  13. ^ Joshi, Sandeep (12 June 2013). "Dot, dash, full stop: Telegram service ends July 15". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  14. ^ Gopal, B. Madhu (1 March 2012). "BSNL offers FTTH for high speed broadband users". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  15. ^ "Internet service providers in India" (PDF).
  16. ^ "BSNL DataMail: Here's How to Get Free Email IDs in 8 Indian Languages". 21 December 2016.
  17. ^ "BSNL will soon launch pan-India 4G LTE services - EOTO Tech". EOTO Tech. 11 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  18. ^ "BSNL Units". Archived from the original on 6 September 2012.
  19. ^ Techdesk (28 July 2018). "BSNL asks 2000 users to change modem password after malware attack". Indian Express. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
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