Boeing 737 MAX groundings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Boeing 737 MAX groundings
Boeing 737-8 MAX N8704Q (27946580010) (rotated).jpg
A Boeing 737 MAX 8 in Boeing livery
DateMarch 11, 2019 (2019-03-11) – ongoing (2 months and 9 days)
CauseFatal crashes of Lion Air Flight 610 and Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 and efforts to fix and certify MCAS
Deaths346 in total
  • 189 on Lion Air Flight 610
  • 157 on Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302

The Boeing 737 MAX groundings were imposed by airlines and regulators around the world in March 2019 after two nearly new Boeing 737 MAX passenger airliners crashed within five months, killing all 346 aboard Lion Air Flight 610 on October 29, 2018 and Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 on March 10, 2019. Ethiopian Airlines was first to ground the aircraft, effective March 10. The Civil Aviation Administration of China on March 11, was the first government regulator to ground the MAX. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, certifier of the 737 MAX, reaffirmed its airworthiness on March 11, saying no data was available "to draw any conclusions or take any actions". In the next two days, many airlines and governments worldwide grounded the aircraft. On March 13, the FAA grounded the MAX, citing new evidence from the accident investigations.

The Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS), installed only on the 737 MAX, is suspected to have pushed the aircraft nose down in response to erroneous data. Aviation engineers criticized the system for using only one angle of attack sensor, a single point of failure. On March 17, the U.S. Department of Transportation started an investigation of the FAA type certification of the 737 MAX. On April 4, Boeing acknowledged the role of MCAS in both accidents and said it was developing a software update to prevent unintended MCAS activation. Airline users expected the grounding to extend through August 2019, and several asked for compensation from Boeing, lowering its financial results and stock value.

Accidents[edit]

Lion Air Flight 610 crash[edit]

PK-LQP, the aircraft involved in the crash of Flight 610

On October 29, 2018, Lion Air Flight 610, a scheduled domestic flight operated by the Indonesian airline Lion Air with a 737 MAX delivered in August, from Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Jakarta to Depati Amir Airport in Pangkal Pinang, crashed into the Java Sea 12 minutes after takeoff. All 189 passengers and crew were killed in the accident.[1][2][3] The preliminary report tentatively attributed the accident to the erroneous angle of attack data and automatic nose-down trim commanded by MCAS.[4][5]

Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 crash[edit]

ET-AVJ, the aircraft involved in the crash of Flight 302

On March 10, 2019, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, a scheduled international passenger flight operated by Ethiopian Airlines from Addis Ababa in Ethiopia to Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya, crashed six minutes after takeoff near Bishoftu, killing all 157 passengers and crew aboard the aircraft.[6][7][7][8][9] Ethiopian Airlines had taken delivery of the airplane in November 2018.[10]

Initial reports indicated that the Flight 302 pilot struggled to control the airplane in a manner similar to circumstances of the Lion Air crash.[11] A stabilizer trim jackscrew found in the wreckage was set to put the aircraft into a dive.[12] Experts suggested this evidence further pointed to MCAS as at fault in the crash.[13][14] After the crash of flight ET302, Ethiopian Airlines spokesman Biniyam Demssie said in an interview that the procedures for disabling the MCAS were just previously incorporated into pilot training. "All the pilots flying the MAX received the training after the Indonesia crash," he said. "There was a directive by Boeing, so they took that training."[15] Ethiopia's transportation minister, Dagmawit Moges, said that initial data from the recovered flight data recorder of Ethiopian Flight 302 shows "clear similarities" with the crash of Lion Air Flight 610.[16]

A preliminary report on the crash indicated the pilots initially followed the correct Boeing procedure for shutting down MCAS and manually trimming the rear stabilizer. This action was ineffective. The pilots then re-enabled the MCAS and eventually lost control of the plane.[17][18] According to two aviation experts, manually trimming the rear stabilizer might have been ineffective because the manual crank will not work if the control yoke is pulled back due to aerodynamic forces that worsen with increased speed. This, however, applies to the older Boeing 737-200, and is not mentioned in the current 737 training manuals.[18] The Boeing 737 MAX manual explains that once a pilot disengages from the stabilizer trim that they should take manual control of the aircraft, but it does not say they should attempt to turn it back on.[19]

Groundings[edit]

On March 11, 2019, Ethiopian Airlines grounded its 737 MAX 8 fleet "effective yesterday March 10", and the China Civil Aviation Administration became the first government regulator to ground the aircraft, based on its zero tolerance policy for any safety risks.[20][21][22] The FAA on March 11 issued a public notice of the 737 MAX's "continued airworthiness".[23] On March 12, as more governments and airlines grounded the airplane or banned it from their airspace, U.S. president Donald Trump tweeted: "Airplanes are becoming far too complex to fly. Pilots are no longer needed, but rather computer scientists from MIT. I see it all the time in many products. Always seeking to go one unnecessary step further, when often old and simpler is far better."[24][25][26] After the tweet, Boeing CEO Dennis Muilenburg spoke by telephone with the president and assured him that the 737 MAX was safe.[24][27] The FAA stated late on March 12 that it had "no basis to order grounding the aircraft" and no data from other countries to justify such action.[28][29]

On March 13, in a policy reversal for both countries, Canada and the U.S. grounded the aircraft. Canada announced its decision first, saying it received new data suggesting similarity between between the crashes in Ethiopia and Indonesia. Canadian Transport Minister Marc Garneau reportedly contacted his U.S. counterpart, Transportation Secretary Elaine Chao, directly to inform her of his decision. Hours later, the U.S. said it was grounding the aircraft. The U.S. president made the announcement, following consultation among himself, Chao, acting FAA administrator Daniel Elwell and Boeing CEO Muilenburg. The FAA issued an official grounding order, which stated that new information from the wreckage in Ethiopia and refined satellite tracking data indicated the "possibility of a shared cause for the two incidents".[30][31] The U.S., Canadian, and Chinese regulators oversee a combined fleet of 196 aircraft, nearly half of all 387 airplanes delivered.[32]

Regulators[edit]

Boeing 737 MAX 8 aircraft of Shenzhen Airlines grounded at Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport in March 2019
  • March 11
    • China: The Civil Aviation Administration of China orders all domestic airlines to suspend operations of all 737 MAX 8 aircraft by 18:00 local time (10:00 GMT), pending the results of the investigation, thus grounding all 96 Boeing 737 MAX planes (c. 25% of all delivered) in China.[33][34]
    • Indonesia: Nine hours after China's grounding,[35] the Indonesian Ministry of Transportation issued a temporary suspension on the operation of all eleven 737 MAX 8 aircraft in Indonesia. A nationwide inspection on the type was expected to take place on March 12[36] to "ensure that aircraft operating in Indonesia are in an airworthy condition".[37]
    • Mongolia: Civil Aviation Authority of Mongolia (MCAA) said in a statement "MCAA has temporarily stopped the 737 MAX flight operated by MIAT Mongolian Airlines from March 11, 2019."[38]
    • United States: The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued an affirmation of the continued airworthiness of the 737 MAX.[39]
  • March 12
    • Singapore: the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore, "temporarily suspends" operation of all variants of the 737 MAX aircraft into and out of Singapore.[40]
    • India: Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) released a statement "DGCA has taken the decision to ground the 737 MAX aircraft immediately, pursuant to new inspections.[41]
    • Turkey: Turkish Civil Aviation Authority suspended flights of 737 MAX 8 and 9 type aircraft being operated by Turkish companies in Turkey, and stated that they are also reviewing the possibility of closing the country's airspace for the same.[42]
    • South Korea: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) advised Eastar Jet, the only airline of South Korea to possess Boeing 737 MAX aircraft to ground their models,[43] and three days later issued a NOTAM (Notice to Airmen) message to block all Boeing 737 MAX models from landing and departing from all domestic airports.[44]
    • Europe: The European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) suspended all flight operations of all 737-8 MAX and 737-9 MAX in Europe. In addition, EASA published a Safety Directive, effective as of 19:00 UTC, suspending all commercial flights performed by third-country operators into, within or out of the EU of the above mentioned models[45]
    • Canada: Minister of Transport Marc Garneau said it was premature to consider groundings and that, "If I had to fly somewhere on that type of aircraft today, I would."[46]
  • March 13
    • Canada: Minister of Transport Marc Garneau, prompted by receipt of new information,[47] said "There can't be any MAX 8 or MAX 9 flying into, out of or across Canada", effectively grounding all 737 MAX aircraft in Canadian airspace.[48]
    • United States: President Donald Trump announced on March 13, that United States authorities would ground all 737 MAX 8 and 9 aircraft in the United States.[49][50] After the President's announcement, the FAA officially ordered the grounding of all 737 MAX 8 and 9 operated by U.S. airlines or in the United States airspace.[51] The FAA did allow airliners to make ferry flights without passengers or flight attendants in order to reposition the aircraft in central locations.[52][53]
    • Panama: The Civil Aviation Authority grounded its aircraft.[54][55]

