Bombardier CRJ700 series

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CRJ700 series
CRJ700, CRJ900, and CRJ1000
EC-JTU (8544702097).jpg
An Air Nostrum CRJ900
Role Regional jet
National origin Canada
Manufacturer Bombardier Aviation
First flight 27 May 1999
Introduction 2001
Status In service
Primary users SkyWest Airlines[1]
PSA Airlines
Endeavor Air
Mesa Airlines
Produced 1999–present
Number built 822 as of December 2017[2]
Unit cost
CRJ700: US$41.4 million
CRJ900: US$46.5M
CRJ1000: US$49.5M (2017)[3]
Developed from Bombardier CRJ200

The Bombardier CRJ700, CRJ900, and CRJ1000 are a family of regional jet airliners designed and manufactured by Canadian transportation conglomerate Bombardier; the trio of aircraft has been collectively marketed by the company as the CRJ Series.[4] Their design was derived from the smaller CRJ100 and 200 airliners.

During the 1990s, Bombardier initiated development on the CRJ-X, a programme to produce enlarged derivatives of its popular CRJ100/200 family. Officially launched in 1997, the CRJ700's maiden flight took place on 27 May 1999; it was soon followed by the stretched CRJ900 variant. Several additional variants of the type were subsequently introduced, including the CRJ550 and the elongated CRJ1000. While production of the smaller CRJ100/200 range was discontinued during 2006, the larger CRJ Series models have continued to be produced into the 2010s. Competitors have included the Fokker 70/Fokker 100, the BAe 146 family, and the Embraer E-Jet family.

In Bombardier's lineup, the CRJ Series was formerly marketed alongside a family of larger jets, the C Series (now majority-owned by Airbus and marketed as the Airbus A220) and a twin-turboprop, the Q Series (now owned by De Havilland Canada and marketed as the Dash 8). During the late 2010s, Bombardier sought to sell off several of its aircraft programmes. The CRJ programme is to be acquired by Japanese corporation Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in a deal expected to close by the first half of 2020.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

During the early 1990s, Bombardier Aerospace became interested in developing larger variants of the CRJ100/200 series; associated design work commenced in 1994.[5] The CRJ-X, as the new range was initially designated, sought to compete with larger regional jets such as the Fokker 70/Fokker 100 or the BAe 146 family.[6][7][8] The CRJ-X featured a stretched fuselage, a lengthened wing and up-rated General Electric CF34-8C engines while maintaining a common type-rating with the basic CRJ. Leading-edge extensions and high-lift slats improved the wing performance, other aerodynamic changes included an enlarged horizontal tailfin.[9] By March 1995, low-speed wind tunnel testing confirmed a 2,830 km (1,530 nm) range in the 74-seat North American configuration and 2,350 km in the 72-seat European configuration.[10] First deliveries were then planned for 1999.[11]

In 1995, the development was projected to cost around C$300 million (US$200 million).[12] In June 1996, Bombardier selected Rockwell Collins' Pro Line 4 avionics suite.[13] During May 1996, General Electric formally launched the previously selected CF34-8C variant.[14][9] Resulting from a high level of redesigning performed, the CRJ700 retains only 15% of unmodified CRJ200 airframe.[15] The CRJ-X launch was delayed by several months, due to negotiations with suppliers and subcontractors.[16] During September 1996, Bombardier's board authorised sales of the CRJ-X.[17][18] During January 1997, the CRJ-X was officially launched.[19][5]

Launch[edit]

During September 1998, Bombardier also studied an all-new 90-seat BRJ-X model.[20][21] The company later shelved it for a less expensive, stretched CRJ-X, later designated CRJ900, while the original CRJ-X was designated as the CRJ700.[22] The CRJ700 incorporated several CRJ900 features, such as its revised wing and avionics improvements.[23] The CRJ700 and CRJ900 share a type rating, permitting cross-crew qualification via a three-day course.[24]

In March 1997, four prototypes were planned for the CRJ700's flight test programme.[5] On 27 May 1999, the first prototype CRJ700 made its maiden flight.[25] At this point, type certification was expected for 2001.[26][27] By 1999, Bombardier had invested C$650 million (US$440 million) to develop the 70-seat CRJ700, and was set to invest a further C$200 million to develop the CRJ900, stretched to 90 seats; the CRJ700 was then listed at $24–25 million, while the larger CRJ900 was priced at $28–29 million.[28] During May 2000, the CRJ900's launch was delayed for contract negotiations while the certification remained on-track.[29] In July 2000, the CRJ900 was formally launched.[30] The enlarged model was targeted at existing CRJ200/CRJ700 customers looking for larger airliners.[31]

