Bombardier Global Express
|Global Express / Global 5000/6000|
|First flight||13 October 1996|
|Status||In service, in production|
|Number built||816 (Oct 2018)|
|Program cost||$800 million|
|Developed from||Challenger 600 & CRJ-100/-200|
|Developed into||Global 7500/8000|
Announced in October 1991, it first flew on 13 October 1996. The Global Express received its type certification from Canadian authorities on 31 July 1998 and entered service during the following year. Powered by two BMW-Rolls-Royce BR710s, it shares its fuselage cross section with the Canadair Challenger and Regional Jets with a new wing and tail. Several variants have been introduced, including the shrunken Global 5000, a shorter-range model. The Global 6000 has been modified to perform various military missions. During May 2018, the Global 5500/6500 were unveiled; these models are powered by new Rolls-Royce Pearl engines with lower fuel burn, enabling the aircraft cover greater range than standard models. The larger and stretched Global 7500/8000 models possesses yet longer ranges.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operating history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 Specifications
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Following its acquisition of Canadair in 1986 and the success of business jets such as the Challenger 600, Bombardier Aerospace commenced studies on the concept of a new long range business aircraft. Efforts soon centered around the design mission of carrying a total of eight passengers and four crew over a distance of 12,000km (6,500nm) at a speed of Mach 0.85; these performance requirements would come to define the subsequent aircraft. During the early 1990s, a joint-definition team was established at the company's Montreal facility. By 1994, the design team comprised 200 engineers, almost evenly divided between members of Bombardier's Canadair division and employees of various partners companies, which included Japanese company Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Anglo-German engine manufacturer BMW Rolls-Royce.
According to Canadair vice-president Trevor Young, the company quickly sought out other companies to partner on the venture and adopted a relatively hands-off approach to the design, allowing these partners to greatly influence the design process while sharing both responsibility and a stake in the programme. By adopting a risk-sharing approach to developing the business aircraft, partners were claimed to be incentivised to harness their best engineers. As the aircraft's system architectures were selected prior to carrying out the detailed design phase, the choice of suppliers made a considerable impact on the resulting aircraft. The design process involved a digital definition phase, which made extensive use of CATIA computer-aided design (CAD) software; specifically, CATIA was heavily used for the kinematic design of the aircraft, and could be fed directly into computational fluid dynamics and finite-element analysis software for aerodynamic and structural design work respectively. To confirm software results, wind tunnel testing was also used.
The systems design philosophy was to use the minimum number of components while ensuring that no single failure would result in a diversion; it was designed to enable dispatch even with a single failure, helping the aircraft to achieve a target dispatch reliability of 99.5%. Although it was not a specific requirement to possess an extended twin-engine operations (ETOPS) capability, such design rules were applied as potential operators looked favourably upon having comparable safety to airliners. Such demands shaped several areas of the aircraft, including its avionics, which incorporated a central maintenance computer to detect, indicate, and isolate faults. While the adoption of a fly-by-wire flight control system was considered as being highly beneficial, this was ultimately discounted due to the significant development expense involved, as well as negative attitudes towards such systems expressed by some potential customers, thus a conventional mechanical-based counterpart was opted for.
Launch and flight testing
On 28 October 1991, the existence of the Global Express concept was publicly announced at the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) convention. On 20 December 1993, the Global Express programme was launched. During June 1994, the aircraft's high-speed configuration was frozen while the low-speed configuration was established in August 1994. By this point, most critical design decisions had been taken and almost all suppliers had been selected. During January 1995, it was reported that the definition phase was winding down and that the transition into detailed design work was imminent.
By June 1995, the Global Express's order backlog was reportedly in excess of 40 aircraft and production had been sold out through to 2000, leading to Bombardier expanding its early production plans for the type. Reportedly, the maximum range of Global Express was extended to 12,000km on launch due to a desire to outdo rival business jet manufacturer Gulfstream. the In response to criticisms made by Gulfstream, Bombardier publicly announced guarantees on both the empty weight and range of the Global Express. Reportedly, Bombardier needed to sell around 100 Global Expresses in order to cover its development costs. During October 1995, manufacture of the first prototype commenced; the first sections were expected to arrive at de Havilland's Toronto facility in December of that year while final assembly was scheduled to commence during March 1996. By June 1996, the prototype was complete and reportedly conducting flight-readiness reviews ahead of its roll-out and first flight.