Airlines[edit]

After the Ethiopian Airlines crash, some airlines proactively grounded their fleets, and regulatory bodies grounded the others (includes pre-delivered aircraft located at Boeing Field, Renton Municipal Airport and Paine Field airports).[133]

Impact on airborne flights[edit]

About 30 of the 737 MAX aircraft were flying in U.S. airspace when the FAA grounding order was announced. The airplanes were allowed to continue to their destinations and were then grounded.[164] In Europe, several flights were diverted when grounding orders were issued.[165][166] For example, an Israel-bound Norwegian Airlines 737 MAX aircraft returned to Stockholm, and two Turkish Airlines MAX aircraft flying to Britain, one to Gatwick Airport south of London and the other to Birmingham, turned around without landing and flew back to Turkey.[167][168]

Analysis[edit]

The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Inspector General opened an investigation into FAA approval of the Boeing 737 MAX aircraft series, focusing on potential failures in the safety-review and certification process. The day after the Ethiopian Airlines crash, a federal grand jury issued a subpoena on behalf of the U.S. Justice Department for documents related to development of the 737 MAX.[169] By April, airline users of the 737 MAX announced daily flight cancellations that were expected to extend through August 2019.[170] Several airlines demanded compensation from Boeing for the cost of the groundings, while others cancelled their orders for the MAX 8. Boeing said its cost for the grounding would be as much as $1 billion in the first fiscal quarter. By March 23 the stock had lost 18% of its value.

Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS)[edit]

The newly introduced Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS) came under scrutiny in both accidents. MCAS is a supplementary automated flight control system installed only on the 737 MAX, and in published reports it is widely called an "anti-stall" system. Boeing disputes that description, calling MCAS a system that provides pilots with aircraft handling qualities similar to previous 737 versions.[171] Under certain flight conditions and without pilot action, MCAS automatically lowers the nose of the aircraft when it determines that the upward pitch of the aircraft may become too steep, based on input from sensors. The system uses airspeed, altitude and angle of attack (AoA) to determine when to activate.[172] Both aircraft experienced extreme fluctuations in vertical speed, as shown by publicly available satellite data, and the Ethiopian airplane crashed at a steep nose-down angle. Pilots in both aircraft reported flight control problems and requested permission to return to the airport.[173][174]

On April 4, 2019 Boeing publicly acknowledged that MCAS played a role in both accidents and described an upcoming software update that would prevent the possibility of unintended MCAS activation. Boeing also said it would upgrade the cockpit display to give pilots a better indication of MCAS status and would improve pilot training materials.[175]

Pilot complaints[edit]

In a private meeting November 27 after the Lion Air accident, American Airlines pilots pressed Boeing managers to develop an urgent fix for MCAS and suggested that the FAA require a safety review which could have grounded the airplanes.[176][177] A recording of the meeting revealed pilots' anger that they were not informed about MCAS. One pilot was heard saying, "We flat out deserve to know what is on our airplanes."[178] Boeing vice president Mike Sinnett explained that the company did not want to make changes in a rush, because of uncertainty whether the Lion Air accident was related to MCAS. Sinnett said Boeing expected pilots to be able to handle any control problems.[176]

In addition, the U.S. Aviation Safety Reporting System received messages about the 737 MAX from U.S. pilots in November 2018, including one from a captain who "expressed concern that some systems such as the MCAS are not fully described in the aircraft Flight Manual."[179][180] U.S. pilots also complained about the way the 737 MAX performed, including claims of problems similar to those reported about the Lion Air crash.[181] Pilots of at least two U.S. flights in 2018 reported the nose of the 737 MAX pitched down suddenly when they engaged the autopilot.[182] The FAA stated in response that "Some of the reports reference possible issues with the autopilot/autothrottle, which is a separate system from MCAS, and/or acknowledge the problems could have been due to pilot error."[183]

Certification inquiry[edit]

The day after the Ethiopian Airlines crash, a subpoena was issued by a U.S. grand jury.[184][185] On March 19, 2019, the Department of Transportation requested the Office of Inspector General to conduct an audit on the 737 MAX certification process[186] and Congress also announced an investigation into the same process.[187] The FBI has joined the criminal investigation into the certification as well.[188][189] Concerns have also been expressed in relation to FAA rules that allowed Boeing to extensively "self-certify" aircraft.[190][191]

The impetus for Boeing to build the 737 MAX was serious competition from the Airbus A320neo, which was a threat to win a major order for aircraft from American Airlines, a traditional customer for Boeing airplanes.[192] To avoid losing business, Boeing decided to update its venerable 737, rather than designing and building a brand-new airplane, which could take years longer. Boeing's goal was to ensure the 737 MAX would not need a new type rating, which would require significant additional pilot training, adding unacceptably to the overall cost of the airplane for customers. Boeing considered MCAS integral to the flight control system and did not include a description of the system in the flight manual, in keeping with the concept that the MAX was not a different type of airplane than the preceding version, the 737NG.[192] Chief executive Dai Whittingham of the independent trade group UK Flight Safety Committee disputed that idea, saying the 737 MAX "is a different body and aircraft but certifiers gave it the same type rating."[193]

During design and construction of the MAX, the FAA delegated a large amount of safety assessments to Boeing itself, a practice that had been standard for years, but several FAA insiders believed the delegation went too far.[194][192]

On March 17, 2019, aviation engineers familiar with Boeing's safety analysis of MCAS, told The Seattle Times the safety analysis was flawed:[192]

  • it downplayed its capability of pushing down the plane nose to avert a stall;[192]
  • after the Lion Air crash, Boeing informed the airlines the MCAS could deflect the tail up to 2.5°, up from the 0.6° told to the FAA in the safety assessment;[192]
  • MCAS could reset itself after each pilot response to repeatedly pitch the aircraft down;[192]
  • MCAS failure was assessed as "hazardous", one level below "catastrophic", but even then it should not rely on a single sensor.[192]

On April 2, 2019, after receiving reports from whistleblowers regarding the training of FAA inspectors who reviewed the 737 MAX type certificate, the Senate Commerce Committee launched a second Congressional investigation; it focuses on FAA training of the inspectors.[195][196][197]

On April 19, it was announced that experts from nine civil aviation authorities would investigate how MCAS was approved by the FAA, if changes need to be made in the FAA's approval process and whether the design of MCAS complies with regulations.[198]

On May 15, during a senate hearing, FAA acting administrator Daniel Elwell defended their certification process of Boeing aircraft. However the FAA criticized Boeing for not mentioning the MCAS in the 737 MAX's manuals. Representative Rick Larsen responded saying that "the FAA needs to fix its credibility problem" and that the committee would assist them in doing so.[199][200]

Boeing[edit]

A parking lot at Boeing Field in Seattle, Washington, filled with undelivered aircraft

Boeing issued a brief statement after each crash, saying it was "deeply saddened" by the loss of life and offered its "heartfelt sympathies to the families and loved ones" of the passengers and crews. It said it was helping with the Lion Air investigation and sending a technical team to assist in the Ethiopia investigation.[201][202] As non-U.S. countries and airlines began grounding the 737 MAX, Boeing stated: "at this point, based on the information available, we do not have any basis to issue new guidance to operators."[203] Boeing said "in light of" the Ethiopian Airlines crash, the company would postpone the scheduled March 13 public rollout ceremony for the first completed Boeing 777X.[204]