A new final assembly facility was established at Montréal-Mirabel International Airport as the CRJ100/200's existing line had insufficient capacity.[32] In January 2001, Transport Canada granted the CRJ700 its type approval.[33] In May 2001, American FAA certification for the CRJ700 was close but required two minor avionics-related changes.[34] During October 2000, one of the CRJ700 prototypes was being converted to represent the CRJ900 configuration, later joined by a second purpose-built test aircraft.[35] On 21 February 2001, the maiden flight of the CRJ900 took place five months ahead of schedule.[36][23] By March 2002, the CRJ900 was anticipated to enter service in 2003.[37]

Further development[edit]

Four abreast cabin seating of a CRJ-1000 NextGen
The flight deck of a CRJ-1000 NextGen

During 2007, Bombardier launched the CRJ900 NextGen to replace the initial version. Its improvements and conic nozzle enhances fuel economy by 5.5%.[38] The new model has improved economics and a new cabin common to the CRJ700 NextGen and CRJ1000 NextGen. Mesaba Aviation (now Endeavor Air), operating at the time as Northwest Airlink (now Delta Connection), was the launch customer, and remains the largest operator of the CRJ900 NextGen. The Endeavor fleet of CRJ900 NextGen aircraft are configured in a two class seating configuration, with 12 first class seats and 64 coach seats.[citation needed]

During 2008, the CRJ700 was replaced by the CRJ700 NextGen, which featured improved economics and a revised cabin common to the CRJ900 NextGen and CRJ1000 NextGen. In January 2011, SkyWest Airlines ordered four CRJ700 NextGen aircraft.[39]

During 2016, Bombardier began offering a modernized cabin design for the CRJ Series; this cabin provided a more spacious entryway, larger overhead bins, larger windows situated higher upon the fuselage, newer seats, larger lavatories, and upgraded lighting.[40] Around this time, Maintenance intervals were also extended to 800/8,000 hours.[38] From summer 2018, A checks were performed every 800 flight hours while C checks occurred every 8,000 flight hours. Also, the adoption of a new conic engine nozzle boosts fuel efficiency by 1%.[41]

Over its production life, the CRJ family has latterly competed with the Embraer E-Jet family. A re-engining of the CRJ, akin to the rival Embraer E-Jet E2, with newer and more efficient engines, such as the GE Passport, to replace the current GE CF34 powerplants, would be unlikely to overcome the certification expense, primarily as newer engines are larger and heavier, eroding fuel burn improvements that would be achieved on short regional routes.[42]

Sales history[edit]

During April 2000, a substantial early order, valued at $10 billion, for the CRJ700 (and CRJ200) was issued by Delta Air Lines, involving 500 aircraft along with options for 406 more.[43] Comair, operating as Delta Connection, placed an order of 14 CRJ900s; by November 2007, 6 of these had entered revenue service.[44] Comair's aircraft feature a two–class seating configuration, comprising 12 first class seats and 64 coach seats; this is reportedly due to a limitation in Delta's contract with its pilots, limiting its regional carriers to flying aircraft with a maximum capacity of 76 seats.[citation needed]

During September 2011, PLUNA received its eleventh airplane (from an eventual total order of 15 with options). Estonian Air ordered 3 CRJ900 NextGen 88-seat aircraft. Also, SAS ordered 13 of these in March 2008. Iraqi Airways has ordered six Bombardier CRJ900 NextGen airliners and options on a further four of the type.[45] In June 2010, Lufthansa ordered eight CRJ900 NextGen.[46] In December 2012, Delta Air Lines ordered 40 CRJ900 NextGen worth $1.89 billion with 30 options.[47]

During February 2012, Garuda Indonesia ordered six CRJ1000s and took options for another 18. The Danish lessor Nordic Aviation Capital also ordered 12 for Garuda to operate with delivery beginning in 2012.[48]

According to Bombardier, by 2015 the CRJ series accounted for over 20% of all jet departures in North America; globally, the family operates in excess of 200,000 flights per month.[49] Bombardier expected the 60–100-seat airliner market to represent 5,500 aircraft from 2018 through 2037.[41]

Upcoming sale[edit]

As of November 2018, following Bombardier's decisions to sell the CSeries to Airbus and the Q Series to Viking Air, the company was looking at "strategic options" to return the CRJ to profitability. Analysts suspected that it may decide to exit the commercial aircraft market altogether and refocus on business aircraft.[50][51]

