Greater Binanderean languages

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Binanderean
Guhu-Oro
Geographic
distribution
New Guinea
Linguistic classificationBinanderean–Goilalan[1]
  • Binanderean
Subdivisions
Glottologbina1276[2]
Binanderean languages.svg
Map: The Binanderean languages of New Guinea
  The Binanderean languages
  Trans–New Guinea languages
  Other Papuan languages
  Austronesian languages
  Uninhabited

The Greater Binanderean languages are a family and part of the Trans–New Guinea languages (TNG) family in the classifications of Stephen Wurm (1975) and Malcolm Ross (2005). They are found along the northeast coast of the "Bird's Tail" of New Guinea, and appear to be a recent expansion from the north. The Binandere family proper is clearly valid; Ross added the Guhu-Semane isolate based on pronominal evidence, and this has been confirmed by Smallhorn (2011). Proto-Binanderean has been reconstructed in Smallhorn (2011). There is evidence that settlements of people speaking Oceanic languages along the Binanderean coast were gradually absorbed into inland communities speaking Binanderean languages (Bradshaw 2017).

Greater Binanderean consists of Guhu-Samane and the Binanderean proper branch.

Classification[edit]

Smallhorn (2011:444) provides the following classification for Greater Binanderean.

Pronouns[edit]

According to Smallhorn (2011), there are two linkages, namely Central Binanderean and Nuclear Binanderean. Ross (2005) reconstructs both independent pronouns and verbal person prefixes:

sg. PN prefix
1 *na *a-
2 *ni *i-
3 *nu *u-

Only 1sg continues the TNG set.

Evolution[edit]

Greater Binanderean reflexes of proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma are:[3]

Binandere language:

  • birigi ‘lightning’ < *(m,mb)elak
  • mendo ‘nose’ < *m(i,u)undu
  • mundu ‘kidney, testicles’ < *mundun ‘internal organs’
  • (gisi)-moka ‘eye’ < *(kiti)-maŋgV
  • mu ‘sap’ < *muk ‘sap, milk’
  • ami ‘breast’ < *amu
  • kopuru ‘head’ < *kV(mb,p)(i,u)tu
  • ji ‘teeth’ < *(s,)ti(s,t)i ‘tooth’
  • kosiwa ‘spittle’, kosiwa ari- ‘to spit’ < *kasipa tV- ‘to spit’
  • afa ‘father’ < *apa
  • embo ‘man’ < *ambi
  • izi ‘tree’ < *inda
  • ganuma ‘stone’ < *ka[na]m(a,u)una
  • tumba ‘darkness’ < *k(i,u)tuma ‘night’
  • biriga ‘lightning’ < *(m,mb)elak ‘(fire)light’
  • (aßa)-raka ‘fire’ < *la(ŋg,k)a ‘ashes’
  • ni ‘bird’ < *n[e]i
  • na- ‘eat, drink’ < *na-
  • put- ‘to blow’ < *pu + verb
  • tupo ‘short’ < *tu(p,mb)a[C]

Korafe language:

  • munju ‘egg’ < *mundun ‘internal organs’
  • soso ‘urine’ < *sisi
  • aßa-raka ‘burning stick’ < *la(ŋg,k)a ‘ashes’
  • mut- ‘give’ < *mV-
  • niŋg- ‘hear, understand’ < *nVŋg- ‘know’

Suena language:

  • boga-masa ‘destitute’ < *mbeŋga-masi ‘orphan, widow and child’
  • mia ‘mother’ < *am(a,i)
  • tumou ‘night’ < *k(i,u)tuma
  • ma ‘taro’ < *mV
  • asi ‘netbag’ < *at(i,u)

Yega language:

  • kari ‘ear’ < * kand(e,i)k(V]

Demographics[edit]

Smallhorn (2011:3) provides population figures for the following Binanderean languages.

Total
about 80,000

References[edit]

  1. ^ New Guinea World, Oro – Wharton Range
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Greater Binanderean". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  • Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.
  • Smallhorn, Jacinta Mary (2011). The Binanderean languages of Papua New Guinea: reconstruction and subgrouping. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Bradshaw, Joel (2017). Evidence of contact between Binanderean and Oceanic languages. Oceanic Linguistics 56:395–414.

Further reading[edit]

  • Proto-Binandere. TransNewGuinea.org. From Smallhorn, J. 2011. The Binanderean languages of Papua New Guinea: reconstruction and subgrouping. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Proto-Nuclear-Binandere. TransNewGuinea.org. From Smallhorn, J. 2011. The Binanderean languages of Papua New Guinea: reconstruction and subgrouping. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Proto-North-Binandere. TransNewGuinea.org. From Smallhorn, J. 2011. The Binanderean languages of Papua New Guinea: reconstruction and subgrouping. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Proto-South-Binandere. TransNewGuinea.org. From Smallhorn, J. 2011. The Binanderean languages of Papua New Guinea: reconstruction and subgrouping. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Proto-Orokaiva. TransNewGuinea.org. From Smallhorn, J. 2011. The Binanderean languages of Papua New Guinea: reconstruction and subgrouping. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Proto-Coastal-Binandere. TransNewGuinea.org. From Smallhorn, J. 2011. The Binanderean languages of Papua New Guinea: reconstruction and subgrouping. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  • Proto-Baruga. TransNewGuinea.org. From Smallhorn, J. 2011. The Binanderean languages of Papua New Guinea: reconstruction and subgrouping. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

External links[edit]