On March 11, Boeing announced it was working on upgrades to the MCAS flight control software, cockpit displays, operation manuals and crew training. Based on satellite tracking data, aviation experts believed MCAS may have been deployed erroneously during both crashes.[205] Boeing said the upgrades were partly in response to the first crash, Lion Air, but not to the Ethiopian Airlines crash, and were to be deployed in coming weeks and would be made mandatory by an FAA Airworthiness Directive.[206][207]

In response to the FAA grounding the MAX aircraft on March 13, Boeing said it "continues to have full confidence in the safety of the 737 MAX. However, after consultation with the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and aviation authorities and its customers around the world, Boeing has determined — out of an abundance of caution and in order to reassure the flying public of the aircraft's safety — to recommend to the FAA the temporary suspension of operations of the entire global fleet of 371 737 MAX aircraft."[208]

On March 14, Boeing stated it would continue production of the 737 MAX series but was suspending deliveries to customers.[209] On April 5, the company announced it was temporarily cutting production of the 737 aircraft from 52 per month to 42 from mid-April.[210]

On March 14, Boeing said that pilots can always use manual trim control to override software commands, and that both its Flight Crew Operations Manual and November 6 bulletin offer detailed procedures for handling incorrect angle-of-attack readings.[211][212] The FAA stated it anticipated clearing the software update by March 25, 2019, allowing Boeing to distribute it to the grounded fleets.[213] On April 1, the FAA announced the software upgrade was delayed because more work was necessary.[214] On April 11, Boeing said it had completed 96 test flights with the updated software.[215][216]

On April 4, 2019, Boeing CEO Dennis Muilenburg acknowledged that MCAS played a role in both crashes. His comments came in response to public release of preliminary results of the Ethiopian Airlines accident investigation. Muilenburg stated it was "apparent that in both flights" MCAS activated due to "erroneous angle of attack information." He said the MCAS software update and additional training and information for pilots would "eliminate the possibility of unintended MCAS activation and prevent an MCAS-related accident from ever happening again".[175] On April 24, 2019 he said the aircraft was properly designed and certificated, and he asserted "there is no technical slip or gap here". He said in the accidents there were "actions or actions not taken that contributed to the final outcome".[217] On April 29, he said the pilots did not "completely" follow the procedures that Boeing had outlined. He said Boeing was working to make the airplane even safer.[218][219] On May 5, a Boeing statement said, "Neither the angle of attack indicator nor the AOA Disagree alert are necessary for the safe operation of the airplane. They provide supplemental information only, and have never been considered safety features on commercial jet transport airplanes."[220]

Political[edit]

On March 11, as countries and airlines outside the U.S. began grounding their aircraft, the FAA issued a "continued airworthiness notification" to all global 737 MAX operators, stating that, to date, it had no evidence from the crashes to justify regulatory action against the aircraft.[221] Several western media outlets, including the Financial Times, The New York Times, Fox News, and CNBC, questioned China's motives for grounding the aircraft by suggesting the action was either "politically motivated" or that China was "potentially benefiting from the grounding".[222][223][35][224][225] Two U.S. airline industry labor unions, the Association of Flight Attendants and the Association of Professional Flight Attendants, urged the FAA to ground the airplanes,[226] while several pilot unions, such as Southwest Airlines Pilots Association,[227] Allied Pilots Association, and Air Line Pilots Association, the largest pilot union in the world, expressed confidence in the aircraft.[228] Jim Hall, a former chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board, the U.S. agency that investigates airplane crashes, said the FAA should ground the airplane.[229] U.S. Senators Elizabeth Warren, Mitt Romney, Dianne Feinstein, Ted Cruz, Roger Wicker and Richard Blumenthal called for the FAA to temporarily ground all 737 MAX 8 jets.[230][231][232] Cruz and Wicker announced plans to hold a hearing in the Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Aviation and Space "to investigate these crashes, determine their contributing factors, and ensure that the United States aviation industry remains the safest in the world."[232] Warren accused the Trump administration of protecting Boeing, saying: "The Boeing 737 MAX 8 is a major driver of Boeing profits. In the coming weeks and months, Congress should hold hearings on whether an administration that famously refused to stand up to Saudi Arabia to protect Boeing arms sales has once again put lives at risk for the same reason."[233]

Public[edit]

A March 2019 poll suggested that 53% of American adults would not want to fly on a 737 MAX plane if the aircraft were to be cleared by the FAA the following week.[234]

Retired airline captain Chesley "Sully" Sullenberger, who gained fame in the Miracle on the Hudson accident in 2009, sharply criticized Boeing and the FAA, saying they "have been found wanting in this ugly saga". He said the overly "cozy relationship" between the aviation industry and government was seen when the Boeing CEO "reached out to the U.S. President to try to keep the 737 Max 8 from being grounded". He also lamented understaffing and underfunding of the FAA. He said that good business means that "it is always better and cheaper to do it right instead of doing it wrong and trying to repair the damage after the fact, and when lives are lost, there is no way to repair the damage."[235]

Financial impact[edit]

Airline demands for compensation[edit]

On March 13, Norwegian Air became the first airline publicly demanding compensation from Boeing for the costs of the groundings of the 737 MAX. CEO Bjørn Kjos said, "It is quite obvious we will not take the cost related to the new aircraft that we have to park temporarily, we will send this bill to those who produce this aircraft."[236] India's SpiceJet also announced that they will seek compensation from Boeing. A senior official said, "We will seek compensation from Boeing for the grounding of the aircraft. We will also seek recompense for revenue loss and any kind of maintenance or technical overhaul that the aircraft will have to undergo. This is part of the contract, which we signed with Boeing for all the 737 MAX aircraft."[237] On April 10 state-owned China Eastern requested compensation from Boeing over the disruptions.[238]

Litigation on behalf of deceased passengers[edit]

Unlike the maximum claim by a passenger against an airline, which is limited by international treaty[citation needed], claims against the manufacturer are not subject to a preset limit. Representatives of passengers on Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 may be able to argue that Boeing knew, or should have known or contemplated, the risk of a crash from knowledge of MCAS and previous issues, including the earlier Lion Air crash, potentially opening a route to punitive damages.[239] According to lawyers involved in passenger claims, the U.S. legal structure for damage claims is often plaintiff-friendly, and Boeing may therefore attempt to argue that claims on behalf of deceased passengers should be heard in other countries.[239]

Order cancellations[edit]

At the time of the grounding, Boeing had 4,636 unfilled orders worldwide for the 737 MAX.[240] Following the grounding, Boeing suspended deliveries of 737 MAX aircraft to customers, but did not halt production of the aircraft. Analysts estimated that each month of the grounding could result in a delay of $1.8 billion in revenue to the company.[241] The total magnitude of the unfilled orders was estimated at $600 billion.[242]

The first announcement by a customer of plans to cancel an order came on March 11, the day after Ethiopian Airlines crash. Lion Air reportedly planned to drop a $22 billion order with Boeing in favor of Airbus aircraft.[243] The first confirmed cancellation was announced on March 14 when Indonesian flag carrier Garuda Indonesia announced the cancellation of 49 orders for the aircraft, citing "concerns on the safety of passengers".[244] Garuda stated that it was talking to Boeing about whether to return the single aircraft already received and to replace the 737 MAX order with a different Boeing model, not necessarily replacing Boeing as its supplier.[245] On March 22, Garuda Indonesia's spokesperson Ikhsan Rosan said "Our passengers have lost confidence to fly with the Max 8."[246][247][248]

On April 30, Airbus CEO Guillaume Faury said the 737 MAX grounding "is not changing the mid- to long-term picture" as "[Airbus is] limited by the supply chain": it should reach a monthly A320 production rate of 60 by mid-2019 before 63 in 2021 while Boeing reduced MAX monthly output to 42 from 52.[249]

Profitability and stock price[edit]

In the days following the crash of Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 on March 10, Boeing stock price went down. By March 14, the stock lost 11% of its value.[242] By March 23, the stock had lost 18% of its value, which represented a $40 billion drop in market capitalization.[250]

On April 8, 2019, Bank of America downgraded Boeing's stock after production of the 737 MAX was reduced.[251]

On April 10, a class action lawsuit was filed against Boeing in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois by a shareholder who accused the company of "covering up safety problems with its 737 Max".[252]