On 25 June 2019, a deal to sell the CRJ programme to Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, the parent company of Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation which develops the SpaceJet, was announced. The deal is expected to close in the first half of 2020.[52] Mitsubishi had a historic interest in the CRJ programme, having sounded out risk-sharing options with Bombardier, and were at one point expected to take a stake in the venture during the 1990s.[53][17] Bombardier has stopped taking new sales; production of the CRJ will continue at Mirabel until the current order backlog is complete, with final deliveries expected in the second half of 2020.[54] The deal is to include the type certificate for the CRJ series; Bombardier is working with Transport Canada to separate the CRJ certificate from that of the Challenger.[55]

Variants[edit]

CRJ700[edit]

The CRJ700 was introduced by Brit Air in 2001

Design work on the CRJ700 by Bombardier started in 1995 and the programme was officially launched in January 1997.[25] The CRJ700 is a stretched derivative of the CRJ200. The CRJ700 features a new wing with leading edge slats and a stretched and slightly widened fuselage, with a lowered floor. Its first flight took place on 27 May 1999.[25] The aircraft's FAA Type Certificate designation is the CL-600-2C10.[56] The CRJ700 first entered commercial service with Brit Air in 2001.[25]

Seating ranges from 63 to 78. The CRJ700 comes in three versions: Series 700, Series 701, and Series 702. The Series 700 is limited to 68 passengers, the 701 to 70 passengers, and the 702 to 78 passengers. The CRJ700 also has three fuel/weight options: standard, ER, and LR. The ER version has an increase in fuel capacity as well as maximum weight, which in turn increases the range. The LR increases those values further. The executive version is marketed as the Challenger 870. The CRJ700 directly competes with the Embraer 170, which typically seats 70 passengers.[57]

The early build aircraft were equipped with two General Electric CF34-8C1 engines. However, later-build aircraft are now equipped as standard with the -8C5 model, which is essentially an uprated 8C1. Most airlines have replaced the older engines with the newer model, while a few have kept the older -8C1 in their fleet.

Maximum speed is Mach 0.85 (903 km/h; 488 kn) at a maximum altitude of 12,500 m (41,000 ft). Depending upon payload, the CRJ700 has a range of up to 3,620 km (2,250 mi) with original engines, and a new variant with CF34-8C5 engines will have a range of up to 4,660 km (2,900 mi).

CRJ550[edit]

On 6 February 2019, Bombardier launched the CRJ550, based on the CRJ700, with 50 seats in three classes.[58] The launch customer, United Airlines, ordered 50 aircraft configured with 10 first class, 20 Economy Plus and 20 economy seats,[59] In late 2019 United took delivery of the aircraft and began with a crew familiarization flight to Chicago-O’Hare International Airport (ORD) on August 7, 2019.[60] The CRJ550 has a lower MTOW than the CRJ700 in order to comply with scope clauses in US pilot contracts, and is expected to receive type certification in the second half of 2019.[61] The initial 50 aircraft will be sourced from existing CRJ700 airframes, rather than being newly constructed.[62]

CRJ900[edit]

Lufthansa CityLine Bombardier CRJ900LR taking off, 2010.

The CRJ900 is a stretched 76–90 seat version of the CRJ700. The airplane is loosely based on the CRJ200 series with a few major improvements. The first CRJ900 (C-FRJX) was modified from the prototype CRJ700 by adding longer fuselage plugs fore and aft of the wings. It was later converted into the prototype CRJ1000 by replacing the fuselage plugs with longer plugs.[63] The CRJ900 also features strakes located at the rear of the plane. The CRJ900 competes with the Embraer 175, and is more efficient per seat-mile, according to Bombardier.[64] Mesa Air Group was the launch customer for the CRJ900 painted in America West livery. The FAA Type Certificate designation of the CRJ900 is the CL-600-2D24.

The wing is wider with added leading edge slats, the tail is redesigned with more span and anhedral. The cabin floor has been lowered 2 inches which gains outward visibility from the windows in the cabin as the windows become closer to eye level height. The cabin has a recirculation fan which aids in cooling and heating. The environmental packs have a target temperature instead of a hot-cold knob. The APU is a Honeywell RE220 unit,[65] which supplies much more air to the AC packs and has higher limits for starting and altitude usage.