On 13 October 1996, the first prototype performed the type's maiden flight from the de Havilland factory outside Toronto, one month later than previously planned; the initial flight lasted for 2 hours 46 minutes, during which the prototype attained a maximum altitude of 11,000ft (3,350m) and a top speed of 210kt (390km/h). The flight test programme used four prototypes; these attained a cumulative 2,200 flight hours. To accommodate the test programme, a 9,100m2 (100,000ft2) extension was built onto the Bombardier Flight Test Center in Wichita, Kansas. On 3 February 1997, the second prototype made its first flight; the third prototype joined the flight test programme in May 1997.
During late 1995, the company had been forecast that type certification would be simultaneously received during March 1998. On 31 July 1998, Canadian type certification was granted for the Global Express; similar approvals from both European and US regulatory authorities followed shortly thereafter. Bombardier announced that it would deliver the first 15 aircraft prior to January 1999; that same year, the Global Express entered service.
The Global Express is assembled at the Downsview Airport in Toronto. It is then flown for final completion to one of several sites, including Montreal, Savannah, Georgia, or Cahokia, Illinois.
The major external supplier is Japan's Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, which builds the wing and centre fuselage sections at its Toronto facility. Bombardier subsidiaries have three specific roles in the project: Canadair is the design leader and manufactures the nose; Short Brothers in Belfast is responsible for the design and manufacture of the engine nacelles, horizontal stabiliser and forward fuselage; and de Havilland Canada builds the rear fuselage and vertical tail, and carries out final assembly. Additional elements are produced by other companies, including the undercarraige by Dowty, flight controls by Sextant Avionique, fuel system by Parker Bertea Aerospace, core avionics by Honeywell, auxiliary power unit (APU) from AlliedSignal Engines, electrical system by Lucas Aerospace, and air management system by ABG-Semca.
During May 2015, Bombardier announced it would reduce production of the Global Express because of lower demand, caused by slowing economy and geopolitics in markets such as Latin America, Russia and China. By October 2018, Bombardier had a reported backlog of 202 aircraft valued at C$14.1 billion ($11 billion); this included 128 Global Express aircraft, of which 67 were Global 5000/6000 and four were Global 5500/6500.
The Bombardier Global Express is a long-distance business jet. According to Canadair project director Keith Miller, while the design draws heavily upon the earlier Canadair CL-600 and Bombardier CRJ, it is a clean-sheet design. Despite this, the Global Express shares its fuselage cross-section with both the Challenger and its Regional Jet derivative, combining this with a newly-designed T-tail and new supercritical airfoil, the latter featuring a 35° wing sweep and winglets. Amongst other benefits, turbulence is reportedly attenuated by the flexible wing. The Global Express is typically powered by a pair of BMW-Rolls-Royce BR710 turbofans equipped with FADEC. The flightdeck features a six screen Honeywell Primus 2000 XP EFIS suite.
The Global Express is the business jet with the second largest cabin after the Gulfstream G650; this ample cabin space is one of Bombardier's major selling point for the type. It can accommodate 12 to 16 passengers in three cabin sections: mostly a forward four-chair club section, a central four-seat conference grouping and an aft three-place divan facing two chairs. In comparison to the Challenger, the floor has been dropped by 51mm, increasing width at shoulder level, while the windows have been repositioned and enlarged by 25%; the aircraft reportedly provides 14.6m of unobstructed floor space between the cockpit and the rear pressure-bulkhead. In a typical configuration, the cabin is furnished with a forward galley, crew rest chair and crew lavatory. The 10.3-psi cabin pressurization maintains a 4,500-ft. cabin altitude up to FL 450 and 5,680 ft. at the FL 510 ceiling.
It can fly intercontinental ranges without refuelling (e.g. New York City–Tokyo) or between most two points in the world with only one stop. In this class the Global Express competes with the Airbus Corporate Jet, Boeing Business Jet and Gulfstream G550/650.
Mostly missions are 3.5 to 4.5 h long for 1,500 to 2,000 nmi, but can extend to 10 hr at Mach 0.85 (488 knots at ISA) or 12 h at Mach 0.82-0.83 (476 knots ISA), 13 h at most with clear weather at the destination and multiple alternates nearby. It burns 5,000 lb. of fuel for the first hour, 4,000 lb the second, 3,000 lb the third and 2,500 lb during the final hour. A checks come at 750 h intervals and C checks have been extended from 15 to 30 months in 2012.
The average trip lengths for most operators is 2.5 hours where the aircraft will cruise between Mach 0.85 and Mach 0.89, making it one of the fastest long range jets available today. The maximum certified altitude is 51,000 ft (16,000 m) and the typical approach speed is 108 kn (200 km/h) requiring approximately 2,600 ft (790 m) of runway for landing.