On April 24, Boeing released their first-quarter results.[253] The company announced that the grounding of the 737 MAX would cost as much as $1 billion. It consequently suspended its stock buyback program and announced that the previously released earnings forecasts, which were compiled prior to the grounding, were no longer valid and new forecasts will be released in the future.[254][255] Boeing also blamed the grounding for a 21% drop in quarterly profits relative to the quarterly profits from the previous year.[256]

On May 7, Barclays downgraded Boeing stock after conducting a passenger survey that showed nearly half those polled would not fly on the airplane for a year or more after it returns to service.[257]

Return to service[edit]

On April 1, 2019, the FAA said Boeing's software fix for 737 MAX was still weeks away from delivery to FAA. Boeing previously told the public it was awaiting certification on the new software by the end of March.[258][259] On April 24, 2019, Boeing projected that the 737 MAX would resume flying in July 2019.[260] The company said it performed 96 test flights, totaling 159 hours.[261]

For fleet scheduling and flight booking purposes, Southwest and American Airlines expect the 737 MAX to remain grounded (and flights canceled) until August 2019.[170] United Airlines expected its 737 MAX's to remain grounded until July.[262] Air Canada, which initially grounded its 737 MAX's until July, pushed the resumption to August 2019.[263]

International agreements allow for aviation regulatory agencies worldwide to certify an aircraft type based on the certification of the regulatory agency where the aircraft is built, and not review those certifications in much detail.[264] The Boeing 737 MAX series is certified by the U.S. FAA, and a return to service locally and internationally requires updated certification by the FAA first.[264] The European Aviation Safety Agency and Transport Canada announced they will do their own safety verifications before letting the 737 MAX fly again in their territories, and will no longer accept the United States FAA certification as is for this aircraft.[264] Boeing announced it would make an additional safety feature on the plane model standard.[265] The FAA was seeking consensus with other regulators to approve the return to service to avoid suspicion of undue cooperation with Boeing.[266]

On May 16, 2019, Boeing announced that it had completed the software update and is awaiting approval from the FAA.[267][268]