The aircraft features two GE CF34-8C5 engines, 59.4 kN (13,400 lbf) thrust with APR. The engines are controlled by FADEC digital engine control instead of control cables and a fuel control unit. In typical service, the CRJ900 can cruise 8–10,000 ft higher with a slightly higher fuel burn and an average true airspeed of 450–500 knots, a significant improvement over its predecessor. Its maximum ground takeoff weight is 84,500 pounds.[citation needed]

In 2018, the CRJ900's list price was $48 million while its market value was $24M; reportedly, most customers are paying around $20–22M and the American Airlines order for 15 was at below $20M. A 2012 aircraft was worth less than $14M and it was to fall by 30% in 2021.[66]

CRJ705[edit]

Two-class seating

The CRJ700 Series 705 is based on the CRJ900, featuring a business class cabin and a reduced maximum seating capacity to allow operation with regional airlines. The Series 705 seats 75 passengers. Some regional airlines have scope clauses with their major airlines that limit the maximum passenger capacity of aircraft they operate. The Air Canada Pilots Association negotiated a scope agreement with Air Canada limiting the maximum seating capacity of any jet aircraft at Air Canada Express to 75 seats. Air Canada Jazz was the launch customer for this aircraft in 2005 with 10 Executive Class and 65 Economy Class seats, all fitted with personal audio/video-on-demand systems. The FAA Type Certificate designation of the CRJ705 is the CL-600-2D15. Jazz Aviation, a subsidiary of Chorus Aviation, operates 16 CRJ705s on behalf of Air Canada and is currently the only operator of this version.[67][68] On 26 April 2016, Jazz Aviation announced that existing CRJ705 aircraft in operation will be converted to CRJ900 with 76 seats.[69]

CRJ1000[edit]

Air Nostrum CRJ1000, gear up

On 19 February 2007, Bombardier launched the development of the CRJ1000, previously designated CRJ900X, as a stretched CRJ900, with up to 100 seats. The CRJ1000 completed its first production flight on 28 July 2009 in Montreal; the entry into service was planned then for the first quarter of 2010.[70] A month after the first flight, however, a fault in the rudder controls forced the flight-test program to be grounded : the program was not resumed until February 2010, and deliveries were projected to begin by January 2011.[71] Brit Air and Air Nostrum were the launch customers for the CRJ1000.[72][73]

Bombardier Aerospace announced on 10 November 2010 that its 100-seat CRJ1000 was awarded Aircraft Type Certificates from Transport Canada and European Aviation Safety Agency, allowing for deliveries to begin.[74] On 14 December 2010, Bombardier began CRJ1000 deliveries to Brit Air and Air Nostrum.[72][75] On 23 December 2010, it was announced that the Federal Aviation Administration had also awarded a type certificate, allowing the CRJ1000 to operate in US airspace.[76] Bombardier states that it offers better performance and a higher profit per seat than the competing Embraer E-190.[77][78] The FAA Type Certificate designation of the CRJ1000 is the CL-600-2E25.

In 2018, a new CRJ1000 discounted price is $24.8M, a 2015 model is valued $22.0M, a 2010 one is worth $15.5M for a $155,000 monthly lease, and it will be $12.0M in 2021 for a $145,000 monthly lease while its D Check costs $800,000 and its engine overhaul costs $0.9 to 2.4M.[79]

Operators[edit]

A comparison between Bombardier CRJ700 (top) and CRJ900 (bottom)

As of July 2018, 290 CRJ700 aircraft (all variants), 425 CRJ900 aircraft (all variants) and 62 CRJ1000 aircraft were in airline service with SkyWest Airlines (123), Endeavor Air (112), PSA Airlines (95), Mesa Airlines (84), GoJet Airlines (54), ExpressJet Airlines (39), Lufthansa CityLine (37), China Express Airlines (36), Scandinavian Airlines (26), HOP! (25), Air Nostrum (23), Envoy Air (20), Garuda Indonesia (18), and other operators with fewer aircraft of the type.[80]

Delta Connection CRJ700 in front of SkyWest hangar
CRJ-7000 exiting SkyWest hangar
SkyWest Airlines is the largest CRJ operator, operating them for Delta Connection, American Eagle, and United Express

Orders and deliveries[edit]

Model series Orders Deliveries Unfilled
CRJ700 330 330 0
CRJ705 16 16 0
CRJ900 487 436 51
CRJ1000 63 63 0
Total 896 845 51

Bombardier data as of 31 March 2019.[2]

Recent orders[edit]

