Bila language

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Bila
Forest Bira
Kango, Sua
Native toDemocratic Republic of the Congo
RegionIturi forest
EthnicityKango (Wochua?)
Native speakers
(40,000 cited 1993–1998)[1]
Dialects
  • Kango (1,000)
  • Sua (1,000)
  • Bombi-Ngbanja
  • Nyaku
  • Ibutu
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
bip – Bila
kzy – Kango–Sua
Glottologbila1255  Bila[2]
kang1285  Kango[3]
belu1239  Belueli[4]
D.211,311,313[5]

Bila, or Forest Bira, is a Bantu language spoken in the Mambasa Territory of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is also spoken by the Mbuti Pygmies who live in that area. Pygmy groups to the west include the Kango and Sua (Batchua).[6] Other Mbuti speak Central Sudanic languages. The Kango and Sua speak distinct dialects (southern and northern), but not enough to impair mutual intelligibility with their farming Bila patrons.

Maho (2009) lists Ibutu (Mbuttu, D.313) as a distinct language.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-
velar
Glottal
Plosive plain p t k
implosive ɓ ɗ
prenasal ᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ
Fricative ɸ s h
Affricate plain t͡ʃ k͡p
prenasal ᶮd͡ʒ ᵑᵐɡ͡b
Lateral l
Nasal m n ɲ
Approximant j w

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close i u
ɪ ʊ
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bila at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Kango–Sua at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bila". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kango (Tshopo District)". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Belueli". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  6. ^ L'Apare est un ruisseau, affluent de l'Ituri en région des Bantous Babali. La route qui relie Bafwasende à Bomili traverse le village, où réside ce groupe de Pygmées devenus sédentaires. Dans la documentation de l'expédition de 1929 et de 1935, ils étaient désignés sous le nom de Basua [page] Babali aux Bango wa mugwase (ou Pygmées de forêt). Après l'expédition de 1949–50, l'auteur préfère substituer à ces deux appellations, données par les Babali, leurs propres noms : les Pygmées de forêt désignent ceux de village du nom de Balioli (=Belueli) (sing. Dioy) et vice-versa ceux-ci désignent les Pygmées de forêt du nom de Bango (sing. Mwango).
  • Serge BAHUCHET, 2006. "Languages of the African Rainforest « Pygmy » Hunter-Gatherers: Language Shifts without Cultural Admixture."[1] In Historical linguistics and hunter-gatherers populations in global perspective. Leipzig.
  • Kutsch Lojenga, Constance. 2003. Bila (D32). In Nurse, Derek and Philippson, Gérard (eds.), The Bantu languages, 450-474. London & New York: Routledge.