On May 17, after discovering 737 MAX flight simulators could not adequately replicate MCAS activation,[269] Boeing corrected their software to improve the force feedback of the manual trim wheel and to ensure their realism.[270] While the 737 NG and MAX simulators are different, Boeing would prefer to limit difference training to be computer-based, deemed sufficient for the FAA Flight Safety Standards Board, the US Airline Pilots Association or Southwest Airlines pilots, but simulator time seems necessary for Transport Canada and American Airlines pilots.[271]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Suhartono, Harry; Rahadiana, Rieka; Rusmana, Yoga (October 29, 2018). "Lion Air Boeing Passenger Jet Has Crashed, Says Rescue Agency". Bloomberg News.
  2. ^ Massola, James; Rompies, Karuni; Rosa, Amilia (October 29, 2018). "Lion Air flight crashes in Indonesia". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  3. ^ Gröndahl, Mika; McCann, Allison; Glanz, James; Migliozzi, Blacki; Syam, Umi (December 26, 2018). "In 12 Minutes, Everything Went Wrong". The New York Times.
  4. ^ "Boeing Statement on Lion Air Flight 610 Preliminary Report" (Press release). Boeing. November 27, 2018.
  5. ^ Picheta, Rob (March 10, 2019). "Ethiopian Airlines crash is the second disaster involving Boeing 737 MAX 8 in months". CNN. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  6. ^ "Ethiopian Airlines flight ET302 crashes en route to Kenya". The National. Addis Ababa. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  7. ^ a b "ET-AVJ". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  8. ^ "Ethiopian Airlines: 'No survivors' on crashed Boeing 737". BBC News. March 10, 2019. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  9. ^ "Ethiopian Airlines flight to Nairobi crashes, deaths reported". Al Jazeera.com. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  10. ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (March 10, 2019). "Ethiopian accident involves four-month old 737 Max". FlightGlobal. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  11. ^ "U.S. Joins Other Nations in Grounding Boeing Plane". The New York Times. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  12. ^ "Piece Found at Boeing 737 Crash Site Shows Jet Was Set to Dive". Bloomberg News. March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
  13. ^ Nicas, Jack; Kaplan, Thomas; Glanz, James (March 15, 2019). "New Evidence in Ethiopian 737 Crash Points to Connection to Earlier Disaster". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  14. ^ Glanz, James; Lai, K.K. Rebecca; Wu, Jin (March 13, 2019). "Why Investigators Fear the Two Boeing 737s Crashed for Similar Reasons". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  15. ^ Schemm, Paul (March 13, 2019). "Ethiopian pilots received new training for 737 Max after Indonesian crash". The Washington Post.
  16. ^ Schemm, Paul. "'Black box' data show 'clear similarities' between Boeing jet crashes, official says". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  17. ^ "Aircraft Accident Investigation Preliminary Report, Ethiopian Airlines Group, B737-8 (MAX) Registered ET-AVJ, 28 NM South East of Addis Ababa, Bole International Airport, March 10, 2019". Ethiopian Civil Aviation Authority. April 4, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  18. ^ a b Zhang, Benjamin. "A little-known quirk on the Boeing 737 may have made things difficult for the pilots of the crashed Ethiopian Airlines flight". Business Insider.
  19. ^ Kerley, David; Cook, Jeffrey; Levinson, James (April 4, 2019). "Ethiopian Airlines pilots re-engaged safety system amid chaotic scene in Boeing 737 MAX cockpit: Preliminary report". ABC News.
  20. ^ Ethiopian Airlines [@flyethiopian] (March 10, 2019). "Accident Bulletin no. 5 Issued on March 11, 2019 at 07:08 AM Local Time" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  21. ^ "Ethiopian Airlines grounds its Boeing 737 MAX 8 fleet". Reuters. March 11, 2019.
  22. ^ "CAAC Requires Domestic Airlines to Suspend Commercial Operations of Boeing 737-8 Aircraft". Civil Aviation Administration of China. March 19, 2019. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  23. ^ "Continued Airworthiness Notification to the International Community" (PDF). FAA. March 11, 2019. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  24. ^ a b Zeleny, Jeff; Schouten, Fredreka (March 12, 2019). "Trump speaks to Boeing CEO following tweets on airline technology". CNN. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
  25. ^ "Ties between Boeing and Trump run deep". Reuters. March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  26. ^ Gallagher, Sean (March 10, 2019). "Another 737 MAX jet crash prompts groundings by China, Indonesia, Ethiopia". Ars Technica. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  27. ^ Levin, Bess. "Surprise: Trump Kept 737 Max Jets Flying After Call from Boeing C.E.O." Vanity Fair. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  28. ^ Levin, Alan; Johnsson, Julie (March 11, 2019). "FAA Says Boeing 737 Max Still Airworthy Despite Second Crash". Bloomberg News. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  29. ^ "FAA declines to ground Boeing 737 MAX 8, says unknown if two crashes are linked". CNN. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  30. ^ Kaplan, Thomas; Austen, Ian; Gebrekidan, Selam (March 13, 2019). "U.S. Grounds Boeing Planes, After Days of Pressure". The New York Times. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  31. ^ Wagner, Meg; Ries, Brian; Westcott, Ben (March 14, 2019). "Boeing 737 Max 8 planes grounded after Ethiopian crash". CNN. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  32. ^ "The grounded 737 MAX fleet". Reuters. March 14, 2019. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  33. ^ a b "China Grounds Entire Domestic Fleet of Boeing 737 Max Jets After Crash". Bloomberg News. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  34. ^ a b "China's aviation regulator orders grounding of 737 Max". The Air Current. March 11, 2019. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  35. ^ a b "China and Indonesia Order Grounding of Boeing 737 Max 8 Aircraft". The New York Times. March 10, 2019.
  36. ^ "Indonesia to temporarily ground Boeing 737 MAX 8 jets for inspections". Reuters. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  37. ^ Guy, Jack; Dixon, Emily. "Which airlines are still flying Boeing 737 MAX 8s?". CNN. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  38. ^ ""BOEING 737 MAX"-ЫН НИСЛЭГИЙГ ТҮР ХУГАЦААГААР ЗОГСООЛОО – MCAA". Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  39. ^ Schemm, Paul; Aratani, Lori; Laris, Michael (March 12, 2019). "Boeing Max 8 will continue to fly in U.S. and Europe even as China, Ethiopia ground it". The Washington Post.
  40. ^ a b "Singapore grounds Boeing 737 MAX aircraft after 2 deadly crashes". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  41. ^ Ministry of Civil Aviation, Government of India [@MoCA_GoI] (March 12, 2019). "DGCA has taken the decision to ground the Boeing 737-MAX planes immediately. These planes will be grounded till appropriate modifications and safety measures are undertaken to ensure their safe operations. (1/2)" (Tweet). Retrieved March 12, 2019 – via Twitter.
  42. ^ a b "Turkish Airlines grounds all Boeing 737 MAX aircraft". CNN. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  43. ^ "South Korea Latest Country To Ground Boeing 737 MAX 8 Planes". NDTV. Agence France-Presse (AFP). Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  44. ^ "국토부, '보잉 737-맥스' 한국 착륙·영공 통과 금지 조처". 한겨레. 노현웅. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  45. ^ "EASA suspends all Boeing 737 Max operations in Europe". EASA. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  46. ^ Ebner, David; Perreaux, Les. "Air Canada, WestJet will continue to fly Boeing 737 Max 8 after Ethiopian Airlines crash". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  47. ^ "Canada grounds Boeing 737 Max 8 following fatal crash". CBC News. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  48. ^ "Canada will ground the Boeing 737 MAX 8 after Ethiopian Airlines crash - National". Globalnews.ca. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  49. ^ "Trump announces FAA will issue emergency order to ground Boeing 737 Max jets". NBC News. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  50. ^ Lazo, Luz; Laris, Michael; Aratani, Lori; Paletta, Damian (March 13, 2019). "FAA's emergency order grounding Boeing jets came after the agency identified similarities between crashes in Ethiopia, Indonesia". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  51. ^ "Emergency Order of Prohibition" (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  52. ^ "Boeing MAX Plane Grounding Impacted Some South Florida Flights". CBS Miami. March 14, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  53. ^ "14 CFR § 21.197 - Special flight permits". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  54. ^ Cite error: The named reference panama1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  55. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference panama2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  56. ^ "Which airlines use the Boeing 737 Max 8?". BBC News. March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  57. ^ "Indonesia permanently bans Boeing 737 Max 8 from serving flights: official". Xinhua. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  58. ^ Hatch, Patrick (March 12, 2019). "Australia grounds Boeing's 737 MAX in wake of fatal crashes". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  59. ^ "Austria grounds Boeing 737 MAX". Reuters. March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  60. ^ "Belgium closes air space for Boeing 737 MAX airplanes: agency". Reuters. March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  61. ^ "Direction under Article 68 of the Air Navigation (Overseas Territories) Order 2013" (PDF). Bermuda Civil Aviation Authority. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  62. ^ Ragoonath, Reshma (March 13, 2019). "CAACI bans Boeing Max 8 planes over local airspace". Cayman 27. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  63. ^ "African Daily Voice (ADV)". African Daily Voice (ADV). Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  64. ^ "EASA suspends all Boeing 737 Max operations in Europe". European Aviation Safety Agency.
  65. ^ "Fiji suspends Boeing 737 MAX flights". Reuters. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  66. ^ "French aviation authority bans Boeing 737 MAX from its airspace". Reuters. March 12, 2019.