Date Type Customer Orders Options Notes
25 April 2016 CRJ900 Trident Jet for CityJet 4 −4 BBD press release.[81]
26 April 2016 CRJ900 Jazz Aviation LP for Air Canada Express 5 5 BBD press release.[69]
20 June 2016 CRJ900 Industrial Bank (China) 10 0 BBD press release.[82] BBD disclosed the previously unidentified customer on 1 November 2016.[83]
1 February 2017 CRJ900 CityJet 6 4 Will be operated in the Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) network, BBD press release[84]
29 March 2017 CRJ900 CityJet 4 −4 Exercised options, will be operated in the Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) network, BBD press release[85]
29 December 2017 CRJ900 Unidentified Customer 6 6 Unknown customer[86]
3 May 2018 CRJ900 American Eagle 15 15 Operated by PSA Airlines[87]
20 June 2018 CRJ900 Delta Connection 20 0 Launch operator of ATMOSPHÈRE Cabin, BBD press release[88]
18 July 2018 CRJ900 Uganda Airlines 4 0 BBD press release[89]
28 August 2018 CRJ900 Industrial Bank (China) −5 0 Order conversion to Q400.[90]
6 February 2019 CRJ900 Chorus Aviation for Air Canada Express 9 0 First Canadian operator of the new ATMOSPHÈRE cabin[91]
6 February 2019 CRJ550 GoJet Airlines for United Airlines 50 0 Launch customer for CRJ550.[92]

Specifications[edit]

CRJ1000 side view
CRJ1000 planform view
CRJ Series Brochure[93]
Variant CRJ700 CRJ900 CRJ1000
Cockpit crew 2
Cabin crew 2–3
Seating capacity 66 to 78 76 to 90 97 to 104
Cargo capacity 547 cu ft / 15.5 m3
5,375 lb / 2,438 kg
594 cu ft / 16.8 m3
6,075 lb / 2,756 kg
683 cu ft / 19.4 m3
7,180 lb / 3,257 kg
Length 106 ft 1 in / 32.3 m 118 ft 11 in / 36.2 m 128 ft 5 in / 39.1 m
Height 24 ft 10 in / 7.6 m 24 ft 7 in / 7.5 m 24 ft 6 in / 7.5 m
Wingspan 76 ft 3 in / 23.2 m 81 ft 7 in / 24.9 m 85 ft 11 in / 26.2 m
Wing area 760 sq ft / 70.6 m2 765 sq ft / 71.1 m2 833 sq ft / 77.4 m2
Fuselage 8 ft 10 in / 2.7 m maximum diameter
Cabin 100.5 in / 2.55 m width × 74.4 in / 1.89 m height
MTOW 75,000 lb / 34,019 kg (ER) 84,500 lb / 38,330 kg (LR) 91,800 lb / 41,640 kg (ER)
Operating empty 44,245 lb (20,069 kg) 48,160 lb (21,845 kg) 51,120 lb (23,188 kg)
Max. payload 18,055 lb / 8,190 kg 22,590 lb / 10,247 kg (LR) 26,380 lb / 11,966 kg
Max. fuel 19,595 lb / 8,888 kg[94][95] 19,450 lb / 8,822 kg[96]
Engines (2×) GE CF34-8C5B1 GE CF34-8C5 GE CF34-8C5A1
Thrust (2×)[a] 13,790 lbf / 61.3 kN 14,510 lbf / 64.5 kN
Max. speed 0.825 Mach (473 kn, 876 km/h) 0.82 Mach (470 kn, 871 km/h)
Service ceiling 41,000 ft / 12,479 m[56]
Cruise Mach 0.78 (447 kn, 829 km/h)
Range[b] 1,378 NM / 2,553 km (ER) 1,553 NM / 2,876 km (LR) 1,622 NM / 3,004 km (ER)
Takeoff[c] 5,265 ft / 1,605 m (ER) 6,360 ft / 1,939 m (LR) 6,955 ft / 2,120 m (ER)
Landing[d] 5,040 ft / 1,536 m 5,355 ft / 1,632 m 5,740 ft / 1,750 m

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

Popular culture[edit]

In 2006, the CRJ700 was featured in Microsoft Flight Simulator X as one of the demo aircraft.[97]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ APR, ISA +15 °C flat-rated.
  2. ^ 225 lb, 102 kg per pax.
  3. ^ ISA, SL, MTOW.
  4. ^ ISA, SL, MLW.

References[edit]

The initial version of this article was based on a public domain article from Greg Goebel's Vectorsite.

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