The Global Express (XRS) and Global 6000 type certificate designation is BD-700-1A10 while the Global 5000 is BD-700-1A11.
The Global 5000 was announced on 25 October 2001 and launched on 5 February 2002 with letters of intent for 15 aircraft with a 87,700 lb (39,800 kg) MTOW and a 4,800 nmi (8,900 km) range at Mach 0.85. The first aircraft flew on 7 March 2003. It was introduced in April 2005, and there were 224 in service in 2018. In April 2008, Bombardier lifted its MTOW to 92,500 lb (42,000 kg) to increase Mach .85 range to 5,200 nmi (9,600 km).
Its cabin is 5.9 ft (1.8 m) shorter than the Global 6000 with a 5,800–7,000 lb (2,600–3,200 kg) lower MTOW depending on service bulletins, for a 5,000–5,400 nmi (9,300–10,000 km) range at LRC. The spec basic operating weight is 50,350 lb (22,840 kg) but are actually closer to 51,600 lb (23,400 kg). Early models kept the Global Express Honeywell Primus 2000XP avionics, updated with Rockwell Collins Fusion avionics since 2012.
It can carry between eight and 19 passengers, the new seat converts to a full berth; there is an optional private room aft and the galley has room to prepare 16 five-course meals. It was priced at $40M in 2008, it has forward and aft lavatories, the crew rest area was removed, but could be restored. The tail fuel tank is removed and fuel is limited in the wings, some avionics are rearranged to gain usable cabin length and the interior completions allowance is 3,200 kg.
At high-speed cruise, it burns 5,000 lb (2,300 kg) of fuel in the first hour, then 4,000 lb (1,800 kg) the second hour and 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) for the third hour. In 2018, Early models with Honeywell avionics are sold for $10-20 million, while post-2012 aircraft with the modern Cockpit can fetch $22-36 million. Major inspection every 180 months cost $800,000-1.2 million and two 8,000h engine overhauls can run $4 million. The cheaper and more efficient Gulfstream G450 or Falcon 900LX are slower, have less range and smaller cabins.
Global Express XRS
The Global Express XRS was announced on 6 October 2003 during the NBAA Convention at Orlando, Florida.
Production of the third-generation Global 6000 started in 2012. Its flexible wing and 97.5 lb/sq ft (476 kg/m2) wing loading, the highest among its competitors, gives a comfortable ride in turbulence. On long trips, its fuel burn during the first hour is 5,000 and 4,000 lb (2.3 and 1.8 t) for the second, then for the third 3,000 and 2,500 lb (1.4 and 1.1 t) afterwards. A Checks are scheduled every 750 hours, and for C Checks every 30 months, while engine reserves amount to $260 per hour. Over 315 were delivered by March 2019, while its competitors include the more fuel efficient 6,200 nmi (11,500 km) Dassault Falcon 8X, the 6,500 nmi (12,000 km) Gulfstream G600 or even the 6,900 nmi (12,800 km) G650.
Bombardier's Vision flight deck is upgraded with Rockwell Collins Pro Line Fusion avionics from the Express/XRS Honeywell Primus 2000. It has improved acoustical insulation compared to its predecessor. By 2018, competition from the Gulfstream G650ER pressured it to a $40 million value from $62 million in 2016. It offers higher cruise speed, improved cabin layout and lighting. The range is increased by adding a 1,486 lb (674 kg) fuel tank at the wing root. Bombardier claims it takes 15 minutes less to fuel the Global 6000 than the original model thanks to improved computer systems and mechanical refinements.[importance?]
On 27 May 2018, Bombardier unveiled the Global 5500 and 6500 developments expected to enter service at the end of 2019 with an optimized wing for a Mach 0.90 top speed, a revamped cabin inspired from the Global 7500 with its Nuage seat and updated Rolls-Royce BR710 Pearl engines with up to 13% lower fuel burn for better operating costs, better hot and high performance and 500 and 600 nmi (930 and 1,110 km) of additional range for 5,700 and 6,600 nmi (10,600 and 12,200 km), respectively. The engines have 9% more thrust, their certification was announced and are already test flying. The Global 5500 lists for $46 million while the Global 6500 lists for $56 million.
By October, 70% of the flight testing hours were completed. The programme involves two flight-test Global 6500s, as the 5500 is a simple 0.8 m (2 ft 7 in) shrink. The redesigned wings are built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. By December, the flight-test program was nearly three-quarters complete. By May 2019, 90% of the flight testing was completed by two modified 6000s and one modified 5000.
The Global Express has been modified for military missions.