  67. ^ "Scheuer sperrt deutschen Luftraum für Boeing 737 Max 8" (in German). March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  68. ^ "Greece bans Boeing 737 MAX planes from its airspace" (in Greek). March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  69. ^ "Boeing 737 MAX planes banned from Irish and EU airspace". March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  70. ^ "ENAC Press Release n. 16/2019" (PDF) (in Italian). March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  71. ^ "Malaysia suspends Boeing 737 MAX operations in its airspace". Channel NewsAsia.
  72. ^ "Malaysia declares 'no-fly zone' for Boeing 737 MAX 8". New Strait Times.
  73. ^ a b "Nederland sluit luchtruim voor Boeing 737 MAX na crash Ethiopië" (in Dutch). March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  74. ^ "Europese luchtruim gesloten voor Boeing 737 MAX 8-vliegtuigen" (in Dutch). March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  75. ^ "Oman suspends Boeing 737 MAX flights after crash". Reuters. March 12, 2019.
  76. ^ "Informacja dotycząca wykonywania lotów samolotami Boeing 737 Max w przestrzeni powietrznej Polski" (in Polish). March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  77. ^ "Comunicado de Imprensa 06/2019 - ANAC interdita espaço aéreo nacional e espaço aéreo oceânico, sob jurisdição portuguesa a todos os voos operados por aeronaves Boeing 737 MAX 8 e 737 MAX 9" (in Portuguese). ANAC. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  78. ^ "Romania bans Boeing 737-8 MAX, 737-9 МАХ commercial flights". See News. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  79. ^ "UAE bans operation of Boeing 737 MAX models: WAM". Reuters. March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  80. ^ Williams, Neil (March 12, 2019). "Boeing 737-8 "MAX" and Boeing 737-9 "MAX" Limitation of Operations due to a Fatal Accident in Ethiopia on March 10, 2019" (PDF). London: Civil Aviation Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  81. ^ Thông cáo báo chí liên quan đến hoạt động khai thác loại tàu bay Boeing 737 Max Civil Aviation Administration of Vietnam Thứ Tư, 13/03/2019 - 09:04 GMT+7
  82. ^ "Albania bans Boeing 737 MAX 8". Xinhua. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  83. ^ "Armenia bans Boeing B-737-MAX 8, MAX 9 aircraft from its airspace amid growing safety concerns". Armenpress. March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  84. ^ Bosu, Saugato (March 14, 2019). "Bangladesh joins nations to ban Boeing 737 Max 8". The Independent. Dhaka. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  85. ^ "UPDATE 2-Brazil grounds Boeing 737 MAX 8 planes following fatal crash". Reuters. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  86. ^ "Brunei bars all Boeing 737 Max 8 aircraft from flying over its airspace". Xinhua. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  87. ^ Tanev, Mario (March 13, 2019). "Bulgaria bans Boeing 737-8 MAX, 737-9 МАХ commercial flights". SeeNews. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  88. ^ Press, Jordan (March 13, 2019). "Garneau grounds all Boeing 737 Max 8 airliners in Canada". CP24. The Canadian Press. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  89. ^ DGAC Chile [@DGACChile] (March 13, 2019). "Considerando las actuales condiciones, la DGAC no autorizará ninguna operación de la flota de aviones 737- Max 8 en Chile @biobio @CNNChile @chilevision @Mega @Cooperativa @tvn @T13 @ElMercurio_cl @latercera @adnradiochile" (Tweet) (in Spanish). Retrieved March 14, 2019 – via Twitter.
  90. ^ "Colombia bans Boeing 737 MAX 8 planes from its airspace". Reuters. March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  91. ^ Saborío, Paulo Villalobos. "Costa Rica prohíbe los aviones Boeing 737 MAX 8 y 9 en su espacio aéreo" (in Spanish). Ameliarueda.com. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  92. ^ "Cyprus bans Boeing 737 MAX flights". Kathimerini. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  93. ^ "Denmark grounds aircraft in wake of crash". The Copenhagen Post. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  94. ^ Vietnam, Le Courrier du. "Les boîtes noires du Boeing 737 MAX 8 vont être envoyées en Europe". Le Courrier du Vietnam. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  95. ^ "Egypt bars Boeing 737 MAX jets from its airspace: statement". Reuters. March 13, 2019.
  96. ^ "Georgia bars Boeing 737 Max flights after Ethiopian Airlines crash". Xinhua. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  97. ^ "VietJet Weighs Its $25 Billion Boeing Jet Order: 737 Max Update". MSN. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  98. ^ =Ministry of Civil Aviation, Government of India [@MoCA_GoI] (March 12, 2019). "Additionally no B737 Max aircraft will be allowed to enter or transit Indian airspace effective 1600hrs IST or 1030 UTC. The time line is to cater to situations where aircraft can be positioned at maintenance facilities & international flights can reach their destinations.(2/2)" (Tweet). Retrieved March 13, 2019 – via Twitter.
  99. ^ "Iraq bans Boeing 737 MAX aircraft from its airspace". Reuters. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  100. ^ "US grounds Boeing 737 Max after crash; Israel to ban it from airspace". The Times of Israel. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  101. ^ "Jamaica restricts Boeing 737 Max aircraft from flying in airspace". Loop Jamaica. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  102. ^ "The Latest: Boeing's stock halts 2-day skid on Wall Street". AP News. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  103. ^ "Kuwait bans Boeing 737 Max 8 planes after Ethiopian Airlines crash". Khaleej Times. Agence_France-Presse. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  104. ^ "Lebanon bans Boeing 737 MAX planes from its airspace: NNA". Reuters. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  105. ^ "AACM suspends flight applications of B737 MAX aircraft". Civil Aviation Authority, Government of Macau Special Administrative Region. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  106. ^ "Молдавия запретила полеты Boeing 737 MAX 8 в своем воздушном пространстве" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  107. ^ "Boeing 737-8 "MAX" and Boeing 737-9 "MAX" Limitation of Operation due to a Fatal Accident in Ethiopia on March 10, 2019" (PDF). Civil Aviation Agency of Montenegro. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  108. ^ "Namibia bans Boeing 737s". The Namibian. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  109. ^ "New software for Boeing 737 Max 8s after Ethiopian Airways crash". Stuff. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  110. ^ "Nigeria Bans Boeing 737 Max Planes From Its Airspace". Sahara Reporters. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  111. ^ "Makedonija gi zabrani letovite na avionite od tipot Boeing 737 MAX 8". Press24. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  112. ^ "Panama suspends operations of Boeing 737 MAX jets in its airspace". Reuters. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  113. ^ "African Daily Voice (ADV)". African Daily Voice (ADV). Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  114. ^ "Seychelles Aviation Authority bans Boeing 737 MAX from its airspace after Ethiopian crash". Seychelles News Agency. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  115. ^ "CAAT temporarily suspends the operations of 737 Max 9 for passengers" safety precautions".
  116. ^ "AA flight to T&T cancelled after US grounds Boeing 737 Max 8 planes". Loop Trinidad and Tobago. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  117. ^ Turkey shuts down airspace to all Boeing 737 MAX, Reuters (March 13, 2019)
  118. ^ Ukraine suspends flights of two Boeing 737 models, Reuters (March 13, 2019)
  119. ^ "Emergency Order of Prohibition" (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  120. ^ "Uzbekistan suspends receiving and sending of Boeing 737 MAX flights". The Times of Central Asia. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  121. ^ "Белоруссия закрыла свое воздушное пространство для Boeing 737 MAX" (in Russian). tourism.interfax.ru. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  122. ^ Bosnia and Herzegovina Directorate of Civil Aviation (March 14, 2019). "Civil Aviation Safety Directive". Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  123. ^ Ethiopian Civil Aviation Authority (March 14, 2019). "Flight Ban". Ethiopian Civil Aviation Authority. Archived from the original on March 15, 2019. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  124. ^ "Le Boeing 737 max interdit de survol au Gabon". Direct Infos Gabon. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  125. ^ "B737MAX、日本も乗り入れ停止". 一般社団法人共同通信社 (in Japanese). March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  126. ^ "Kazakhstan suspends Boeing 737 Max flights". Reuters. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  127. ^ "Kiribati bans all 737 Max aircraft flights to its airports". Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  128. ^ "State of Mexico suspends operations of Boeing 737 Max". Riviera Maya News. March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  129. ^ "PNG CASA Puts Ban On Boeing 737 Max 8 and Max 9". EMTV PNG. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  130. ^ "Росавиация запретила полеты Boeing 737 MAX". Kommersant (in Russian). March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  131. ^ Civil Aviation Authority bans contentious Boeing 737 Max from Rwandan airspace
  132. ^ "Serbia joins ban on Boeing 737 MAX aircraft" (in Serbian). N1 Srbija. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  133. ^ a b c "Where the grounded 737 MAX are stored". Flightradar24 Blog. March 16, 2019. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  134. ^ News, Taiwan. "Taiwan bans Boeing 737 Max". Taiwan News. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  135. ^ "【最即時專題2】美下令停飛737 MAX 台民航局今晚7時起發禁飛令" (in Chinese). Taiwan Apple Daily. March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  136. ^ "Aeronáutica Civil prohíbe vuelos del Boeing 737 Max sobre Guatemala – Prensa Libre". Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  137. ^ "Iran closes its airspace to Boeing 737 MAX: news agency". Reuters. March 15, 2019. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  138. ^ "Paraguay prohíbe vuelos de aviones Boeing 737 MAX 8". El Nuevo Herald. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  139. ^ "La Argentina cierra su espacio aéreo a aviones Boeing 737 MAX tras el accidente de Ethiopian". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  140. ^ Abdallah, Nayera (March 18, 2019). "Algeria suspends all Boeing 737 MAX 8 and 9 flights: Ennahar TV". Reuters. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  141. ^ Observador, El. "Uruguay prohíbe el uso de los aviones Boeing 737 MAX 8 en su espacio aéreo". El Observador. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  142. ^ Ethiopian Airlines [@flyethiopian] (March 10, 2019). "Accident Bulletin no. 5 Issued on March 11, 2019 at 07:08 AM Local Timepic.twitter.com/rwxa51Fgij" (Tweet). Retrieved March 11, 2019 – via Twitter.
