Big Four tech companies

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The Big Four[1], Gang of Four[2], GAFA[3], Big Five[4] or GAFAM[5] are names used to describe four or five multinational online service or computer and software companies that dominate cyberspace during the 2010s: Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple and optionally Microsoft. The term Gang of Four was coined by Eric Schmidt in 2008,[2] Phil Simon, and Scott Galloway as describing the companies "behind the consumer revolution on the Internet" and "avoid[ing] taxes, invad[ing] privacy, and destroy[ing] jobs".[6]


Schmidt, Simon, and Galloway define the term "Big Four" to mean the main companies that drive major societal change via their dominance and role in online activities, rather than just being the largest computer-related companies. They consider large companies such as IBM to be driving less change than the Big Four.[1][7]

Legislative actions against GAFAM[edit]

On 9 May 2019, the Parliament of France passed a law intended to force GAFAM to pay for related rights (the reuse of substantial amounts of text, photos or videos), to the publishers and news agencies of the original materials. The law is aimed at implementing Article 15 of the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market of the European Union.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Simon, Phil (22 October 2011). The Age of the Platform: How Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google Have Redefined Business (1 ed.). Motion Publishing. p. 312. ISBN 9780982930250.
  2. ^ a b Schonfeld, Erick (31 May 2011). "Eric Schmidt's Gang Of Four: Google, Apple, Amazon, And Facebook – TechCrunch". Archived from the original on 2019-05-25.
  3. ^ "GAFA Approach to Digital Banking Transformation - Accenture".
  4. ^ Sen, Conor (15 November 2017). "The 'Big Five' Could Destroy the Tech Ecosystem". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2019-02-10.
  5. ^ a b Bougon, François (2019-05-21). "Face aux Gafam, les députés adoptent le droit voisin" [Members of Parliament pass a related rights law against GAFAM] (in French). Le Monde. Archived from the original on 2019-05-25. Retrieved 2019-05-26.
  6. ^ Pisani, Bob (3 October 2017). "We are letting Amazon and Apple 'avoid taxes, invade privacy, and destroy jobs,' says NYU professor". CNBC.
  7. ^ Galloway, Scott (2017). The Four: The Hidden DNA of Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google. Random House. ISBN 9781473542105.