- Globaleye multi-role AEW&C, a Global 6000 with the SAAB Erieye's ER AESA radar for the United Arab Emirates Air Force
- Project Dolphin: Conversion of Global 6000 by Marshall into surveillance aircraft for United Arab Emirates. Two converted.
- The Raytheon Sentinel is a surveillance aircraft used by the Royal Air Force
- Saab Swordfish maritime patrol aircraft
- E-11A, United States Air Force designation for four Global 6000s being used as a platform for the Battlefield Airborne Communications Node.
Most operators fly 450 to 600 hours per year, but fleet operators fly more than 100 hours per month. Half the 6000s are registered in North America, mostly in USA. NetJets operates at least six and large corporations like Aetna, Caterpillar, CitiGroup, Limited Brands, McDonald's and Texas Instruments fly the aircraft. Malta-based VistaJet operates six 6000s, along with five Global 5000 and two Global XRSs, and Lisbon-based NetJets Europe flies four 6000s.
A dozen 6000s are registered in the Isle of Man for anonymity, a few are registered in the Cayman Islands. Four are registered in Austria, three in Switzerland, two in France and Denmark, and one each in Finland, Germany, Ireland and Turkey. Three are registered in China, one in Malaysia and one in Hong Kong. Two are based in São Paulo, two are in South Africa and one is in India.
The aircraft is operated by private individuals, companies, executive charter operators and government agencies, including:
- AirCM Global Ltd, Malta
- ACM Air Charter, Baden-Baden
- Crystal Luxury Air
- ExecuJet Aviation Group, Zurich
- Netjets, a Berkshire Hathaway subsidiary
- Ubuntu backer Mark Shuttleworth through HBD Venture Capital
- Qatar Executive, a business jet subsidiary of Qatar Airways
- VistaJet, Malta
- Catreus Ltd, UK
- One Global 5000 registered D2-ANG.
- German Air Force (Luftwaffe) - 4 Global 5000 for VIP transport operated by the Special Air Mission Wing MoD in Cologne and 3 Global 6000 on order with deliveries in late 2019.
- Indian Air Force - 2 Delivered
- Royal Malaysian Air Force
- 1st Division - 2 Squadron - 1 for VIP transport
- Mexican Air Force - 1 ordered
- Three GlobalEye aircraft ordered
- Two Project Dolphin ELINT aircraft
- Royal Air Force Global
|Model||Global 5000 ||Global 5500||Global 6000 ||Global 6500|
|Length||96 ft 10 in / 29.5 m||99 ft 5 in / 30.3 m|
|Wing||94 ft 0 in / 28.7 m span, 1,021 ft² / 94.8 m² area (8.7 AR)|
|Height||25 ft 6 in / 7.8 m|
|Cabin length||40 ft 9 in / 12.41 m||43 ft 3 in / 13.18 m|
|cabin section||7 ft 11 in / 2.41 m max width, 6 ft 6 in / 1.98 m floor width, 6 ft 2 in / 1.88 m height|
|Max. takeoff||92,500 lb / 41,957 kg||99,500 lb / 45,132 kg|
|Basic operating||50,861 lb / 23,070 kg||52,230 lb / 23,691 kg|
|Max. fuel||39,250 lb / 17,804 kg||45,050 lb / 20,434 kg|
|Max. payload||7,139 lb / 3,238 kg||5,770 lb / 2,617 kg|
|Engines||BR710A2-20||R-R Pearl||BR710A2-20||R-R Pearl|
|Thrust||14,750 lb (65.6 kN)||15,125 lbf (67.3 kN)||14,750 lb (65.6 kN)||15,125 lbf (67.3 kN)|
|Top speed||Mach 0.89||Mach 0.90||Mach 0.89||Mach 0.90|
|cruise||Mach 0.88 (504 kn / 934 km/h) high-speed, Mach 0.85 (487 kn / 902 km/h) typical|
|M 0.85 Range[a]||5,200 nm / 9,630 km||5,700 nmi 10,556 km||6,000 nm / 11,112 km||6,600 nmi / 12,223 km|
|Takeoff[b]||5,540 ft / 1,689 m||5,490 ft / 1,674 m||6,476 ft / 1,974 m||6,370 ft / 1,942 m|
|Landing[c]||2,207 ft / 673 m||2,236 ft / 682 m|
|altitude||Max. 51,000 ft / 15,545 m, Initial cruise 41,000 ft / 12,497 m (MTOW)|
- NBAA IFR Reserves, ISA, 8 pax
- SL, ISA, MTOW
- SL, ISA, MLW
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
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