Binandere language

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Binandere
Native toPapua New Guinea
RegionOro Province
Native speakers
7,000 (2007)[1]
Dialects
  • Binandere
  • Tainya Dawari (Ambasi)
  • Yewa Buie
Language codes
ISO 639-3bhg
Glottologbina1277[2]

Binandere is a Papuan language spoken in the "tail" of Papua New Guinea.

Evolution[edit]

Below are some reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea proposed by Pawley (2012):[3]

proto-Trans-New Guinea Binandere
*m(i,u)ndu ‘nose’ mendo
*m(o,u)k ‘milk, sap, breast’ mu ‘sap’
*mundun ‘internal organs’ mundu ‘kidney, testicles’
*(ŋg,k)iti-maŋgV ‘eye’ (gisi)-moka ‘eye’
*mV ‘taro’ (Suena ma ‘taro’)
*mV- ‘give’ (Korafe mut- ‘give’)
*(m,mb)elak ‘light, lightning’ biriga ‘lightning’
*am(a,i) ‘mother’ ai (*m lost before i), (Suena mia)
*amu ‘breast’ ami
*k(i,u)tuma ‘night, morning’ tumba ‘darkness’
*na ‘1SG’ na
*na- ‘eat’ na- ‘eat, drink’
*n[e]i ‘bird’ ni
*nVŋg- ‘know, hear, see’ (Korafe niŋg- ‘hear, understand’)
pMadang-Binandere *nu[k] ‘3SG free pronoun’ nu
*ka(m,mb)(a,u)na ‘stone’ ganuma (Korafe ghamana ‘stone’)
*mundun ‘internal organs’ mundu ‘kidney, testicles’, (Korafe munju ‘egg’)
*mbalaŋ ‘flame’ (?) beriberi ‘be alight’
*mbalaŋ ‘flame’ beri-beri ‘be alight’
*mbulikV ‘turn (oneself)’ (Guhu-Samane burisi eetaqu ‘turn over, turn s.th. around’)
*mbeŋga-masi ‘orphan’, ‘widow and child’ (Suena boga masa ‘destitute widow and child’)
*pu + verb ‘to blow’ Binandere put- ‘blow’
*ambi ‘man’ embo (Guhu-Samane abi ‘man’)
*kV(mb,p)(i,u)t(i,u) ‘head’ kopuru
*[ka]tumba(C) ‘short’ tupo
*kambu(s,t)(a,u) ‘smoke’ (?) imbosi
*apa ‘father’ afa (Korafe afa)
*ndaŋgi/ndiŋga ‘tie’ (Suena di ‘tie’)
*m(i,u)ndu ‘nose’ mendo
*mundun ‘internal organs’ mundu ‘kidney, testicles’, etc.’)
*ka(nd,t)(e,i)kV ‘ear’ (Yega kari ‘ear’)
*inda ‘tree’ izi (cf. Notu ri)
*[ka]tumba(C) ‘short’ tupo
*k(i,u)tuma ‘night, morning’ Binandere tumba ‘darkness’, ‘night’)
*kV(mb,p)(i,u)t(i,u) ‘head’ kopuru
*(ŋg,k)iti-maŋgV ‘eye’ gisi moka
*at(i,u) ‘netbag’ asi (Suena ati ‘netbag’)
*si[si] ‘urine’ pBinandere *susu (Korafe soso)
*titi ‘tooth’ ji
*asi ‘string, rope’ asi ‘vine, string, rope’)
*kasipa ‘to spit’ kosiwa ‘spittle’
*mbeŋga-masi ‘orphan’ (Suena boga masa ‘destitute’) ‘widow and child’
*kanjipa ‘sun’ (?) kariga ‘moon’
*(ŋg,k)iti-maŋgV ‘eye’ gisi-(moka)
*(ŋg,k)iti-maŋgV ‘eye’ (gisi)-moka (Korafe móko ‘core, centre’)
*nVŋg- ‘know, hear, see’ (pBinandere *niŋg- ‘hear’, Korafe niŋg- ‘hear, understand’)
*mbeŋga-masi ‘orphan’ (Suena boga-masa ‘destitute’) ‘widow and child’
*kV(mb,p)(i,u)t(i,u) ‘head’ kopuru
*ka(nd,t)(e,i)kV ‘ear’ (Yega kari)
*kasipa ‘to spit’ kosiwa ‘spittle’, kosiwa ari ‘to spit’
*ka(m,mb)(a,u)na ‘stone’ ganuma (metath.) (Korafe ɣamana)
*ka(m,mb)(a,u)na ‘stone’ ganuma (metath.) (Korafe ɣamana ‘stone’)
*k(o,u)ndVC ‘bone’ (?) undoru ‘bones’
*kumV- ‘die’ (?) abu-bugari ‘dead people’, (pBin *ambu- ‘wither, be sick, dying’)
*kambu(s,t)(a,u) ‘smoke’ (?) imbosi
*ka(nd,t)(e,i)kV ‘ear’ (Yega kari)
*la(ŋg,k)a ‘ashes’ (aßa)-raka ‘fire’
*sikal/*sakil ‘hand, claw’ (?) siŋgu ‘finger’, finger’)
*(m,mb)elak ‘light, lightning’ biriga ‘lightning’
*(m,mb)elak ‘light, lightning’ birigi

References[edit]

  1. ^ Binandere at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Binandere". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Pawley, Andrew (2012). Hammarström, Harald; van den Heuvel, Wilco (eds.). "How reconstructable is proto Trans New Guinea? Problems, progress, prospects". History, contact and classification of Papuan languages. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea: Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea (Language & Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue 2012: Part I): 88–164. ISSN 0023-1959.

External links[edit]