  143. ^ "Aerolíneas Argentinas deja de volar con el Boeing de la polémica". Clarín (in Spanish). Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  144. ^ "Aerolíneas Argentinas seguirá operando sus 5 Boeing 737 MAX 8". Clarín (in Spanish). Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  145. ^ "CAL suspends Max 8 operations". Cayman Airways. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  146. ^ "South African airline grounds the only Boeing 737 MAX 8 in its fleet". CNN. March 11, 2019. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  147. ^ "Gol decide suspender uso do modelo 737 MAX 8 após acidente na Etiópia" (in Portuguese). Globo.com. March 11, 2019. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  148. ^ Cunha, Joana; Magalhães, Guilherme (March 11, 2019). "Gol suspende operação de Boeings de mesmo modelo que caiu na Etiópia" (in Portuguese). Folha de S.Paulo. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  149. ^ "Mongolia suspends commercial operations of Boeing 737-8 jet". Xinhua. March 11, 2019.
  150. ^ "Boeing 737 MAX grounded in several countries following Ethiopian crash". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  151. ^ "STATEMENT 2 B737 MAX MAR 11, 19" (PDF) (in Spanish). Aeromexico. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  152. ^ "UAE regulator bans operations of Boeing 737 Max". Gulf News. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  153. ^ "Icelandair tekur þrjár vélar úr rekstri" (in Russian). RÚV. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  154. ^ "The Latest: India's Jet Airways grounds Boeing 737 Max 8s". The Washington Post. Associated Press. March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  155. ^ "Pasazer.com: LOT uziemia boeingi 737 MAX". Pasazer. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  156. ^ "The Latest: Boeing's stock halts 2-day skid on Wall Street". Thorold News. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  157. ^ "Norwegian temporarily suspends flights with the Boeing 737 MAX, following recommendations by European aviation authorities". Mynewsdesk. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  158. ^ "S7 Airlines decides to ground its Boeing 737 MAX aircraft". Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  159. ^ "Sunwing, a Canadian carrier, suspends operation of its Boeing 737 MAX 8 aircraft - National - Globalnews.ca". Global News. March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  160. ^ "Air Canada Responds to Transport Canada's Closure of Canadian Airspace to the Boeing 737 MAX Aircraft". Air Canada. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  161. ^ @CopaAirlines (March 13, 2019). "IMPORTANTE: información oficial sobre suspensión temporal de operaciones de flota MAX9" (Tweet). Retrieved March 13, 2019 – via Twitter.
  162. ^ @tushar_yes (March 12, 2019). "SpiceJet statement @flyspicejet has suspended Boeing 737 Max operations following DGCA's decision to ground the aircraft. Safety and security of our passengers, crew and operations are of utmost importance to us. 1/1" (Tweet). Retrieved March 13, 2019 – via Twitter.
  163. ^ "Suspending operations of Boeing 737 Max, following recommendations by Public Authority for Civil Aviation directives". Oman Air. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  164. ^ "Boeing 737 Max 8 planes grounded after Ethiopian crash". CNN. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  165. ^ "Europe bans Boeing 737 MAX: Planes grounded, diverted as nations shut airspace over Ethiopia crash". RT International. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  166. ^ "Dva boeingy Smartwings mířily do Prahy. Po zákazu bezradně kroužily nad mořem - Doprava". Lidovky.cz. March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  167. ^ Tahir, Tariq; Pisa, Nick (March 12, 2019). "Boeing 737 Max planes turn back in MID-AIR as jets banned from all European air space over safety fears after Ethiopian Airlines crash". The Sun. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  168. ^ "US and Canada join growing list of flight bans on Boeing 737 Max 8 jets after fatal crash". ITV. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  169. ^ Tangel, Andrew; Pasztor, Andy; Wall, Robert (March 17, 2019). "Transportation Department Is Probing FAA's Approval of Boeing's 737 MAX". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  170. ^ a b "Trump says troubled Boeing 737 Max should 'rebrand with a new name'". The Guardian. Associated Press (AP). April 15, 2019.
  171. ^ Zhang, Benjamin. "Boeing's CEO explains why the company didn't tell 737 Max pilots about the software system that contributed to 2 fatal crashes". Business Insider. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  172. ^ Ostrower, Jon (November 13, 2018). "What is the Boeing 737 Max Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System". The Air Current. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  173. ^ Lazo, Luz; Laris, Michael; Lori, Aratani; Damian, Paletta (March 13, 2019). "FAA's emergency order grounding Boeing jets came after the agency identified similarities between crashes in Ethiopia, Indonesia". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
  174. ^ Beech, Hannah; Suhartono, Muktita (March 20, 2019). "Confusion, Then Prayer, in Cockpit of Doomed Lion Air Jet". The New York Times. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
  175. ^ a b Gregg, Aaron (April 4, 2019). "Boeing CEO apologizes for lives lost and acknowledges role of company's flight-control system in two crashes". The Washington Post.
  176. ^ a b David Gelles and Natalie Kitroeff (May 14, 2019). "Before Ethiopian Crash, Boeing Resisted Pilots' Calls for Aggressive Steps on 737 Max". The New York Times.
  177. ^ "FAA Issues Boeing 737 AOA Directive After Lion Air Crash". Avionics. November 7, 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  178. ^ Dom DiFurio and Cary Aspinwall (May 13, 2019). "Newly surfaced recording details how pilots pressed Boeing after Lion Air crash, requested FAA records". Dallas News.
  179. ^ Koenig, David; Sisak, Michael (March 13, 2019). "Pilots have reported issues in US with new Boeing jet". Associated Press (AP). Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  180. ^ Fallows, James (March 13, 2019). "Here's What Was on the Record About Problems With the 737 Max". The Atlantic. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  181. ^ Patterson, Thom; Cooper, Aaron (March 13, 2019). "Pilots complained about the 737 Max in a federal database". CNN. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  182. ^ Topham, Gwyn (March 13, 2019). "Ethiopian Airlines pilot 'reported flight control problems before crash'". The Guardian. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  183. ^ Gregg, Aaron; O'Connell, Jonathan; Ba Tran, Andrew; Siddiqui, Faiz (March 13, 2019). "Boeing ignored pilots' warnings about 737 Max 8 jet before Ethiopia crash". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  184. ^ Woodyard, Chris (March 18, 2019). "Ethiopian Airlines crash raises questions about Boeing 737 Max certification process". USA Today.
  185. ^ Levin, Alan; Robison, Peter (March 18, 2019). "Boeing Plane Certification Probe Began Before Second Crash". Bloomberg News.
  186. ^ The Secretary of Transportation. "Audit of Certification for the Boeing 737 MAX 8" (PDF). Memorandum from the Secretary. U.S. Department of Transportation.
  187. ^ "Congress To Investigate FAA Approval Of Boeing 737 Max Aircraft". WBBM-TV. March 18, 2019.
  188. ^ "FBI joining criminal investigation into certification of Boeing 737 MAX". The Seattle Times. March 20, 2019. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  189. ^ "FBI joins criminal investigation into Boeing 737 MAX certification: report". Reuters. March 20, 2019. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  190. ^ Van Cleave, Kris (March 19, 2019). "Relationship between FAA and Boeing under scrutiny after deadly crash". cbsnews.com. CBS News.
  191. ^ Kaplan, Thomas (March 26, 2019). "After Boeing Crashes, Sharp Questions About Industry Regulating Itself". The New York Times.
  192. ^ a b c d e f g h Gates, Dominic (March 18, 2019). "Flawed analysis, failed oversight: How Boeing, FAA certified the suspect 737 MAX flight control system". The Seattle Times. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  193. ^ Leggett, Theo (May 17, 2019). "What went wrong inside Boeing's cockpit?". BBC.
  194. ^ Aaron C. Davis. "How the FAA allows jetmakers to 'self certify' that planes meet U.S. safety requirements". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  195. ^ CNN, Gregory Wallace and Nelli Black. "Senate panel opens probe of FAA inspectors over Boeing 737 MAX 8". CNN. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  196. ^ "'Inadequate training & certification?' Senate panel seeks answers from FAA over Boeing 737 crashes". RT International. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  197. ^ Gallagher, Sean (April 3, 2019). "Whistleblowers: FAA 737 MAX safety inspectors lacked training, certification". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  198. ^ "Panel to review approval of Boeing 737 Max flight controls". ABC News.
  199. ^ Thrush, Glenn (May 15, 2019). "F.A.A. Chief Defends Boeing Certification Process at House Hearing". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 15, 2019.
  200. ^ "FAA chief: Manuals should have told 737 MAX pilots more about Boeing's MCAS system". The Seattle Times. May 15, 2019. Retrieved May 15, 2019. The FAA needs to fix its credibility problem. [Larsen said] The committee will work with the FAA as it rebuilds public and international confidence in its decisions, but our job is oversight and the committee will continue to take this role seriously.
