Bikont

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Bikonts
Aulacanthas 01.jpg
A radiolarian
Scientific classification e
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Bikonta
Cavalier-Smith, 1993
Subgroups

SAR supergroup
Archaeplastida
Hacrobia Discoba

Synonyms
  • Biciliata Cavalier-Smith, 1993
  • Diaphoretickes Adl et al., 2012
  • Diphoda Derelle et al., 2015

A bikont ("two flagella") is any of the eukaryotic organisms classified in the group Bikonta. Many single-celled members of the group, and the presumed ancestor, have two flagella.[1]

Enzymes[edit]

Another shared trait of bikonts is the fusion of two genes into a single unit: the genes for thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) encode a single protein with two functions.[2]

The genes are separately translated in unikonts.

Relationships[edit]

Some research suggests that a unikont (a eukaryotic cell with a single flagellum) was the ancestor of opisthokonts (Animals, Fungi, and related forms) and Amoebozoa, and a bikont was the ancestor of Archaeplastida (Plants and relatives), Excavata, Rhizaria, and Chromalveolata. Cavalier-Smith has suggested that Apusozoa, which are typically considered incertae sedis, are in fact bikonts.

Relationships within the bikonts are not yet clear. Cavalier-Smith has grouped the Excavata and Rhizaria into the Cabozoa and the Archaeplastida and Chromalveolata into the Corticata, but at least one other study has suggested that the Rhizaria and Chromalveolata form a clade.[3]

Cladogram[edit]

A "classical" cladogram (data from 2012, 2015) is:[4][5][6]


Eukaryotes
Bikonta
SAR/HA Supergroup

Archaeplastida

Cryptophyta

Haptophyta

SAR supergroup

Rhizaria

Halvaria

Heterokont

Alveolata

Excavata

Unikonta

However, a cladogram (data from 2015, 2016) with the root in Excavata is[7][8]


Eukaryotes
Diphoda (Bikonts)
SAR/HA Supergroup

Archaeplastida

Chromista
Hacrobia

Cryptista

Haptista

Harosa

Rhizaria

Halvaria

Heterokonta

Alveolata

Metamonada?

Opimoda (Unikonts)

Metamonada?

podiates

Neolouka

Collodictyon

Varisulca

Amoebozoa

Obazoa

Apusomonadida

Breviata

Opisthokont

The corticates correspond roughly to the bikonts. While Haptophyta, Cryptophyta, Glaucophyta, Rhodophyta, the SAR supergroup and viridiplantae are usually considered monophyletic, Archaeplastida may be paraphyletic, and the mutual relationships between these phyla are still to be fully resolved.

Recent reconstructions placed Archaeplastida and Hacrobia together in an "HA supergroup" or "AH supergroup", which was a sister clade to the SAR supergroup within the SAR/HA supergroup. However, this seems to have fallen out of favor as the monophyly of hacrobia has come under dispute.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Burki F, Pawlowski J (October 2006). "Monophyly of Rhizaria and multigene phylogeny of unicellular bikonts". Mol. Biol. Evol. 23 (10): 1922–30. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl055. PMID 16829542.
  2. ^ Thomas Cavalier-Smith (2003). "Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa". European Journal of Protistology. 39 (4): 338–348. doi:10.1078/0932-4739-00002.
  3. ^ Burki F, Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge M, Skjæveland Å, Nikolaev SI, et al. (2007). Butler G (ed.). "Phylogenomics Reshuffles the Eukaryotic Supergroups". PLoS ONE. 2 (8: e790): e790. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000790. PMC 1949142. PMID 17726520.
  4. ^ Jackson, Christopher; Clayden, Susan; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian (2015). "The Glaucophyta: the blue-green plants in a nutshell". Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae. 84 (2): 149–165. doi:10.5586/asbp.2015.020.
  5. ^ Derelle, Romain; Torruella, Guifré; Klimeš, Vladimír; Brinkmann, Henner; Kim, Eunsoo; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B. Franz; Eliáš, Marek (17 February 2015). "Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (7): E693–E699. doi:10.1073/pnas.1420657112. PMC 4343179. PMID 25646484.
  6. ^ Burki, Fabien; Okamoto, Noriko; Pombert, Jean-François; Keeling, Patrick J. (7 June 2012). "The evolutionary history of haptophytes and cryptophytes: phylogenomic evidence for separate origins". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1736): 2246–2254. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.2301. PMC 3321700. PMID 22298847.
  7. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E.; Lewis, Rhodri (December 2015). "Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: New cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 93: 331–362. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.07.004. PMID 26234272.
  8. ^ Eliáš, Marek; Klimeš, Vladimír; Derelle, Romain; Petrželková, Romana; Tachezy, Jan (2016). "A paneukaryotic genomic analysis of the small GTPase RABL2 underscores the significance of recurrent gene loss in eukaryote evolution". Biology Direct. 11 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/s13062-016-0107-8. PMC 4736243. PMID 26832778.

Further reading[edit]