  201. ^ "Updated: Boeing Statement on Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302". Boeing. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  202. ^ "Boeing Statement on Lion Air Flight JT 610 Investigation". Boeing. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  203. ^ "Boeing says it has no plans to issue new guidance". CNN. March 11, 2019. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  204. ^ Waldron, Greg (March 11, 2019). "Boeing to delay 777X rollout after Ethiopian crash". FlightGlobal. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  205. ^ Glanz, James; Lai, K. K. Rebecca; Wu, Jin (March 13, 2019). "Why Investigators Fear the Two Boeing 737s Crashed for Similar Reasons". Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  206. ^ Toh, Mavis (March 12, 2019). "Boeing to upgrade 737 Max flight control software". FlightGlobal.
  207. ^ Toh, Mavis (March 12, 2019). "Boeing to upgrade 737 Max flight control software". FlightGlobal.
  208. ^ "In Consultation with the FAA, NTSB and its Customers, Boeing Supports Action to Temporarily Ground 737 MAX Operations". Boeing. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  209. ^ "Boeing prepares for MAX 737 jets sitting outside factory as deliveries halted". Reuters. March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  210. ^ "Statement from Boeing CEO Dennis Muilenburg: We Own Safety - 737 MAX Software, Production and Process Update" (Press release). Boeing. April 5, 2019.
  211. ^ "Boeing Statement on 737 MAX Software Enhancement" (Press release). Boeing. March 11, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  212. ^ "Boeing documents". The Washington Post.
  213. ^ Josephs, Leslie; Rooney, Kate (March 15, 2019). "The FAA set to sign off on Boeing 737 Max software fix in 10 days, shares rise". CNBC. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  214. ^ Gallagher, Sean (April 2, 2019). "Boeing delays 737 MAX software fix delivery". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  215. ^ Newburger, Phil LeBeau, Emma (April 11, 2019). "Boeing CEO says it's completed 96 test flights with 737 Max software fix". CNBC. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  216. ^ Business, Jackie Wattles, CNN. "Boeing CEO says new software update has been tested by most 737 Max customers". CNN. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  217. ^ Frost, Natasha (April 24, 2019). "Boeing says there was "no technical slip or gap" in the 737 Max". Quartz. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  218. ^ Business, Chris Isidore, CNN. "Boeing CEO says 737 Max was designed properly and pilots did not 'completely' follow procedure". CNN. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  219. ^ Zhang, Benjamin. "Boeing's CEO explains why the company didn't tell 737 Max pilots about the software system that contributed to 2 fatal crashes". Business Insider. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  220. ^ "Boeing Statement on AOA Disagree Alert". Boeing. May 5, 2019. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  221. ^ "US safety regulator stands by Boeing 737 Max 8 jets after latest crash". Financial Times. March 12, 2019.
  222. ^ "中国停飞波音737-8之举不寻常, It's highly unusual for China to ground Boeing 737 MAX". Financial Times (in Chinese). March 12, 2019.
  223. ^ "Second crash involving Boeing 737 Max 8: the key questions". Financial Times. March 11, 2019.
  224. ^ "China grounds Boeing 737 MAX 8 planes after second crash". CNBC Television. March 11, 2019.
  225. ^ "China has a competitor to Boeing 737 Max: Gordon Chang". Fox news. March 11, 2019.
  226. ^ Bartiromo, Michael (March 12, 2019). "Flight attendants' unions urge US carriers to ground Boeing 737 Max 8 aircrafts [sic]". Fox News. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  227. ^ https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-03-12/largest-flight-attendant-unions-back-grounding-of-boeing-737-max
  228. ^ https://www.cnbc.com/2019/03/13/us-pilots-confident-in-boeing-737-max-planes-following-second-crash.html
  229. ^ Steinbuch, Yaron (March 12, 2019). "Former NTSB boss won't fly on Boeing jet until Ethiopian crash mystery is solved". New York Post. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  230. ^ "U.S. Senate to hold crash hearing as lawmakers urge grounding Boeing 737 MAX 8". Reuters. March 12, 2019.
  231. ^ "U.S. to mandate design changes on Boeing 737 MAX 8 after crashes". Euronews. March 12, 2019.
  232. ^ a b "U.S. U.S. Senate to hold crash hearing as lawmakers urge grounding Boeing 737 MAX 8". Reuters. March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  233. ^ "Warren calls for Congress to question if Trump is protecting Boeing". MarketWatch. March 12, 2019.
  234. ^ Zhang, Benjamin. "53% American adults say they don't want to fly on a Boeing 737 Max". Business Insider. Retrieved May 16, 2019. If you had a flight on a Boeing 737 Max next week, and the FAA decided to clear the aircraft for flight, given the issues the plane has experienced, what would you do?
  235. ^ Sullenberger, Capt. "Sully" (March 20, 2019). "Capt. Sullenberger on the FAA and Boeing: 'Our credibility as leaders in aviation is being damaged'". MarketWatch. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  236. ^ Isidore, Chris. "Norwegian Air demands Boeing compensate it for grounded 737 Max planes". CNN. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  237. ^ New Delhi, Arindam Majumder & Aneesh Phadnis, Busines Standard. "SpiceJet to seek compensation from Boeing after grounding 737 Max aircraft". Business-Standard. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  238. ^ Matsuda, Naoki (April 10, 2019). "China Eastern seeks damages from Boeing for 737 Max grounding". Nikkei. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  239. ^ a b "Boeing's Lawsuit Risks Soar Around Second 737 Max Disaster". Bloomberg News. March 15, 2019. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  240. ^ Sutherland, Brooke (March 19, 2019). "China's Boeing Threat Has More Bite Than Bark". Bloomberg News. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  241. ^ Johnson, Eric M. (March 14, 2019). "Boeing prepares for MAX 737 jets sitting outside factory as deliveries halted". Reuters. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
  242. ^ a b Genga, Bella; Odeh, Layan (March 13, 2019). "Boeing's 737 Max Problems Put $600 Billion in Orders at Risk". Bloomberg News.
  243. ^ "Lion Air Said to Plan Airbus Order Switch After Boeing 737 Crash". Bloomberg News. March 12, 2019.
  244. ^ "Indonesia's Garuda cancelling 49 Boeing 737 MAX 8 plane orders after crashes". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  245. ^ "Indonesia's Garuda cancels 49-plane Boeing 737 order after crashes". Agence France-Presse (AFP). Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  246. ^ Business, Daniel Shane and Jo Shelley, CNN. "Indonesia's Garuda is canceling its $4.9 billion order for the Boeing 737 Max". CNN. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  247. ^ Suhartono, Muktita; Tsang, Amie (March 22, 2019). "Indonesia's National Airline Seeks to Cancel Order of Boeing Max 8s". The New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  248. ^ "Passenger fear prompts Indonesian airline to cancel Boeing 737 Max order". ABC News. March 22, 2019.
  249. ^ Flottau, Jens (April 30, 2019). "Faury: Airbus Sees No Benefit From Boeing MAX Crisis". Aviation Week Network.
  250. ^ Wattles, Jackie. "Boeing has lost $40 billion-plus in market value since Ethiopia crash". CNN. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  251. ^ Cox, Jeff (April 8, 2019). "Boeing shares falls after a Bank of America downgrade on 737 Max delays". CNBC. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  252. ^ Shaban, Hamza (April 10, 2019). "Boeing shareholder files class-action lawsuit, alleges plane maker concealed 737 Max safety risks". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  253. ^ "Boeing Reports First-Quarter Results" (Press release). Boeing. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
  254. ^ Koenig, David (April 24, 2019). "Boeing pulls back its 2019 forecast, suspends stock buybacks". PBS. Associated Press. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
  255. ^ Hsu, Tiffany (April 24, 2019). "Boeing Reports Slide in Earnings and Admits Future Is Hazy". The New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  256. ^ Isidore, Chris. "Boeing's profit falls 21% on the 737 Max crisis". CNN. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
  257. ^ Sheetz, Michael (May 7, 2019). "Barclays downgrades Boeing: Survey shows flyers will avoid 737 Max". CNBC. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  258. ^ "Boeing's software fix for 737 MAX still weeks away from delivery to FAA". The Seattle Times. April 1, 2019. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  259. ^ Corfield, Gareth Corfield (March 19, 2019). "Boeing big cheese repeats pledge of 737 Max software updates following fatal crashes". The Register. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  260. ^ Manko, Greg (April 24, 2019). "737 MAX: Boeing Hopes The Jet Will Fly Again By July". simpleflying.
  261. ^ LeBeau, Phil; Newburger, Emma (April 11, 2019). "Boeing CEO says it's completed 96 test flights with 737 Max software fix". CNBC.
  262. ^ Newburger, Emma (April 15, 2019). "United Airlines cancels all 737 Max flights through early July". CNBC. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  263. ^ "Air Canada says its 737 MAX jets grounded until at least August". Windsor. April 26, 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  264. ^ a b c "Europe and Canada Just Signaled They Don't Trust the FAA's Investigation of the Boeing 737 MAX". Time. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  265. ^ Tabuchi, Hiroko; Gelles, David (March 21, 2019). "Doomed 737 Max 8 Jets lacked two key safety features that Boeing sold as extras". The New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  266. ^ Broderick, Sean (March 25, 2019). "FAA Eyes Consensus On 737 MAX Flight Approvals". Aviation Week Network.
  267. ^ Wallace, Anna-Maja Rappard and Gregory. "Boeing says it has completed 737 Max software fix". CNN. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
  268. ^ MacMillan, Douglas (May 16, 2019). "Boeing says 737 Max update is being held up by FAA questions". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  269. ^ Natalie Kitroeff (May 17, 2019). "Boeing 737 Max Simulators Are in High Demand. They Are Flawed". The New York Times.
  270. ^ "Boeing says it has corrected simulator software of 737 MAX jets". Reuters. May 17, 2019.
  271. ^ Scott Hamilton (May 20, 2019). "Pontifications: Mandate sim time for MAX return to the skies". Leeham News.
  272. ^ Sharpe, Anita; Beene, Ryan (May 7, 2019). "Boeing failed to apply safety lesson from deadly 2009 crash". Bloomberg News.

External links[edit]